Liliuokalani

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Liliʻuokalani
Queen Liliuokalani.jpg
Queen of the Hawaiian Islands (more...)
Reign January 29, 1891 – January 17, 1893
Predecessor Kalākaua
Successor Monarchy overthrown
Born (1838-09-02)September 2, 1838
Honolulu, Oahu, Kingdom of Hawaii
Died November 11, 1917(1917-11-11) (aged 79)
Honolulu, Oahu, Territory of Hawaii
Burial November 18, 1917
Mauna ʻAla Royal Mausoleum
Spouse John Owen Dominis
Full name
Liliʻu Loloku Walania Kamakaʻeha (given at birth)
Lydia Kamakaʻeha Pākī (adoptive and legal name after baptism)
House Kalākaua
Father Caesar Kapaʻakea
Mother Analea Keohokālole
Signature

Liliʻuokalani (Hawaiian pronunciation: [liliˌʔuokəˈlɐni]; born Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha (September 2, 1838 – November 11, 1917) was a composer of Hawaiian music, author and the last reigning monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She reigned from January 29, 1891 until the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893.

She was born on September 2, 1838 in Honolulu, on the island of Oahu. Her parents were Analea Keohokālole and Caesar Kapaʻakea, but she was hānai adopted at birth to Abner Pākī and Laura Kōnia. She was raised with the family of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, founder of the Kamehameha Schools. Baptized as a Christian and educated at the Royal School, she and her siblings and cousins were deemed eligible for the throne by King Kamehameha III.

She married American businessman, John Owen Dominis. The couple had no children of their own but had several adopted children. After the accession of her brother, Kalākaua to the throne as monarch in 1874, she and her siblings were given Western style titles of Prince and Princess. In 1877, after her younger brother Leleiohoku II's death, she was proclaimed as heir to the throne and given the title Crown Princess. During the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, she represented her brother as an official envoy to the United Kingdom.

Liliʻuokalani became monarch on January 29, 1891, after her brother's death. During her reign, she attempted to draft a new constitution which would restore the power of the monarchy and the voting rights of the economically disenfranchised. Threatened by her attempts to abrogate the Bayonet Constitution, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy on January 17, 1893. The overthrow was backed by the landing of U.S. Marines under John L. Stevens, which rendered the monarchy unable to protect itself. After a failed counter-revolution, the Republic of Hawaii placed the former queen under house arrest at the ʻIolani Palace. Attempts were made to restore the monarchy and oppose annexation to United States, but with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, the United States annexed the Republic of Hawaii. Living out the remainder her later life as a private citizen, Liliʻuokalani died at her residence of Washington Place in November 11, 1917.

Early life[edit]

Liliʻuokalani in her youth.

She was born Lydia Lili‘u Loloku Walania Wewehi Kamaka‘eha[1][2][3] on September 2, 1838 to the High Chiefess Analea Keohokālole and High Chief Caesar Kapaʻakea in the largest grass hut, belonging to her maternal grandfather ʻAikanaka, at the base of Punchbowl Crater in the capital of Honolulu on the island of Oahu.[4][5] According to Hawaiian custom, she was named after an event surrounding her birth. At time of her birth, Kuhina Nui, Elizabeth Kīnaʻu had developed an eye infection. Kīnaʻu named the child using the words; liliʻu (smarting[6]), loloku (tearful[7]), walania (a burning pain[8]) and kamakaʻeha (sore eyes).[9][10][11] Upon her baptism by Reverend Levi Chamberlain, she was given the Christian name Lydia.[12]

She was hānai adopted at birth to Abner Pākī and his wife Laura Kōnia.[13] As a young child she would spend much of her time with Bernice Pauahi, the Pākīs' natural daughter.[4] In 1842, at the age of four, she began her education at the Chiefs' Children's School (later known as the Royal School). Along with her classmates, she was chosen by Kamehameha III to be eligible for the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii.[14][15] She was taught in English by American missionaries Amos Starr Cooke and his wife, Juliette Montague Cooke, alongside her two older brothers James Kaliokalani and David Kalākaua and her thirteen other royal cousins.[16][17] Lydia Kamakaʻeha, as she became known, was placed in the youngest section of the class with Princess Victoria Kamāmalu, Mary Polly Paʻaʻāina, and John William Pitt Kīnaʻu.[18] The boarding school headed by the Cookes' discontinued in 1850, so she was sent to the relocated day school (also called Royal School) ran by Reverend Edward G. Beckwith along with her former classmate Victoria Kamāmalu.[19][20]

Lydia was briefly engaged to the future King, William Charles Lunalilo, but she ultimately declined at the urging of King Kamehameha IV.[21][22] On September 16, 1862, Lydia married American John Owen Dominis, who later became Governor of Oʻahu and Maui.[23][24] The couple never had any children of their own. Thus Lydia hānai (adopted) three children: Lydia Kaʻonohiponiponiokalani Aholo, the daughter of a family friend; Joseph Kaiponohea ʻAeʻa, the son of a retainer; and John ʻAimoku Dominis, her husband's illegitimate son.[25][note 1]

Heir apparent and Regency[edit]

Elections of 1874[edit]

In 1874, Lunalilo, who was elected to succeed Kamehameha V to the Hawaiian throne, died and left no heir to succeed to the throne. In the election that followed, Lydia's brother, David Kalākaua, ran against Emma, the widowed queen of Kamehameha IV. Lydia sided with her own family on the issue and when her brother was declared king, the relationship became strained between Emma and the Kalākaua family.[27]

Upon his accession, Kalākaua gave royal titles and styles to his surviving siblings, his sisters, Princess Lydia Kamakaʻeha and Princess Likelike, and his brother William Pitt Leleiohoku, making him Crown Prince and heir to the Hawaiian throne as Kalākaua had no children of his own. Leleiohoku died in 1877, leaving no one to succeed him.[28] Hawaiʻi did not follow European monarchies in setting a line of succession; heirs had to be lawfully begotten or chosen and approved by the legislature. Leleiohoku's hānai mother Her Highness, Ruth Keʻelikōlani requested that she be named heir as successor to her son's right, but when put before the full cabinet there were objections as that would place Bernice Pauahi Bishop next in line as Ruth's first cousin. At noon on April 10, 1877, the sounds of the cannons were heard announcing Liliʻu as the newly designated heir apparent to the throne of Hawaii.[29][30] After becoming crown princess, Kalākaua had her name changed to Liliʻuokalani (the smarting of the royal ones).[31] During Kalākaua's 1881 tour of the world, Liliʻuokalani would serve as Regent in his absence.[32][33][34]

State visit to England interrupted[edit]

In April 1887, Kalākaua sent a delegation to attend the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria in London including his wife Queen Kapiʻolani, the Crown Princess Liliʻuokalani and her husband, as well as Court Chamberlain, Colonel Curtis P. Iaukea acting as the official envoy of the King.[35][36] The party landed in San Francisco and traveled across the United States visiting Washington, DC, Boston and New York City where they boarded a ship for England. While in the American capital, they were received by President Grover Cleveland and his wife.[37][38] In London, Kapiʻolani and Liliʻuokalani received an official audience with Queen Victoria at Buckingham Palace. Queen Victoria greeted both Hawaiian royals with affection and the recalled Kalākaua's visit in 1881. They attended the special Jubilee service at Westminster Abbey and were seated with the other members of the Royal Household and foreign royal guest.[39] Shortly after the Jubilee celebrations, they learned of the Bayonet Constitution that Kalākaua had been forced, under the threat of death, to sign. They canceled their tour of Europe and returned to Hawaii.[40][37]

Attempts were made to replace Kalākaua with Liliʻuokalani as queen.[41] In 1889, a part kānaka maoli (Native Hawaiian) officer Robert William Wilcox, who resided in Liliʻuokalani's Palama residence, instigated an unsuccessful rebellion to overthrow the Bayonet Constitution.[42][43][44]

Passing of Kalakaua[edit]

Main article: Kalākaua

In 1890 Kalakaua attempted and failed to raise funds for a standing army and began to feel pressure from factions within Hawaii to form a constitutional convention to remove what they deemed "the foreign element." It only succeeded in lowering property qualifications for nobles. Tired from years of politics, Kalakaua would accompany Admiral George Brown on an extended visit to the United States.[45] In his absence, Liliʻuokalani was left charge as regent for the second time.[46]

On November 25, 1890, Moʻi (King), Kalākaua visited California aboard the USS Charleston[47] with business between the Kingdom of Hawaii and the US Government.[48] Kalakaua, whose health had been declining, stayed in a suite at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco.[48][49] Traveling throughout Mexico and Southern California, the monarch suffered a stroke in Santa Barbara[50] and was rushed back to San Francisco. Kalakaua fell into a coma in his suite on January 18 and died two days later on January 20, 1891.[48][51] Expecting their king to return, preparations were made to give a gala welcome, but when the Charleston returned to Hawaii on January 29 with the remain of the king, the entire kingdom went into mourning.[52]

Reign[edit]

Queen Liliʻuokalani.

On January 29, 1891, Liliʻuokalani took the oath before the cabinet ministers and the supreme court justices to uphold the constitution and was publicly proclaimed Queen of the Hawaiian Islands.[53][54] One of her first act was to request the formal resignation of the hold-over cabinet from her brother's reign. These minister refused and asked for a ruling by the Hawaii Supreme Court. The justices (except for one dissenting opinion) ruled in favor of the queen's decision and the ministers resigned. Liliʻuokalani appointed Samuel Parker, Hermann A. Widemann, and William A. Whiting and reappointed Charles N. Spencer (from the hold-over cabinet) as her new cabinet ministers. On March 9, with the approval of the House of Nobles, as required by the Hawaiian constitution, she named her niece Victoria Kaʻiulani (the daughter of her sister Likelike) as her successor. Kaʻiulani was abroad attending school in England at the time.[55][56]

Shortly after, petitions from her people began to be received through the two major political parties of the time, Hui Kala'aina and the National Reform Party. Believing she had the support of her cabinet and that to ignore such a general request from her people would be against the popular will, she moved to abrogate the existing 1887 Bayonet Constitution,[note 2] by drafting a new constitution that would restore the veto power to the monarchy and voting rights to economically disenfranchised native Hawaiians and Asians.[57] The McKinley Act had crippled the Hawaiian sugar industry by removing the duties on sugar imports from other countries into the US, eliminating the previous Hawaiian advantage due to the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.[58] Many Hawaii businesses and citizens felt pressure from the loss of revenue; in response Liliʻuokalani proposed a lottery system to raise money for her government. Also proposed was a controversial opium licensing bill.[59] Her ministers, and closest friends, were all opposed to this plan; they unsuccessfully tried to dissuade her from pursuing these initiatives, both of which came to be used against her in the brewing constitutional crisis.[60]

Liliʻuokalani's chief desire was to restore power to the monarch by abrogating the 1887 Bayonet Constitution and promulgating a new one, an idea that seems to have been broadly supported by the Hawaiian population.[note 3] The 1893 Constitution would have increased suffrage by reducing some property requirements, and eliminated the voting privileges extended to European and American residents. It would have disfranchised many resident European and American businessmen who were not citizens of Hawaii. The Queen toured several of the islands on horseback, talking to the people about her ideas and receiving overwhelming support, including a lengthy petition in support of a new constitution. However, when the Queen informed her cabinet of her plans, they withheld their support due to an understanding of what her opponent's likely response to these plans would be.[note 4]

Though there were threats to Hawaii's sovereignty throughout the Kingdom's history, it was not until the signing of the Bayonet Constitution in 1887 that this threat began to be realized. The precipitating event[62] leading to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893 was the attempt by Queen Liliʻuokalani to promulgate a new constitution that would have strengthened the power of the monarch relative to the legislature, where Euro-American business elites held disproportionate power. This political situation had resulted from the so-called 1887 Bayonet Constitution. The stated goals of the conspirators, who were non-native Hawaiian Kingdom subjects (five American nationals, one English national, and one German national)[63] were to depose the queen, overthrow the monarchy, and seek Hawaii's annexation to the United States.[note 5][65]

Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii[edit]

The USS Boston's landing force on duty at the Arlington Hotel, Honolulu, at the time of the overthrow, January 1893.

The coup d'état itself was led by Lorrin A. Thurston, who was the grandson of American missionaries[66] and derived his support primarily from the American and European business class residing in Hawaii and other supporters of the Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Most of the leaders of the Committee of Safety that deposed the queen were American and European citizens who were also Kingdom subjects.[67][68][69] They included legislators, government officers, and a Supreme Court Justice of the Hawaiian Kingdom.[70]

On January 16, the Marshal of the Kingdom, Charles B. Wilson was tipped off by detectives to the imminent planned coup. Wilson requested warrants to arrest the 13 member council, of the Committee of Safety, and put the Kingdom under martial law. Because the members had strong political ties with United States Government Minister John L. Stevens, the requests were repeatedly denied by Attorney General Arthur P. Peterson and the Queen’s cabinet, fearing if approved, the arrests would escalate the situation. After a failed negotiation with Thurston,[71] Wilson began to collect his men for the confrontation. Wilson and Captain of the Royal Household Guard, Samuel Nowlein, had rallied a force of 496 men who were kept at hand to protect the Queen.[72]

The Queen was deposed on January 17, 1893, and temporarily relinquished her throne to the United States. She had hoped the United States, like Great Britain earlier in Hawaiian history, would restore Hawaii's sovereignty to the rightful holder.[73]

Queen Liliʻuokalani issued the following statement yielding her authority to the United States Government rather than to the Provisional Government:

I, Liliʻuokalani, by the Grace of God and under the constitution of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Queen, do hereby solemnly protest against any and all acts done against myself and the constitutional government of the Hawaiian Kingdom by certain persons claiming to have established a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom. That I yield to the superior force of the United States of America, whose Minister Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L Stevens, has caused United States troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that he would support the said Provisional Government. Now, to avoid any collision of armed forces and perhaps loss of life, I do, under this protest, and impelled by said forces, yield my authority until such time as the Government of the United States shall, upon the facts being presented to it, undo the action of its representative and reinstate me in the authority which I claim as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands.

— Queen Liliʻuokalani, Jan 17, 1893[74][75]

A provisional government, composed of European and American businessmen, was then instituted until annexation by the United States could be achieved. On February 1, 1893, the US Minister (ambassador) to Hawaii proclaimed Hawaii a protectorate of the United States.

The administration of Grover Cleveland commissioned the Blount Report, and based on its findings, concluded that the overthrow of Liliʻuokalani was illegal, and that U.S. Minister Stevens and American military troops had acted inappropriately in support of those who carried out the overthrow. On November 16, 1893, Cleveland sent his minister Albert S. Willis to propose to return the throne back to her if she granted amnesty to everyone responsible. Willis reported to the Secretary of State in Washington that she was intent on killing the culprits. There was a dispute: Willis said the Queen said "beheading"; she later said she used "execute."[76][77][78]

With this development, President Grover Cleveland sent the issue to the Congress. She later changed her position on the issue of punishment for the conspirators, and on December 18, 1893, US Minister Willis demanded her reinstatement by the Provisional Government. The Provisional Government refused. Congress responded to Cleveland's referral with a US Senate investigation that resulted in the Morgan Report on February 26, 1894. The Morgan Report found all parties (including Minister Stevens), with the exception of the Queen, "not guilty", absolving them of responsibility for the overthrow.[79]

On July 4, 1894, the Republic of Hawaiʻi was proclaimed and Sanford B. Dole, one of the first people who originally called on the institution of the monarchy to be abolished, became President. The Republic of Hawaiʻi was recognized by the United States government as a protectorate, although Walter Q. Gresham, Cleveland's Secretary of State, remained antagonistic towards the new government.[80]

Arrest and imprisonment[edit]

Lili‘uokalani being escorted up the steps of the palace, where she was imprisoned after the counter-revolution of 1895.

Liliʻuokalani was arrested on January 16, 1895, several days after the failed 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii led by Robert William Wilcox, when firearms were found at the base of Diamond Head Crater. Defended at trial by former attorney general Paul Neumann, she claimed ignorance but was sentenced to five years of hard labor in prison by the military tribunal and fined $5,000. The sentence was commuted to imprisonment in an upstairs bedroom of ʻIolani Palace, where she composed songs including "The Queen's Prayer" (Ke Aloha o Ka Haku – "The Grace of the Lord") and began work on her memoirs.[citation needed]

During her imprisonment, she abdicated her throne in return for the release (and commutation of the death sentences) of her jailed supporters, including Minister Joseph Nawahi, Prince Kawānanakoa, Robert Wilcox, and Prince Kūhiō.[citation needed]

Before ascending the throne, for fourteen years, or since the date of my proclamation as heir apparent, my official title had been simply Liliuokalani. Thus I was proclaimed both Princess Royal and Queen. Thus it is recorded in the archives of the government to this day. The Provisional Government nor any other had enacted any change in my name. All my official acts, as well as my private letters, were issued over the signature of Liliuokalani. But when my jailers required me to sign ("Liliuokalani Dominis,") I did as they commanded. Their motive in this as in other actions was plainly to humiliate me before my people and before the world. I saw in a moment, what they did not, that, even were I not complying under the most severe and exacting duress, by this demand they had overreached themselves. There is not, and never was, within the range of my knowledge, any such a person as Liliuokalani Dominis.

— Queen Liliuokalani, "Hawaii's Story By Hawaii's Queen"[81]

Following her release, she was placed under house arrest for a year and in 1896, the Republic of Hawaiʻi gave her a full pardon and restored her civil rights.[82][83]

Opposition to Annexation[edit]

Liliʻuokalani with Princess Kaʻiulani and Prince Kawānanakoa and retinue at Washington Place during the annexation ceremony, 1898

She then made several trips to the United States to protest against the annexation by the United States and attended the inauguration of US President William McKinley in 1897 with a Republic of Hawaiʻi passport personally issued to "Liliʻuokalani of Hawaiʻi" by President Dole.[84] That same year the first printing of the Kumulipo was published from Liliʻuokalani's translations, made while she was held prisoner. The ancient chants record her families genealogy back to the origin story of Hawaii.[85]

Shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, President McKinley signed the treaty of annexation for the Republic of Hawaii, but it failed in the United States Senate after the 21,000 signatures of the Kū’ē Petitions were submitted.[86] After the failure, Hawaii was annexed by means of joint resolution, called the Newlands Resolution.[87]

The annexation ceremony was held on August 12, 1898 at the former ʻIolani Palace in which President Sanford B. Dole handed over "the sovereignty and public property of the Hawaiian Islands" to United States Minister Harold M. Sewall. The flag of the Republic of Hawaii was lowered and the flag of the United States was raised in its place. During the ceremony, Liliʻuokalani and her family members and retainers shuttered themselves away at Washington Place. Many Native Hawaiians and royalists followed suit and refused to attend the ceremony. [88][89]

In 1900, the US Congress passed the Hawaiʻi Organic Act establishing a government for the Territory of Hawaii.[87] Except for lands used for military purposes, the territorial government took control of the 1,200,000 acres (4,900 km2) of land that had been held in trust by the monarchy and known as "Crown Land".[87] This became the source of the "Ceded Lands" issue in Hawaiʻi.[90]

Later life and death[edit]

Rumors had persisted about the queen's health for years, and during one trip she was deluged with condolences from individuals who believed her death to be imminent. She confirmed to an interviewer in 1898 that she had been diagnosed with cancer, but that she placed confidence in her doctor, "I mean to get well. If not — I am not afraid of death. I am not even afraid of life"[91] Although Liliʻuokalani confirmed the diagnosis, rumors continued. After spending much of 1899–1900 in Washington D. C. during which an official pension for Liliʻuokalani had been debated fruitlessly in Congress, she departed for Honolulu with her entourage that included her personal secretary Joseph Heleluhe and her doctor Charles Hamilton English. During a stop-over in San Francisco, Heleluhe told reporters that Liliʻuokalani had been suffering from a cancer on the right side of her neck for the previous 18 months.[92] Heleluhe had been with the royal family since his youth when he began in the service of Kalākaua. Following shortly upon Liliʻuokalani's return to Hawaii, the 45-year-old Heleluhe succumbed to tuberculosis. When it became evident his death was near, his final request was to die at Washington Place. And although he expired before arrival at the queen's residence, his funeral was held there.[93]

From 1905 to 1907, the Queen entered claims against the U.S. totaling $450,000 for property and other losses, claiming personal ownership of the crown lands, but was unsuccessful. The territorial legislature of Hawaii finally voted her an annual pension of $4,000 and permitted her to receive the income from a sugarcane plantation of 6,000 acres (24 km²), which was the private property of her late brother before his election as King.[citation needed]

Liliʻuokalani seated on the lanai of Washington Place in 1917

The Liliʻuokalani Trust was established on December 2, 1909, for the care of orphaned and destitute children in Hawaii. The entire proceeds of her estate was to be used for the trust, with the exception of twelve individual inheritances specified therein, effective upon her death.[94] The largest of these hereditary estates were willed to her hānai sons: John ʻAimoku Dominis would receive Washington Place while Joseph Kaiponohea ʻAeʻa would receive Kealohilani, her residence at Waikiki. Both men predeceased the queen.[95][96] The Queen Liliʻuokalani Children's Center exists today as part of her legacy.[97]

In 1910, Liliʻuokalani brought an unsuccessful lawsuit against the United States seeking compensation under the Fifth Amendment for the loss of the Hawaiian crown land.[87]

She lived in Washington Place where, in April 1917, Liliʻuokalani raised the American flag in honor of five Hawaiian sailors who had perished in the sinking of the SS Aztec by German U-boats. Her act was interpreted by many as her symbolic support of the United States.[98][99]

Following several months of deteriorating health that left her without the use of her lower limbs, as well as a diminished mental capacity rendering her incapable of recognizing her own house, her inner circle of friends and caregivers sat vigil for the last two weeks of her life knowing the end was near. In accordance with Hawaiian tradition, the royal kāhili fanned her as she lay in bed. On the morning of November 11, 1917, Liliʻuokalani died at the age of seventy-nine at her residence at Washington Place.[100][101] Her body lay in state at Kawaiahaʻo Church for public viewing, after which she received a state funeral due to her status as a former head of state.[102][103] Her remains were interred with her family members in the Kalakaua Crypt at the Royal Mausoleum of Mauna ʻAla.[104]

Religious beliefs[edit]

Educated by American missionaries from a young age, Liliʻuokalani became a devout Christian and adhered the principles of the Christian religion. She often attended services at Kawaiahaʻo Church and Kaumakapili Church. She was the first member of the royal family to consistently and regularly attend service at Kawaiahaʻo since King Kamehameha IV. In later life, Liliʻuokalani became a regular member of the Hawaiian Congregation at St. Andrew's Cathedral. During the overthrow, St. Andrew's Bishop Alfred Willis had openly supported the queen while Reverend Henry Parker of Kawaiahaʻo had supported her opponents.[105][106] In 1906, she was baptized into The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by Elder Abraham Kaleimahoe Fernandez.[107] Historian Helena G. Allen noted that Liliʻuokalani and Kalākaua "believed all religions had their 'rights' and were entitled to equal treatment and opportunities." Throughout her life, Liliʻuokalani showed a broad interest for the different Christian faiths including Catholicism, Mormonism, Episcopalianism and other Protestant denominations.[108]

The Queen was also remembered for her support of Buddhist and Shinto priests in Hawaiʻi and became one of the first Native Hawaiians to attend a Vesak Day (Buddha's Birthday) celebration of May 19, 1901 at the Honwangji mission. Her attendance in the celebration had helped Buddhism and Shintoism gain acceptance into Hawaiʻi's society and prevented the possible banning of those two religions by the Territorial government. Her presence was also widely reported in Chinese and Japanese newspapers throughout the world and earned her the respect of many Japanese people both in Hawaiʻi and in Japan itself.[109]

Compositions[edit]

Liliʻuokalani holding parasol at Washington Place.

Liliʻuokalani and her siblings are regarded by the Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame as the Na Lani 'Ehā (The Royal Four) for their patronage and enrichment of Hawaii's musical culture and history.[110] Liliʻuokalani was an accomplished author and songwriter. Her book Hawaiʻi's Story by Hawaiʻi's Queen gave her view of the history of her country and her overthrow; she became the first Native Hawaiian female author.[citation needed] Liliʻuokalani was known for her musical talent. Liliʻuokalani is said to have played guitar, piano, organ, ʻukulele and zither. She also sang alto, performing Hawaiian and English sacred and secular music. She would find herself in music. In her memoirs she wrote:

To compose was as natural to me as to breathe; and this gift of nature, never having been suffered to fall into disuse, remains a source of the greatest consolation to this day.[…] Hours of which it is not yet in place to speak, which I might have found long and lonely, passed quickly and cheerfully by, occupied and soothed by the expression of my thoughts in music.[111]

Liliʻuokalani helped preserve key elements of Hawaii's traditional poetics while mixing in Western harmonies brought by the missionaries. A compilation of her works, titled The Queen's Songbook, was published in 1999 by the Liliʻuokalani Trust.

After Liliʻuokalani was imprisoned in the ʻIolani Palace, she was denied literature and newspapers, essentially cutting her off from her people. However, she was not forbidden from having a paper and pencil, so she could continue to compose music while she was in confinement. According to Liliʻuokalani, she "found, notwithstanding disadvantages, great consolation in composing".[112]

Liliʻuokalani used her musical compositions as a way to express her feelings for her people, her country, and what was happening in the political realm in Hawaii.[113] One example of the way her music reflected her political views is her translation of the Kumulipo, the Hawaiian creation chant. While under house arrest, Liliʻuokalani feared she would never leave the palace alive, so she translated the Kumulipo in hopes that the history and culture of her people would never be lost.[114] Another of her compositions was Aloha Oe, a song she had written previously and transcribed during her confinement. In her writings, she says, "At first I had no instrument, and had to transcribe the notes by voice alone; but I found, notwithstanding disadvantages, great consolation in composing, and transcribed a number of songs. Three found their way from my prison to the city of Chicago, where they were printed, among them the "Aloha Oe" or "Farewell to Thee," which became a very popular song".[112] Originally written as a lovers' good-bye, the song came to be regarded as a symbol of, and lament for, the loss of her country.

Ancestry[edit]

Namesakes[edit]

A number of locations, craft and parks have been named in honor of Liliuokalani.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ʻAimoku formally changed his surname to Dominis in 1910.[26]
  2. ^ The Bayonet Constitution was named because it had been signed by the previous monarch under threat of violence from a militia composed of armed American and Europeans calling themselves the "Honolulu Rifles".[citation needed]
  3. ^ "She ... defended her act[ions] by showing that, out of a possible 9,500 native voters in 1892, 6,500 asked for a new Constitution".[61]
  4. ^ The Queen's new cabinet "had been in office less than a week, and whatever they thought about the need for a new constitution... they knew enough about the temper of the queen's opponents to realize that they would endure the chance to challenge her, and no minister of the crown could look forward...to that confrontation".[57]
  5. ^ "W.D. Alexander (History of Later Years of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the Revolution of 1893, p. 37) gives the following as the wording of Thurston's motion [to launch the coup]: 'That preliminary steps be taken at once to form and declare a Provisional Government with a view to annexation to the United States.' Thurston later wrote that his motion was 'substantially as follows: "I move that it is the sense of this meeting that the solution of the present situation is annexation to the United States."'(Memoirs, p. 250) Lt. Lucien Young (The Boston at Hawaii, p. 175) gives the following version of the motion: 'Resolved, That it is the sense of this committee that in view of the present unsatisfactory state of affairs, the proper course to pursue is to abolish the monarchy and apply for annexation to the United States.'"[64]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Andresen & Carter 2016, p. 281.
  2. ^ Potter, Kasdon & Rayson 2003, p. 153.
  3. ^ Rayson 2004, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b Liliuokalani 1898, pp. 1–4.
  5. ^ Allen 1982, p. 33.
  6. ^ Mary Māmaka Kaiao Kuleana kope. "Hawaiian Dictionaries". University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  7. ^ Mary Māmaka Kaiao Kuleana kope. "Hawaiian Dictionaries". University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  8. ^ Mary Māmaka Kaiao Kuleana kope. "Hawaiian Dictionaries". University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  9. ^ Haley 2014, p. 232.
  10. ^ Allen 1982, p. 36.
  11. ^ Siler 2012, p. 32.
  12. ^ Allen 1982, p. 40.
  13. ^ Hodges 1918, p. 13.
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References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Liliuokalani
Born: September 2, 1838 Died: November 11, 1917
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Kalākaua
Queen of Hawaii
January 29, 1891 – January 17, 1893
Office abolished
Head of State of Hawaii
January 29, 1891 – January 17, 1893
Vacant
Title next held by
Sanford B. Dole
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
Queen of Hawaii
January 17, 1893 – November 11, 1917
Disputed