Queen Seondeok of Silla

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Seondeok
Queen Seondeok of Silla 01.jpg
Queen of Silla
Reign 632 – 647 (15 years)
Coronation 632
Predecessor Jinpyeong of Silla
Successor Jindeok of Silla
Born c. 595~610
Died 17 February 647/January 8, Lunar Calendar
Silla
Burial Four Heavenly Kings
Father Jinpyeong of Silla
Mother Queen Maya of Silla
Queen Seondeok of Silla
Hangul 선덕여왕, also 선덕왕
Hanja 善德女王, also 善德王
Revised Romanization Seondeok yeowang, also Seondeok wang
McCune–Reischauer Sŏndŏk yŏwang, also Sŏndŏk wang

Queen Seondeok of Silla (Hangul: 선덕여왕 Korean pronunciation: [sʌn.dʌk jʌ.waŋ]; c. 595~610 – 17 February 647/January 8, Lunar Calendar)[citation needed] reigned as Queen Regnant of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, from 632 to 647.[1] She was Silla's twenty-seventh ruler, and its first reigning queen. She was the second female sovereign in recorded East Asian history and encouraged a renaissance in thought, literature, and the arts in Silla.[2] In Samguksagi, Queen Seondeok was described as "generous, benevolent, wise, and smart".[3]

Succession to the throne[edit]

She was the daughter of King Jinpyeong and Queen Maya of Silla. She had two siblings, Princess Cheonmyeong and Princess Seonhwa (although Seonhwa's existence is controversial due to the discovery of evidence in 2009 that points to King Uija's mother as being Queen Sataek and not Seonhwa as indicated by historical records), it is unsure whether she was the first born or Cheonmyeong, however, it is widely believed that Princess Cheonmyeong was older than her.

Because King Jinpyeong had no son whom he could pass the crown to, he began to consider his son-in-law, Kim Yongsu (Husband of Princess Cheonmyeong) as his successor - after recognizing his achievements for the country. When Princess Deokman heard of it, she made a plea to her father, asking him to give her a chance to compete for the throne, insisting that she too has the right to compete for the throne as much as Kim Yongsu has. Seeing her determination, the King gave her the chance to prove herself worthy of the throne. Although it was not unusual for women to wield power in Silla (Queen Sado also served as a regent for King Jinpyeong), the thought of having a female ruler sitting on the throne was still unacceptable for most of them. Therefore, Princess Deokman had to prove herself in order to gain the trust and support of her people. Eventually, she succeeded, and was named as King Jinpyeong's successor – a decision that wasn't accepted by everyone, and as a result; some officials planned an uprising in order to stop her from being crowned. On May of 631, Ichan Chilsuk (이찬 칠숙) and Achan Seokpum (아찬 석품), planned a rebellion. But, their plan was discovered and suppressed early on and as punishment, Chilsuk was beheaded in the market place along with his entire family. Seokpum was able to escape and run all the way to the Baekje's border. However, he started to miss his wife and decided to return after exchanging clothes with a woodcutter. He was arrested by the soldiers that was waiting for him at his house, and was executed later on.

Reign[edit]

Cheomseongdae, astronomical observatory in Gyeongju, South Korea.

January of 632, Queen Seondeok, became the first queen of Silla. As a ruler, Queen Seondeok's primary concern was the livelihood of her people. Right after she was crowned, she appeased her people by letting them know of her policies as a new ruler. She sent royal inspectors in every part of Silla in order to oversee the care and needs of the widows, widowers, orphans, poor and elderly, who had no family to support them. During that same year, she sent a diplomat to pay tribute to the Emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, to let them know about Silla's new ruler. However, Emperor Taizong of Tang refused to acknowledge her as a ruler because she was a woman.

In the second year of Queen Seondeok's reign, Cheomseongdae was built to help the farmers at that time. She also announced a whole year of tax exemption for the peasants and reduced the tax for the middle class, through this act of kindness, the Queen won the people's support and her position was strengthened against the opposition of the male aristocracy. June of that same year, she sent a diplomat to pay tribute to the Tang Emperor again; however, Emperor Taizong still refused to acknowledge her as a ruler.

According to Samguk Sagi, in March of the year 636, the Queen became ill but no amount of prayers and medicine worked. In March of 638, a large stone on the south side of the mountain moved on its own, seven months later, Goguryeo attacked the mountain valley. The next year, the sea water on the east part of Silla turned red which caused all of the fish living in it to die. These events made the people anxious, and some of them considered them as bad omens portending the Silla kingdom's downfall.

In 642, Uija of Baekje personally led a campaign against Silla, and conquered 40 fortresses in the western part of Silla. General Yunchung conquered the strategically important Daeya Fortress with 10,000 men and executed the daughter and son-in-law of Kim Chunchu.[4][5] In 643, Baekje and Goguryeo conquered Danghang Fortress, blocking an important sea route to the Tang dynasty.[6] Because of this, Queen Seondeok sent a diplomat to the Emperor of Tang and asked for assistance. The Emperor gave her three proposals. First, he would attack the Liaodong and carry out a naval campaign on the west to occupy the Baekje. Second, the emperor would provide thousands of Tang uniforms and army flags in order to help Silla soldiers disguise themselves as Chinese troops. Third, he would send a male royal of Tang descent to serve as a new king of Silla, as, according to him, Silla faced constant threat because their enemies didn't fear them due to their having a female ruler. The diplomat returned to Silla, unable to tell the Queen of the proposals that the Tang Emperor had offered.

Left: Jajang, a monk born Kim Seonjong, into the royal Kim family, in the kingdom of Silla. Right: Hwangnyongsa, a miniature reconstruction of what the main pagoda may have once looked like.

At that point of crisis, Queen Seondeok sent for the well known Buddhist monk, Jajang, who had been studying under the great Buddhist masters of the Tang Dynasty for seven years. Monk Jajang returned to Silla in year 643. He advised the Queen and her counselors to build the great nine-storey pagoda for the dual purpose of blocking foreign invasions and calming her people. After careful consideration, the Queen decided to accept Jajang's proposal, seeing it as necessary to overcome the crisis that they were facing at that time. However, during her meeting with her royal subjects, she learned that they were strongly against it due to concern for the state of the royal treasury, knowing that the construction of the pagoda would bring a heavy tax burden on her people. But the Queen still decided to continue with the plan with the firm belief that a work of religious devotion would bring her people together and show her people that Silla was still far from ruin. She told her royal subjects to "tear down her palace and use its bricks and timbers, if they think they lack the funds". After two years, the pagoda was finally completed; it was called Hwangnyongsa (meaning "Imperial Dragon Temple") and was considered the tallest temple in East Asia at that time. During that same year, Queen Seondeok appointed a nobleman named Bidam to the highest position in the court (Sangdaedeung).

During the reign of Queen Seondeok, the first foundation for unifying the three Kingdoms under Silla was laid. A series of attacks and raids by the combined forces of Baekje and Goguryeo had brought the kingdom to a point of crisis. And so, the Queen made a decision to form an alliance with the Tang Dynasty. She was ridiculed at first, however, after seeing the growing strength of Goguryeo, the Emperor of Tang, finally accepted her offer.

Bidam's rebellion and death[edit]

Portrait of Gim Yu-sin in the "famous portrait photo book of Joseon" published in 1926

On February 8, 647 (January 8, lunar calendar), Queen Seondeok faced her biggest challenge when several of her highest officials started a rebellion against her. They were led by Bidam, who asserted that: "The female king failed to rule the country, therefore women should stop ruling". Bidam had strong political influence over the court, and thus created the biggest rebellion in Silla's history. It was a big problem for Queen Seondeok at that time since most of her soldiers had been sent to different parts of the Silla kingdom to defend it from potential foreign invasions.

There is a famous anecdote about Bidam's rebellion. According to the story, on the night of Bidam's rebellion, Queen Seondeok's health had deteriorated sharply due to illness, and a star fell near the Queen's residence. Bidam, who saw the star, claimed it was a sign of the Queen's impending downfall to encourage his superstitious followers. The Queen, who heard of it, was shaken by fear and anxiety, but Kim Yushin calmed her by telling her not to worry, for he had a plan to suppress the rebellion. He then flew a huge kite with a burning scarecrow attached to it, to make it appear that the star was back in its place. Bidam's followers who saw this were greatly discouraged and their morale dropped. The rebellion was eventually suppressed by Kim Yushin and Kim Alcheon. According to Samguk Sagi, Bidam and his thirty followers were executed on January 17, 647 (lunar calendar).

The rebellion therefore lasted for fewer than 10 days, and failed in its goal to replace Queen Seondeok with a male ruler; however, the Queen died just before the rebellion was completely suppressed (although some claim that she died two days after the rebellion started). There is no known record identifying exactly what Queen Seondeok's illness was, or the exact cause of her death. Queen Seondeok's unspecified illness is most commonly theorized as the cause of her death, though some historians state it is possible she died partly out of shock that Bidam had instigated a rebellion against her. After Queen Seondeok's death, her cousin was then named as the next female ruler of Silla, and became Queen Jindeok.

Buddhism and astrology[edit]

Like her father, Queen Seondeok was also drawn to Buddhism. Silla built many temples, pagodas, and Buddha statues during her reign. One of the famous temples that was built during her time was the temple of Hwangnyongsa. According to ancient architectural records, the pagoda was 68 or 80 meters in height, making it one of the tallest structures in East Asia at the time. The pagoda represented the earnest wish of Queen Seondeok and the Silla people, to protect the country and bring the three kingdoms of Korea under one ruler. It was an offering to the Buddha, in hope that these wishes would be fulfilled. The Queen often visited the Hwangnyongsa temple to pray for the wisdom and strength to save Silla from danger.

Bunhwangsa, Oseam, Sangwonsa, Yeongmyosa, Tongdosa, Woljeongsa, Baekdamsa, and Magoksa were also built during her reign.

She built the "Star-Gazing Tower," or Cheomseongdae, considered the first dedicated observatory in the Far East, which helped farmers at that time. The tower still stands in the old Silla capital of Gyeongju, South Korea and is the oldest surviving observatory in East Asia.

Husband[edit]

According to Hwarang Segi, Queen Seondeok had three husbands.

1. Kim Yongchun - was a child of King Jinji and Princess Cheonmyeong's brother-in-law. He served as an official during King Jinpyeong's reign and served as a Sangdaedeung for Queen Seondeok. According to the story: King Jinpyeong ordered Kim Yong Chun to become Princess Deokman's consort - in hope that a son will be born in their union rather than entrusting the kingdom on a woman. But they failed to conceived a child and so, Kim Yong Chun asked the king to allow him to retire as Princess Deokman's consort. The king agreed to his request but asked him to assist Princess Deokman once she took over the throne. He went on to marry Princess Cheonmyeong later on, in order to fulfill his brother's dying wish.

2. Ulje - He served as an official during King Jinpyeong's reign and as a Sangdaedeung for Queen Seondeok.

3. Lord Heumbahn - was said to be one of King Jinpyeong's brothers.

According to Samguk Yusa, she married her uncle Galmunwang Eum, one year after she was crowned.

However, it is widely believed that she didn't let herself be wed in order to avoid political conflicts, hence the next female rulers after her (Queen Jindeok and Queen Jinseong) weren't married as well.

Legends[edit]

Peony flowers and painting[edit]

Emperor Taizong of China once sent the Queen a painting of three peony flowers in red, purple and white, along with its actual seeds. When the Queen had the seeds planted in her garden, she made a remark that "even though the flower was pretty, it probably does not have much fragrance". Her words were then proven to be correct when the flowers bloomed, wilted and died, without giving off any scent. People were surprised that she had known of it, and asked her about it. She explained it thus: "The painting showed no butterfly or bees beside the flowers. When he sent me this gift, Emperor Taizong was mocking me for not having a husband." The peony flower doesn't have any scent, which is why butterflies weren't interested on it — implying the reason why she doesn't have a husband was probably because no man was interested on her. [Not being married was seen as something negative for one's character and status during those days]. It is said that, the temple Bunhwangsa (Fragrance of the Royal Temple) was built as a response to the mockery.

Another version of that story was that; When Queen Seondeok was seven years old, her father King Jinpyeong received a box of peony seeds and a peony painting sent by Emperor Taizong of Tang. When she saw the painting, she commented that even though the flowers are pretty, it must not have much fragrance because no butterflies or bees were around them. Peonies, therefore, are equated with her wisdom and insight.

Croaking Frogs and Jade Gate[edit]

Five years after her enthronement, the Queen caused wonder among her people by defeating an invading enemy force with the help of frogs. Near the banks of Seongjin river in the capital city, there was a temple called Yeongmyosa. In the temple grounds was a pond named Okmun (Jade Gate). On a certain day in winter, a number of frogs gathered together at the pond and began to croak loudly for several days. When this strange phenomenon was reported to the Queen, she immediately ordered two of her generals to lead 2,000 of her best soldiers to the western suburb of the city, and to look for a valley named Yeogeungok (Cradle of Life). She added that an enemy force would be found there lying in wait, which they would be sure to take by surprised. The two generals led their armies at the western suburb, found the valley the Queen had mentioned, which lay near Mt. Bu, and destroyed not only the detachment of 500 Baekje soldiers they found there, but also a force of 1,200 reinforcements which came later to aid them.

Her bewildered subjects asked the Queen how she had foreseen the Baekje invasion simply because of the croaking of frogs. The Queen explained, "A group of angry frogs signifies an army. Jade Gate is an expression for a woman's chastity. Woman is one of the meanings of Yin, which also has the meaning of white, and the white color stands for the West. So I knew that an army was lying in the West. As we say, a man is supposed in some sense to die during the act of creating new life. Since the Baekje army was hiding in the valley known as the Cradle of Life, I knew that it would be easy to defeat them." Everyone who heard of the Queen's reasoning were amazed at her insight. This shows that the Queen was well-versed in the philosophy of Yin and Yang, and interpreted all the icons correctly. It is also remarkable to see the Queen's reference to the symbolic "death" of the male during the act of love. The Queen, openly dealt with the topic in front of her male courtiers, which shows the Queen's boldness.

The second is an account of her death. Some days before she died, Seondeok gathered her officials and gave the order "When I die, bury me near the Doricheon (忉利天, "Heaven of Grieved Merits")" which in Buddhism refers to a certain level of Heaven. When asked where the Doricheon was, she replied that it was on the southern side of Mt. Namsan. Decades after her death, the thirtieth king Munmu of Silla constructed Sacheonwang-sa (四天王寺 "Temple of the Four Heavenly Kings") in her tomb. Then the nobles realized that one of the Buddha's sayings, "Dori-cheon is above the Sacheonwang-cheon", was accomplished by the Queen. However, rather than prediction, some historians think of it as her last wish; which implicate her hardship as a Queen. Queen Seondeok received so much jealousy and prejudiced for being a woman during her lifetime as a Queen. So this may have been her way to show her desire to be reincarnated as a man in Doricheon in her next life.

The Legend of Jigwi (지귀)[edit]

There was a man named, Jigwi, who lived near the border of Goguryeo. One day, he went to Seorabeol and saw the Queen who was passing by while on a visit to the capital city. He was mesmerized by her beauty and fell deeply in love with her — completely disregarding the difference between their age and social status. He stopped eating and sleeping and did nothing but call out the Queen's name all day, he eventually lost his mind. The people who saw him couldn't help but sympathize over the young man's passionate and unrequited love. One day, Queen Seondeok went to visit a Buddhist temple to pray. As she was passing by, Jigwi appeared while calling out the Queen's name as usual. The Queen's guard thrust him aside which greatly stirred the onlookers who lined up on the street to see the Queen. When the Queen asked one of her attendants about the commotion, her attendant told her that there was a man who tried to approach her and was apprehended by the royal guards. The Queen wondered on why did they stopped the man from seeing her, the attendant told her about Jigwi, who admired her greatly. The Queen's heart was touched upon hearing what happened to Jigwi, and the Queen asked her attendant to let Jigwi follow her retinue to the temple, much to the surprise of the crowd and delight of Jigwi, who danced for joy. While the queen was praying inside the temple, Jigwi had to wait outside while sitting underneath a pagoda. However, the Queen took a long time to come out of the temple and so, Jigwi got bored and fell asleep. When the Queen finally came out, she noticed Jigwi who was sleeping behind the pagoda. She asked her attendants to be quiet so as not to disturb the sleeping young man. While on her way, she stopped by and stared at Jigwi for a while, then removed her bracelet and placed it gently on Jigwi's chest to let him know of her presence. After she gone back to the palace, Jigwi woke up and saw the bracelet that she left for him. He was overwhelmed with joy and love for the Queen, that his whole body turned into a fire. The fierce flames of his love burned down the pagoda and Jigwi himself. Although in some versions state that Jigwi burned down himself and the temple to express his burning passion for the Queen.

In another version of the story, Jigwi was chased out by the palace guards for calling out the Queen's name every day. However, Jigwi didn't stop and still kept on calling out the Queen's name. The guards finally got tired of chasing Jigwi day by day and ended up beating him until he could no longer move. Jigwi spent his last breath by calling out the Queen's name for the last time. Soon, his soul became a fire spirit and burned down the pagoda and people's houses. The people who were scared of Jigwi's wrath asked the Queen for help; in order to calm them, she made a talisman and ordered them to put it in front of their house to block away Jigwi's fire spirit.

In a modern version of the story. Jigwi fell in love with Queen Seondeok, whom he met every night through her dream. In her dream, he appears as a handsome Hwarang, who gave her predictions and solutions for the crises she faced as a ruler. Through Jigwi's assistance, Queen Seondeok overcame many problems. They meet each other in a bridge in her dream, but suddenly Jigwi stopped appearing in her dreams. The Queen started to wonder what happened to the man in her dreams and started to miss him and so she went to the bridge where they used to meet in her dreams. But Jigwi was nowhere to be found, and instead, the one she saw was a sleeping beggar. The Queen didn't recognize him as the same man who appeared in her dream but still, she decided to leave her bracelet on the chest of the sleeping man. When Jigwi woke up, he was overwhelmed with love and longing for the Queen, that his heart turned into a fire that spread through his whole body. The fire flew to heaven and then rain started to fall, which ended the drought in Silla.

The story of this ordinary man who dared to love someone so high above himself, and the Queen, who choose to understand the devotion of her lowly subject, soon became a legend and became popular, even to their neighboring country.

Family[edit]

  • Father: King Jinpyeong (眞平王 진평왕 567–632)
  • Mother: Kim Bokhilgu, the Lady Maya[7] (金福肹口 摩耶夫人 김복힐구 마야부인, dates unknown)
  • Siblings:
    • Princess Cheonmyeong (天明公主 천명공주, dates unknown),[8] 1st or 2nd daughter
      • Kim Yongsu (金龍樹 김용수 578–647),[9] Princess Cheonmyeong's husband,[10] 13th Pungwolju.
        • Kim Chun-chu (金春秋 김춘추 604–661), 18th Pungwolju; later King (Taejong) Muyeol (太宗武烈王 태종무열왕).
    • Princess Seonhwa (善化/花公主 선화공주, dates unknown),[11][12] 3rd daughter[13][14] (There is constant debate over her identity.)
  • Cousin: Kim Seung-man (金勝曼 김승만), only daughter of Gukban (國飯 국반)[15][16] & Lady Wolmyeong of the Park clan (月明夫人朴氏 월명부인 박씨);[17] later Queen Jindeok

Media[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book One, page 57. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5
  2. ^ Silla Korea and the Silk Road by Koreasociety
  3. ^ Hwang, Kyung Moon (2016). A history of Korea : an episodic narrative (2nd ed.). London. p. 20. ISBN 9781137573568. OCLC 963173954. 
  4. ^ 대역죄인, 역사의 법정에 서다 (in Korean). 책우리. 2009. pp. 56–57. ISBN 9788993975017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  5. ^ "대야성 전투". 문화콘텐츠닷컴. Korea Creative Content Agency. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  6. ^ "신라와 백제의 관계". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). Korea Creative Content Agency. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  7. ^ Her royal name is influenced by Śākyamuni's mother's name
  8. ^ Posthumously known as the Empress Dowager Munjeong (文貞太后 문정태후).
  9. ^ Posthumously known as the Great King Munheung (文興大王 문흥대왕).
  10. ^ Princess Cheonmyeong is Kim Yong-chun's 1st wife; he had 3 other wives (two of them were her sisters Queen Seondeok when she was still Princess Deokman, and the other was Princess Cheonhwa); as well as having 3 lovers.
  11. ^ (in Korean) Princess Seonhwa at Doosan Encyclopedia
  12. ^ According to the Memorabilia of the Three Kingdom, she is the wife of Baekje's King Mu and mother of Uija.
  13. ^ However, theories based on the History of the Three Kingdoms suggest that she was the wife of King Dongseong and some theories say that she wasn't even a princess but a daughter of a wealthy noble.
  14. ^ (in Korean) Princess Seonhwa at The Academy of Korean Studies
  15. ^ Also known as Gukgian (國其安 국기안); youngest brother of King Jinpyeong.
  16. ^ Granted the title of Galmunwang (葛文王 갈문왕) in Jinpyeong's first year (579), and was known as Galmunwang Jin'an (眞安葛文王 진안갈문왕).
  17. ^ Also known as Lady Ani (阿尼夫人 아니부인)

Sources[edit]

  • Lee, Bae-yong (2008). Women in Korean History. Ewha Womans University Press. 
  • Wollock, Jennifer G. (2011). Rethinking Chivalry and Courtly Love. Praeger. 
  • KSCPP

External links[edit]

Queen Seondeok of Silla
 Died: 647
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jinpyeong
Queen of Silla
632–647
Succeeded by
Jindeok