Queen of the Lakes

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Queen of the Lakes is the unofficial but widely recognized title given to the longest vessel active on the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada.[1] It is also the name of an annual festival in Ballinrobe, County Mayo, Ireland, and the winner (Eimear Gorman) of a scholarship competition held in connection with the Minneapolis Aquatennial, of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Lake George in New York is called by some "The Queen of the Lakes".[2] The Brazilian city Capitólio has also been given this title. This article features the use of the title on the Great Lakes, usually for lake freighters.

Queen of the Lakes has been used as the name of three vessels that sailed on the Great Lakes, but none was the longest on the lakes at the time. The first was a three-masted Canadian schooner built in 1853 as the Robert Taylor, measuring 133 feet. It was renamed Queen of the Lakes sometime before 1864.[3] She sank nine miles off Sodus Point, New York on November 28, 1906. The second was a propeller driven vessel launched in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 12, 1853, measuring 196 feet. She was lost to fire in port on June 17, 1869.[4] The third was a small side-wheel steamer built in Wyandotte, Michigan in 1872, measuring 108 feet. While anchored near South Manitou Island she caught fire and burned in 1898. The iron hull was later scrapped.[5]

The title has been bestowed upon vessels that were especially liked[6] or those considered to be especially beautiful or richly appointed. Such was the case as late as 1949, at which time the Noronic was so honored.[7] It has been applied to the United States Coast Guard Cutter Mackinaw for its long and significant role in facilitating Great Lakes shipping and safety.[8] The most common use of the title, however, at least since the early 1940s, is to honor the largest vessel on the lakes. On April 20, 1841, the Detroit Free Press referred to the steamer Illinois as "Queen of the Waters",[9] but given that three vessels in that century were named Queen of the Lakes, its use as a title for the longest ship was not then common. The title is applied retroactively to vessels launched before this use of the title became popular. While some use gross tonnage, capacity, or length between perpendiculars as the criterion, the most commonly accepted standard is length overall (LOA). This article uses LOA as the standard.

Early Queens[edit]

The earliest vessels on the Great Lakes were human powered canoes and bateaux. Sources differ as to what vessel qualifies as the first real "ship" on the lakes. Many say it was Le Griffon, built by LaSalle through the winter and spring of 1678 and 1679, and launched in May of that year to sail the upper lakes (above Niagara). Reports of its size vary from 40 to 70 feet long. Contemporary chroniclers called it both a bark and a brigantine. The Griffon was soon lost. It was last seen on September 18, 1679 and was lost with all hands. Her final location is unknown. Those who consider the Griffon to have been the first ship on the lakes—and hence, the first Queen—also consider her to have been the first lost.[10]

Other sources say the first ship was a smaller vessel built by LaSalle at Fort Frontenac beginning in September, 1678, for the purpose of conveying supplies and material to Niagara. This vessel, which is called the Frontenac in some reports,[11] is said to have been about 10 tons burden, measuring from 35 to 45 feet long. Expedition journalists called it a brigantine. It departed Fort Frontenac under La Motte's and Louis Hennepin's leadership on November 18, 1678, and arrived at the east bank of the Niagara River on December 6, 1679. Shortly thereafter, LaSalle and Tonty came with more supplies, and their vessel (carrying the anchor, rigging, and guns for the Griffon) foundered in the surf less than thirty miles from Niagara. Hennepin called this vessel a "great bark." One source says the loss occurred on January 8, 1679. Supplies and extra clothing were lost, but LaSalle and his men rescued material for the ship, dragged them to the mouth of the Niagara, rested a few days in an Indian village, and arrived at the settlement above the falls on January 20.[12] Some say the lost vessel was the Frontenac. Historian Francis Parkman says that by 1677, there were already four vessels on Lake Ontario between 25 and 40 tons burden.[13] He does not say if any of them were named. Tonty's journal indicates that the vessel he and LaSalle used was a 40-ton vessel, but he does not associate a name with it.[14]

Records of ship sizes on the lakes between 1678 and 1816 are rare. According to the Detroit Tribune, the vessels Gladwin, Lady Charlotte, Victory, and Boston were on the lakes in 1766 and the Brunswick, Enterprise, and Charity were launched in 1767, 1769, and 1770, respectively, but no dimensions are given.[15] The HMS Ontario, at 80 feet, was launched on Lake Ontario on May 10, 1780, and sank in a storm on October 31, that same year.[16] A history of Washington Island in Door County, Wisconsin notes that the schooner Washington, used to supply the fitting out of Fort Howard at the head of Green Bay in 1816, was the longest ship on the lakes at the time, but no details are given.[17]

A Succession of Queens[edit]

On September 7, 1816, the steamer Frontenac was launched. She was fitted out as both a schooner and a side-wheel steamer and designed for both passenger and freight transport. At 170 feet she laid claim to the honor of longest active vessel[18] on the lakes, though she saw service only on Lake Ontario. She was scrapped at Niagara in 1827, and the next verifiable Queen was not launched until 1830.

The chart below identifies the succession of vessels known to qualify as Queen of the Lakes from 1813 to the present. The succession of queens is not known to be continuous before the David Dows. Those from the Frontenac through the City of Buffalo were side-wheel steamships, though the Michigan, like the Frontenac was dual fitted as an operational schooner. The heyday of the luxurious passenger steamers was waning even as some of them were launched. The Mississippi, Plymouth Rock, and Western World were all out of service by 1859, and the Queens that had not already been lost by 1862 were rebuilt as barges or schooners or dismantled within a year. The Nebraska was a propeller driven steamer for freight and passenger use, but given what had happened to her predecessors, she was likely not so richly appointed. In 1904, the Nebraska was refitted as a lumber carrier, after which time she resembled a classic bulk carrier. The David Dows was a 5-masted schooner used primarily for transporting wheat. The Susquehanna, Owego, and Chemung were propeller driven package freighters. The whaleback Christopher Columbus was a celebrated passenger vessel. The Onoko and all other vessels from the Curry on were or are propeller driven bulk carriers.

The steamship Quebec, launched in 1865, appears in lists of Great Lakes vessels. At 283 feet, she was longer than both the Nebraska and the David Dows, but her service was on the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec, not on the Great Lakes proper. She continued in service for many years and was dismantled in 1938.

Queen of the Lakes: 1813 to present
Ship Reign Begins Reign Ends Length (ft) Vessel type Launched Final disposition Date Notes
USS General Pike June 12, 1813 May 2, 1814 145 Corvette June 12, 1813 sold 1825  
USS Superior May 2, 1814 Sept. 10, 1814 unknown[19] Frigate May 2, 1814 sold 1824 not active after the war[20]
HMS St Lawrence Sept. 10, 1814 undetermined[21] 191' 2"[22] First-rate ship[23] Sept. 10, 1814 sold[24] 1832 British
Washington undetermined 1816 unknown Schooner unknown unknown unknown Name of Washington Island traced to this ship
Frontenac Sept. 7, 1816 undetermined 170 Side-wheel steamer/schooner Sept. 7, 1816 scrapped, Niagara, NY 1827 First steamboat on the lakes; Canadian
Great Britain Oct. 16, 1830 undetermined 147/160[25] Side-wheel steamer Oct. 16, 1830 converted to barque 1845 Canadian
George Washington Sept. 1, 1833 Oct. 9, 1833 180[26] Side-wheel steamer Sept. 1, 1833 aground and broke, Long Point, Lake Erie Oct. 9, 1833 sank on third trip
Michigan Oct. 9, 1833 undetermined 156 Side-wheel steamer/schooner Sept. 30, 1833 dismantled 1855 First to have passenger deck above main deck
James Madison[27] December 13, 1836 August 2, 1837 181 Side-wheel steamer December 13, 1836      
Buffalo August 2, 1837 September 23, 1837 194 Side-wheel steamer August 2, 1837      
Illinois September 23, 1837 undetermined 205 Side-wheel steamer September 23, 1837 dismantled 1849  
Empire June 5, 1844[28] 1848 265 Side-wheel steamer June 5, 1844 grounded and broke apart Nov. 16, 1870 World's largest steamboat[29]
Atlantic 1848 1849 267 Side-wheel steamer 1848 Sank after collision Aug. 19, 1852  
Mayflower 1849 1853 285 Side-wheel steamer 1849 grounded in fog Nov. 29, 1854  
Mississippi 1853 1854 326.66 Side-wheel steamer 1853 dismantled 1862  
Plymouth Rock March 21, 1854[30] April 18, 1854 335.5 Side-wheel steamer March 21, 1854 dismantled May 1863  
Western World April 18, 1854[31] 1863 337 Side-wheel steamer April 18, 1854 converted to dry dock 1863 Largest in world at launch
City of Buffalo[32] April 11, 1857[33] July 30, 1866 340[34] Side-wheel steamer[35] April 11, 1857 burned; Buffalo, NY July 30, 1866[36]  
(reverts to Empire ?)   undetermined 265 rebuilt as sloop/barge 1862[37]        
Nebraska 1867 undetermined 267.33 Propeller steamer 1867 burned at South Manitou Oct. 4, 1904 rebuilt Aug. 1904 as lumber carrier
David Dows April 21, 1881 Feb. 16, 1882 278 5 masted schooner April 21, 1881 sank in 35 feet of water Nov. 29, 1899  
Onoko Feb. 16, 1882 Sept. 4, 1886 302 bulk carrier Feb. 16, 1882 sank Aug. 14, 1915 First iron Queen
Susquehanna Aug. 4, 1886 July 7, 1887 326' 6" Package freighter Aug. 4, 1886 scrapped 1926  
Owego July 7, 1887 Dec. 3, 1892 350' 7" Package freighter July 7, 1887 sank in China 1944  
Chemung Feb. 29, 1888 (shared) 350' 7" Package freighter Feb. 29, 1888 torpedoed, Med. Sea Nov. 26, 1916  
Christopher Columbus Dec. 3, 1892 April 29, 1893 362 Whaleback passenger Dec. 3, 1892 scrapped, Manitowoc, MI 1936  
Curry Apr. 29, 1893 June 29, 1895 377' 6" bulk carrier Apr. 29, 1893 scrapped, Fairport, Ont. 1937  
Merida May 1, 1893 (shared) 377' 6" bulk carrier May 1, 1893 sank in storm Oct. 20, 1916  
Centurion Aug. 30, 1893 (shared) 377' 6" bulk carrier Aug. 30, 1893 scrapped, Hamilton, Ont. 1947  
Victory June 29, 1895 Dec. 23, 1895 398 bulk carrier June 29, 1895 sunk as breakwater July 21, 1969  
Zenith City Aug. 16, 1895 (shared) 398 bulk carrier Aug. 16, 1895 scrapped, Hamilton, Ont. 1947  
W. D. Rees Dec. 23, 1895 Feb. 22, 1896 413 bulk carrier Dec. 23, 1895 scrapped, Lackawanna, NY 1955  
Coralia Feb. 22, 1896 Aug. 1, 1896 432 bulk carrier Feb. 22, 1896 scrapped, Hamilton, Ont. 1964  
Sir Henry Bessemer May 5, 1896 (shared) 432 bulk carrier May 5, 1896 scrapped, Sturgeon Bay, WI 1971  
Sir William Siemens July 25, 1896 (shared) 432 bulk carrier July 25, 1896 sank in collision Apr. 27, 1944  
Sir William Fairbairn Aug. 1 1896 Apr. 13, 1898 445 bulk carrier Aug. 1, 1896 scrapped    
Robert Fulton Sept. 10, 1896 (shared) 445 bulk carrier Sept. 10, 1896 scrapped, Hamilton, Ont. 1948  
Superior City Apr. 13, 1898 July 31, 1898 450 bulk carrier Apr. 13, 1898 sank in collision Aug. 20, 1920  
Samuel F.B. Morse July 31, 1898 Jan. 20, 1900 475 bulk carrier July 31, 1898 scrapped, Sturgeon Bay, WI 1975  
Douglas Houghton June 3, 1899 (shared) 475 bulk carrier June 3, 1898 sunk as breakwater, Toronto 1969  
John W. Gates Jan. 20, 1900 Apr. 9, 1904 497 bulk carrier Jan. 20, 1900 scrapped, Conneaut, Ont. 1961  
James J. Hill Jan. 24, 1900 (shared) 497 bulk carrier Jan. 24, 1900 sunk as breakwater, Cleveland 1961  
Isaac L. Ellwood May 5, 1900 (shared) 497 bulk carrier May 5, 1900 scrapped, Conneaut, Ont. 1961  
William Edenborn May 20, 1900 (shared) 497 bulk carrier May 20, 1900 sunk as breakwater, Cleveland 1961  
Augustus B. Wolvin Apr. 9, 1904 May 8, 1905 560 bulk carrier Apr. 9, 1904 scrapped, Santander, Spain Sept. 24, 1967 1
Elbert H. Gary May 8, 1905 May 26, 1906 569 bulk carrier May 8, 1905 scrapped, Santander, Spain July 1973  
William E. Corey June 24, 1905 (shared) 569 bulk carrier June 24, 1905 sunk as breakwater, Port Credit, Ont. 1970  
George W. Perkins June 26, 1905 (shared) 569 bulk carrier June 26, 1905 scrapped, Ashtabula, OH Nov. 3, 1981  
Henry C. Frick Aug. 26, 1905 (shared) 569 bulk carrier Aug. 26, 1905 sank on way to scrapper Nov. 15, 1972  
J. Pierpont Morgan May 26, 1906 Aug. 18, 1906 601 bulk carrier May 26, 1906 scrapped, Lauzon, Que. Mar. 30, 1979 First "standard design"
Henry H. Rogers June 16, 1906 (shared) 601 bulk carrier June 16, 1906 scrapped, Duluth, MI 1975  
Norman B. Ream Aug. 18, 1906 (shared) 601 bulk carrier Aug. 18, 1906 scrapped, Turkey 1990  
Edward Y. Townsend Aug. 18, 1906 Dec. 29, 1906 602 bulk carrier Aug. 18, 1906 sank on way to scrapper Oct. 7, 1968  
William B. Kerr Dec. 29, 1906 May 1, 1909 605' 9" bulk carrier Dec. 29. 1906 scrapped, Santander, Spain July 21, 1974  
Legrande S. DeGraff May 1, 1907 (shared) 605' 9" bulk carrier May 1, 1907 scrapped 1975  
William M. Mills July 17, 1907 (shared) 605' 9" bulk carrier July 17, 1907 scrapped 1976  
Shenango May 1, 1909 July 1, 1911 606 bulk carrier May 1, 1909 scrapped, Port Maitland, Ont. Nov. 1, 1984  
James M. Schoonmaker July 1, 1911 Apr. 14, 1914 617 bulk carrier July 1, 1911 Museum ship Willis B Boyer present Oldest Queen still afloat
William P. Snyder Jan. 27, 1912 (shared) 617 bulk carrier Jan. 27, 1912 scrapped, Port Colburn, Ont. Jan. 1988  
W. Grant Morden Apr. 14, 1914 June 23, 1926 625 bulk carrier Apr. 14, 1914 scrapped, Bilbao, Spain July 12, 1969  
Glenmohr/Lemoyne June 23, 1926 Apr. 9, 1927 633 bulk carrier June 23, 1926 scrapped, Santander, Spain June 1969 Third Canadian Queen
Carl D. Bradley Apr. 9, 1927 June 28, 1949 640 bulk carrier Apr. 9, 1927 sank in storm Nov. 18, 1958 Second longest reign
Wilfred Sykes June 28, 1949 Nov. 1952 678 bulk carrier June 28, 1949 still active present First streamlined design
Joseph H. Thompson Nov. 1952 November 7, 1953 714' 3" bulk carrier 1944 converted to barge 1991 present Queen by lengthening
T.R. McLagan November 7, 1953 1957 714' 6" bulk carrier November 7, 1953 scrapped, India 2004 renamed Oakglen
Cliffs Victory 1957 June 7, 1958 716' 3" bulk carrier 1945 scrapped, Taiwan 1987 Queen by lengthening
Edmund Fitzgerald June 7, 1958 Sept. 17, 1959 729' 3" bulk carrier June 7, 1958 sank in storm Nov. 9, 1975  
Murray Bay Sept. 17, 1959 Dec. 7, 1962 730 bulk carrier Sept. 17, 1958 renamed Comeaudoc Out of service Dec. 4,1996; scrapped, Port Colburn, Canada 2002 First 730
Arthur B. Homer Nov. 7, 1959 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Nov. 7, 1959 scrapped 1987  
Edward L. Ryerson Jan. 26, 1960 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Jan. 26, 1960 still active present most streamlined
Whitefish Bay Nov. 16, 1960 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Nov. 16, 1960 Scrapped Out of service 1990's  
Red Wing 1960 (shared) 730 bulk carrier 1960 scrapped 1986  
Leecliffe Hall Sept. 10, 1961 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Sept. 10, 1961 sank after collision Sept. 5, 1964  
Leon Falk, Jr. 1961 (shared) 730 bulk carrier 1945 scrapped, Spain 1985 Queen by lengthening
Paul H. Carnahan 1961 (shared) 730 bulk carrier 1945 scrapped, Taiwan 1987 Queen by lengthening
Pioneer Challenger 1961 (shared) 730 bulk carrier 1943 Renamed American Victory present Queen by lengthening
Lake Winnipeg 1961 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Nov. 28, 1943 scrapped, Lisbon, Portugal May 1985 Queen by lengthening
Walter A. Sterling 1962 (shared) 730 bulk carrier 1942 Renamed Lee A. Tregurtha present Queen by lengthening
Montrealais Apr. 12, 1962 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Apr. 12, 1962 scrapped 2015 present  
Hamiltonian Apr. 7, 1962 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Apr. 7, 1962 scrapped, Alang, India 1997  
Black Bay Sept. 20, 1962 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Sept. 20, 1962 Scrapped, India 2002  
Baie St. Paul Nov. 30, 1962 (shared) 730 bulk carrier Nov. 30, 1962 scrapped, Taiwan May 1995  
Frankcliffe Hall Dec. 7, 1962 Apr. 14, 1965 730' 2" bulk carrier Dec. 7, 1962 Renamed Halifax Scrapped, Turkey June 22, 2011
Lawrencecliffe Hall Apr. 14, 1965 Jan. 1, 1972 730' 4" bulk carrier Apr. 14, 1965 Renamed Canadian Venture Scrapped, India 2004
Stewart J. Cort Jan. 1, 1972 Aug. 7, 1976 1000 bulk carrier Jan. 1, 1972 still active present Last "classic" Queen
Presque Isle 1973 (shared) 1000 bulk carrier 1973 still active present Integrated barge
James R. Barker Aug. 7, 1976 Apr. 25, 1981 1004 bulk carrier Aug. 7, 1976 still active present First stern-ender Queen
Mesabi Miner Feb. 14, 1978 (shared) 1004 bulk carrier Feb. 14, 1978 still active present  
George A. Stinson July 15, 1978 (shared) 1004 bulk carrier July 15, 1978 still active present  
Edwin H. Gott July 19, 1978 (shared) 1004 bulk carrier July 19, 1978 still active present  
Edgar B. Speer May 8, 1980 (shared) 1004 bulk carrier May 8, 1980 still active present  
William J. Delancy Apr. 25, 1981 present 1013' 6" bulk carrier Apr. 25, 1981 Renamed Paul R. Tregurtha present  
1. First with stanchion-less hold, side ballast tanks, and telescoping hatches

References[edit]

  1. ^ The source of data for this article, unless otherwise cited, is the book Queen of the Lakes by Mark L. Thompson or the vessel files included in the Historical Collections of the Great Lakes Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. Where contradictions in records have been found, the data from Mark Thompson's book has been given preference.
  2. ^ The Summit at Gore Mountain Area Activities Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  3. ^ Boatnerd Great Lakes Shipwrecks Q Archived May 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  4. ^ Lewis, Walter Queen of the Lakes (Propeller) Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Image search; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  5. ^ BGSU [1] Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  6. ^ Modderman, Mary; March 27, 1998 Requiem for a Ferry Queen Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  7. ^ Death of a Great Lakes Queen [2] LostLiners.com; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  8. ^ United States Coast Guard, April 21, 2006 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2011.  Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  9. ^ Detroit Free Press Illinois (Steamboat) 20 Apr 1841 Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed March 3, 2011
  10. ^ See LaSalle's Griffin and Thompson, pp. 13-14
  11. ^ Mansfield, John Brandt (ed.), History of the Great Lakes, J.H. Beers & Co., Chicago, 1899, p. 81
  12. ^ Cox, Isaac Joslin; The journeys of Rene Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle. Volume 1, (hosted by the Portal to Texas History Archived February 10, 2000, at the Wayback Machine.)
  13. ^ Parkman, Francis; LaSalle and the Discovery of the Great West ; Little, Brown, & Co.; Boston; 1879; p. 109
  14. ^ Cox, p.2
  15. ^ About the Great Lakes Early Sail and Steam Vessels Archived February 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed March 3, 2011
  16. ^ About the Great Lakes History and Development of Great Lakes Ships Archived January 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.; Accessed March 3, 2011
  17. ^ Eaton, Conan Bryant (1966). The Naming: A Part of the History of Washington Island. Sturgeon Bay, WI: the Door County Advocate. p. 7. 
  18. ^ The USS Superior and HMS St Lawrence were still afloat, but were inactive.
  19. ^ Available records indicate only her tonnage. At 1605 tons she was 80% larger than the USS General Pike. Her length, therefore, could have been about 180 feet. At her launch she was the largest ship in the U.S. Navy Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 by David and Jeanne Heidler; Accessed Mar. 15, 2011
  20. ^ Two other U.S. Naval vessels, the USS New Orleans and the USS Chippewa, were under construction at Sackett's Harbor in 1815. At 204 feet and 2805 tons they might have shared the title, but they were not finished before the end of the war and were never launched. They were sold for scrap in 1833. See Ships-of-the-Line ; Accessed March 20, 2011
  21. ^ Not active after the war
  22. ^ This is the length of her gun deck. LOA was slightly more. At 2305 tons she was not as large as the American vessels planned and under construction the following year.
  23. ^ She was the only first-rate ship-of-the-line built by the British Navy for fresh water seas.
  24. ^ See further details at HMS St Lawrence (1814)
  25. ^ The files at BGSU say she was 147 feet. The report in The Kingston Chronicle on May 14, 1831 say she was 160 feet. Contemporary length figures sometimes refer to keel length, sometimes to deck length, sometimes to length overall. If the Kingston Chronicle figure is correct, the Great Britain eclipses the Michigan. The hull of the Great Britain was converted to a barque in early 1845, and renamed the Eleanora. The final disposition of the Eleanora is not known. Links accessed Mar. 12, 2011
  26. ^ Cleveland Weekly Herald George Washington (Steamboat) Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed March 14, 2011
  27. ^ Thompson says that the Great Western was the largest for a time, as do a number of contemporary reports. Built in 1839, at 183 feet, the Great Western was the first ship with a second passenger deck. A search of transcripts of contemporary newspaper articles at Maritime History of the Great Lakes indicates that three other vessels were longer, even though the Great Western with a wider beam had greater capacity. The Great Lakes paddle steamer Great Western is not to be confused with the oceangoing SS Great Western
  28. ^ Buffalo Commercial Advertiser Empire (Steamboat), 5 Jun 1844 Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  29. ^ Lewis, Walter Passenger Steamboat Empire Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  30. ^ Buffalo Daily Republic Plymouth Rock (Steamboat) Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  31. ^ Buffalo Commercial Advertiser Western World (Steamboat), 21 Apr 1854 Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
  32. ^ Not to be confused with a later side-wheel steamer of the same name.
  33. ^ Buffalo Daily Republic Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Mar. 2, 2011
  34. ^ Contemporary reports list 330, 340, and 350 feet.
  35. ^ Dismantled in 1862 Buffalo Daily Courier (Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Mar. 2, 2011) her hull was converted into a propeller freighter Apr. 11, 1864
  36. ^ The Buffalo Post, et al Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Mar. 2, 2011
  37. ^ Lewis, Walter Empire (Steamboat) U8559, 10 May 1862 Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011

Primary Sources[edit]

  • Mark L. Thompson (1994). Queen of the Lakes. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press.  ISBN 0-8143-2393-6
  • Historical Collections of the Great Lakes [3][permanent dead link] Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio (BGSU) Accessed Feb. 28, 2011