Queen of the Lakes
Queen of the Lakes is the unofficial but widely recognized title given to the longest vessel active on the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada. A number of vessels, mostly lake freighters, have been known by the title.
Queen of the Lakes has been used as the name of three vessels that sailed on the Great Lakes, but none was the longest on the lakes at the time. The first was a three-masted Canadian schooner built in 1853 as the Robert Taylor, measuring 133 feet. It was renamed Queen of the Lakes sometime before 1864. She sank nine miles off Sodus Point, New York on November 28, 1906. The second was a propeller driven vessel launched in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 12, 1853, measuring 196 feet. She was lost to fire in port on June 17, 1869. The third was a small side-wheel steamer built in Wyandotte, Michigan in 1872, measuring 108 feet. While anchored near South Manitou Island she caught fire and burned in 1898. The iron hull was later scrapped.
The title has been bestowed upon vessels that were especially liked or those considered to be especially beautiful or richly appointed. Such was the case as late as 1949, at which time the Noronic was so honored. It has been applied to the United States Coast Guard Cutter Mackinaw for its long and significant role in facilitating Great Lakes shipping and safety. The most common use of the title, however, at least since the early 1940s, is to honor the largest vessel on the lakes. On April 20, 1841, the Detroit Free Press referred to the steamer Illinois as "Queen of the Waters", but given that three vessels in that century were named Queen of the Lakes, its use as a title for the longest ship was not then common. The title is applied retroactively to vessels launched before this use of the title became popular. While some use gross tonnage, capacity, or length between perpendiculars as the criterion, the most commonly accepted standard is length overall (LOA). This article uses LOA as the standard.
The earliest vessels on the Great Lakes were human powered canoes and bateaux. Sources differ as to what vessel qualifies as the first real "ship" on the lakes. Many say it was Le Griffon, built by LaSalle through the winter and spring of 1678 and 1679, and launched in May of that year to sail the upper lakes (above Niagara). Reports of its size vary from 40 to 70 feet long. Contemporary chroniclers called it both a bark and a brigantine. The Griffon was soon lost. It was last seen on September 18, 1679 and was lost with all hands. Her final location is unknown. Those who consider the Griffon to have been the first ship on the lakes—and hence, the first Queen—also consider her to have been the first lost.
Other sources say the first ship was a smaller vessel built by LaSalle at Fort Frontenac beginning in September, 1678, for the purpose of conveying supplies and material to Niagara. This vessel, which is called the Frontenac in some reports, is said to have been about 10 tons burden, measuring from 35 to 45 feet long. Expedition journalists called it a brigantine. It departed Fort Frontenac under La Motte's and Louis Hennepin's leadership on November 18, 1678, and arrived at the east bank of the Niagara River on December 6, 1679. Shortly thereafter, LaSalle and Tonty came with more supplies, and their vessel (carrying the anchor, rigging, and guns for the Griffon) foundered in the surf less than thirty miles from Niagara. Hennepin called this vessel a "great bark." One source says the loss occurred on January 8, 1679. Supplies and extra clothing were lost, but LaSalle and his men rescued material for the ship, dragged them to the mouth of the Niagara, rested a few days in an Indian village, and arrived at the settlement above the falls on January 20. Some say the lost vessel was the Frontenac. Historian Francis Parkman says that by 1677, there were already four vessels on Lake Ontario between 25 and 40 tons burden. He does not say if any of them were named. Tonty's journal indicates that the vessel he and LaSalle used was a 40-ton vessel, but he does not associate a name with it.
Records of ship sizes on the lakes between 1678 and 1816 are rare. According to the Detroit Tribune, the vessels Gladwin, Lady Charlotte, Victory, and Boston were on the lakes in 1766 and the Brunswick, Enterprise, and Charity were launched in 1767, 1769, and 1770, respectively, but no dimensions are given. The HMS Ontario, at 80 feet, was launched on Lake Ontario on May 10, 1780, and sank in a storm on October 31, that same year. A history of Washington Island in Door County, Wisconsin notes that the schooner Washington, used to supply the fitting out of Fort Howard at the head of Green Bay in 1816, was the longest ship on the lakes at the time, but no details are given.
A Succession of Queens
On September 7, 1816, the steamer Frontenac was launched. She was fitted out as both a schooner and a side-wheel steamer and designed for both passenger and freight transport. At 170 feet she laid claim to the honor of longest active vessel[i] on the lakes, though she saw service only on Lake Ontario. She was scrapped at Niagara in 1827, and the next verifiable Queen was not launched until 1830.
The chart below identifies the succession of vessels known to qualify as Queen of the Lakes from 1813 to the present. The succession of queens is not known to be continuous before the David Dows. Those from the Frontenac through the City of Buffalo were side-wheel steamships, though the Michigan, like the Frontenac was dual fitted as an operational schooner. The heyday of the luxurious passenger steamers was waning even as some of them were launched. The Mississippi, Plymouth Rock, and Western World were all out of service by 1859, and the Queens that had not already been lost by 1862 were rebuilt as barges or schooners or dismantled within a year. The Nebraska was a propeller driven steamer for freight and passenger use, but given what had happened to her predecessors, she was likely not so richly appointed. In 1904, the Nebraska was refitted as a lumber carrier, after which time she resembled a classic bulk carrier. The David Dows was a 5-masted schooner used primarily for transporting wheat. The Susquehanna, Owego, and Chemung were propeller driven package freighters. The whaleback Christopher Columbus was a celebrated passenger vessel. The Onoko and all other vessels from the Curry on were or are propeller driven bulk carriers.
The steamship Quebec, launched in 1865, appears in lists of Great Lakes vessels. At 283 feet, she was longer than both the Nebraska and the David Dows, but her service was on the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec, not on the Great Lakes proper. She continued in service for many years and was dismantled in 1938.
|Ship||Reign Begins||Reign Ends||Length (ft)||Vessel type||Launched||Final disposition||Date||Notes|
|USS General Pike||June 12, 1813||May 2, 1814||145||Corvette||June 12, 1813||sold||1825|
|USS Superior||May 2, 1814||Sept. 10, 1814||unknown[ii]||Frigate||May 2, 1814||sold||1824||not active after the war[iii]|
|HMS St Lawrence||Sept. 10, 1814||undetermined[iv]||191' 2"[v]||First-rate ship[vi]||Sept. 10, 1814||sold[vii]||1832||British|
|Washington||undetermined||1816||unknown||Sloop||unknown||unknown||unknown||Name of Washington Island traced to this ship|
|Frontenac||Sept. 7, 1816||undetermined||170||Side-wheel steamer/schooner||Sept. 7, 1816||scrapped, Niagara, NY||1827||First steamboat on the lakes; Canadian|
|Great Britain||Oct. 16, 1830||undetermined||147/160[viii]||Side-wheel steamer||Oct. 16, 1830||converted to barque||1845||Canadian|
|George Washington||Sept. 1, 1833||Oct. 9, 1833||180||Side-wheel steamer||Sept. 1, 1833||aground and broke, Long Point, Lake Erie||Oct. 9, 1833||sank on third trip|
|Michigan||Oct. 9, 1833||undetermined||156||Side-wheel steamer/schooner||Sept. 30, 1833||dismantled||1855||First to have passenger deck above main deck|
|James Madison [ix]||December 13, 1836||August 2, 1837||181||Side-wheel steamer||December 13, 1836|
|Buffalo||August 2, 1837||September 23, 1837||194||Side-wheel steamer||August 2, 1837|
|Illinois||September 23, 1837||undetermined||205||Side-wheel steamer||September 23, 1837||dismantled||1849|
|Empire||June 5, 1844||1848||265||Side-wheel steamer||June 5, 1844||grounded and broke apart||Nov. 16, 1870||World's largest steamboat|
|Atlantic||1848||1849||267||Side-wheel steamer||1848||Sank after collision||Aug. 19, 1852|
|Mayflower||1849||1853||285||Side-wheel steamer||1849||grounded in fog||Nov. 29, 1854|
|Plymouth Rock||March 21, 1854||April 18, 1854||335.5||Side-wheel steamer||March 21, 1854||dismantled||May 1863|
|Western World||April 18, 1854||1863||337||Side-wheel steamer||April 18, 1854||converted to dry dock||1863||Largest in world at launch|
|City of Buffalo[x]||April 11, 1857||July 30, 1866||340[xi]||Side-wheel steamer [xii]||April 11, 1857||burned; Buffalo, NY||July 30, 1866|
|(reverts to Empire ?)||undetermined||265||rebuilt as sloop/barge 1862|
|Nebraska||1867||undetermined||267.33||Propeller steamer||1867||burned at South Manitou||Oct. 4, 1904||rebuilt Aug. 1904 as lumber carrier|
|David Dows||April 21, 1881||Feb. 16, 1882||278||5 masted schooner||April 21, 1881||sank in 35 feet of water||Nov. 29, 1899|
|Onoko||Feb. 16, 1882||Sept. 4, 1886||302||bulk carrier||Feb. 16, 1882||sank||Aug. 14, 1915||First iron Queen|
|Susquehanna||Aug. 4, 1886||July 7, 1887||326' 6"||Package freighter||Aug. 4, 1886||scrapped||1926|
|Owego||July 7, 1887||Dec. 3, 1892||350' 7"||Package freighter||July 7, 1887||sank in China||1944|
|Chemung||Feb. 29, 1888||(shared)||350' 7"||Package freighter||Feb. 29, 1888||torpedoed, Med. Sea||Nov. 26, 1916|
|Christopher Columbus||Dec. 3, 1892||April 29, 1893||362||Whaleback passenger||Dec. 3, 1892||scrapped, Manitowoc, MI||1936|
|Curry||Apr. 29, 1893||June 29, 1895||377' 6"||bulk carrier||Apr. 29, 1893||scrapped, Fairport, Ont.||1937|
|Merida||May 1, 1893||(shared)||377' 6"||bulk carrier||May 1, 1893||sank in storm||Oct. 20, 1916|
|Centurion||Aug. 30, 1893||(shared)||377' 6"||bulk carrier||Aug. 30, 1893||scrapped, Hamilton, Ont.||1947|
|Victory||June 29, 1895||Dec. 23, 1895||398||bulk carrier||June 29, 1895||sunk as breakwater||July 21, 1969|
|Zenith City||Aug. 16, 1895||(shared)||398||bulk carrier||Aug. 16, 1895||scrapped, Hamilton, Ont.||1947|
|W. D. Rees||Dec. 23, 1895||Feb. 22, 1896||413||bulk carrier||Dec. 23, 1895||scrapped, Lackawanna, NY||1955|
|Coralia||Feb. 22, 1896||Aug. 1, 1896||432||bulk carrier||Feb. 22, 1896||scrapped, Hamilton, Ont.||1964|
|Sir Henry Bessemer||May 5, 1896||(shared)||432||bulk carrier||May 5, 1896||scrapped, Sturgeon Bay, WI||1971|
|Sir William Siemens||July 25, 1896||(shared)||432||bulk carrier||July 25, 1896||sank in collision||Apr. 27, 1944|
|Sir William Fairbairn||Aug. 1 1896||Apr. 13, 1898||445||bulk carrier||Aug. 1, 1896||scrapped|
|Robert Fulton||Sept. 10, 1896||(shared)||445||bulk carrier||Sept. 10, 1896||scrapped, Hamilton, Ont.||1948|
|Superior City||Apr. 13, 1898||July 31, 1898||450||bulk carrier||Apr. 13, 1898||sank in collision||Aug. 20, 1920|
|Samuel F.B. Morse||July 31, 1898||Jan. 20, 1900||475||bulk carrier||July 31, 1898||scrapped, Sturgeon Bay, WI||1975|
|Douglas Houghton||June 3, 1899||(shared)||475||bulk carrier||June 3, 1898||sunk as breakwater, Toronto||1969|
|John W. Gates||Jan. 20, 1900||Apr. 9, 1904||497||bulk carrier||Jan. 20, 1900||scrapped, Conneaut, Ont.||1961|
|James J. Hill||Jan. 24, 1900||(shared)||497||bulk carrier||Jan. 24, 1900||sunk as breakwater, Cleveland||1961|
|Isaac L. Ellwood||May 5, 1900||(shared)||497||bulk carrier||May 5, 1900||scrapped, Conneaut, Ont.||1961|
|William Edenborn||May 20, 1900||(shared)||497||bulk carrier||May 20, 1900||sunk as breakwater, Cleveland||1961|
|Augustus B. Wolvin||Apr. 9, 1904||May 8, 1905||560||bulk carrier||Apr. 9, 1904||scrapped, Santander, Spain||Sept. 24, 1967||First to have telescoping steel hatch covers|
|Elbert H. Gary||May 8, 1905||May 26, 1906||569||bulk carrier||May 8, 1905||scrapped, Santander, Spain||July 1973|
|William E. Corey||June 24, 1905||(shared)||569||bulk carrier||June 24, 1905||sunk as breakwater, Port Credit, Ont.||1970|
|George W. Perkins||June 26, 1905||(shared)||569||bulk carrier||June 26, 1905||scrapped, Ashtabula, OH||Nov. 3, 1981|
|Henry C. Frick||Aug. 26, 1905||(shared)||569||bulk carrier||Aug. 26, 1905||sank on way to scrapper||Nov. 15, 1972|
|J. Pierpont Morgan||May 26, 1906||Aug. 18, 1906||601||bulk carrier||May 26, 1906||scrapped, Lauzon, Que.||Mar. 30, 1979||First "standard design"|
|Henry H. Rogers||June 16, 1906||(shared)||601||bulk carrier||June 16, 1906||scrapped, Duluth, MI||1975|
|Norman B. Ream||Aug. 18, 1906||(shared)||601||bulk carrier||Aug. 18, 1906||scrapped, Turkey||1990|
|Edward Y. Townsend||Aug. 18, 1906||Dec. 29, 1906||603||bulk carrier||Aug. 18, 1906||sank on way to scrapper||Oct. 7, 1968|
|Daniel J. Morrell||Aug. 22, 1906||Dec. 29, 1906||603||bulk carrier||Aug. 22, 1906||sank in a storm||Nov. 29, 1966|
|William B. Kerr||Dec. 29, 1906||May 1, 1909||605' 9"||bulk carrier||Dec. 29. 1906||scrapped, Santander, Spain||July 21, 1974|
|Legrande S. DeGraff||May 1, 1907||(shared)||605' 9"||bulk carrier||May 1, 1907||scrapped||1975|
|William M. Mills||July 17, 1907||(shared)||605' 9"||bulk carrier||July 17, 1907||scrapped||1976|
|Shenango||May 1, 1909||July 1, 1911||606||bulk carrier||May 1, 1909||scrapped, Port Maitland, Ont.||Nov. 1, 1984|
|James M. Schoonmaker||July 1, 1911||Apr. 14, 1914||617||bulk carrier||July 1, 1911||Museum ship Willis B Boyer||present||Oldest Queen still afloat|
|William P. Snyder||Jan. 27, 1912||(shared)||617||bulk carrier||Jan. 27, 1912||scrapped, Port Colburn, Ont.||Jan. 1988|
|W. Grant Morden||Apr. 14, 1914||June 23, 1926||625||bulk carrier||Apr. 14, 1914||scrapped, Bilbao, Spain||July 12, 1969|
|Glenmohr/Lemoyne||June 23, 1926||Apr. 9, 1927||634||bulk carrier||June 23, 1926||scrapped, Santander, Spain||June 1969||Third Canadian Queen|
|SS Carl D. Bradley||Apr. 9, 1927||June 28, 1949||640||bulk carrier||Apr. 9, 1927||sank in storm||Nov. 18, 1958||Second longest reign|
|Wilfred Sykes||June 28, 1949||Nov. 1952||678||bulk carrier||June 28, 1949||still active||present||First streamlined design|
|Joseph H. Thompson||Nov. 1952||November 7, 1953||714' 3"||bulk carrier||1944||converted to barge 1991||present||Queen by lengthening|
|T.R. McLagan||November 7, 1953||1957||714' 6"||bulk carrier||November 7, 1953||scrapped, India||2004||renamed Oakglen|
|Cliffs Victory||1957||June 7, 1958||716' 3"||bulk carrier||1945||scrapped, Taiwan||1987||Queen by lengthening|
|Edmund Fitzgerald||June 7, 1958||Sept. 17, 1959||729' 3"||bulk carrier||June 7, 1958||sank in storm||Nov. 10, 1975|
|Murray Bay||Sept. 17, 1959||Dec. 7, 1962||730||bulk carrier||Sept. 17, 1958||renamed Comeaudoc||Out of service Dec. 4,1996; scrapped, Port Colburn, Canada 2002||First 730|
|Arthur B. Homer||Nov. 7, 1959||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Nov. 7, 1959||scrapped||1987|
|Edward L. Ryerson||Jan. 26, 1960||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Jan. 26, 1960||still active||present||most streamlined|
|Whitefish Bay||Nov. 16, 1960||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Nov. 16, 1960||Scrapped||Out of service 1990's|
|Red Wing||1960||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||1960||scrapped||1986|
|Leecliffe Hall||Sept. 10, 1961||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Sept. 10, 1961||sank after collision||Sept. 5, 1964|
|Leon Falk, Jr.||1961||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||1945||scrapped, Spain||1985||Queen by lengthening|
|Paul H. Carnahan||1961||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||1945||scrapped, Taiwan||1987||Queen by lengthening|
|Pioneer Challenger||1961||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||1943||Renamed American Victory||present||Queen by lengthening|
|Lake Winnipeg||1961||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Nov. 28, 1943||scrapped, Lisbon, Portugal||May 1985||Queen by lengthening|
|Walter A. Sterling||1962||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||1942||Renamed Lee A. Tregurtha||present||Queen by lengthening|
|Montrealais||Apr. 12, 1962||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Apr. 12, 1962||scrapped 2015||present|
|Hamiltonian||Apr. 7, 1962||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Apr. 7, 1962||scrapped, Alang, India||1997|
|Black Bay||Sept. 20, 1962||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Sept. 20, 1962||Scrapped, India||2002|
|Baie St. Paul||Nov. 30, 1962||(shared)||730||bulk carrier||Nov. 30, 1962||scrapped, Taiwan||May 1995|
|Frankcliffe Hall||Dec. 7, 1962||Apr. 14, 1965||730' 2"||bulk carrier||Dec. 7, 1962||Renamed Halifax||Scrapped, Turkey||June 22, 2011|
|Lawrencecliffe Hall||Apr. 14, 1965||Jan. 1, 1972||730' 4"||bulk carrier||Apr. 14, 1965||Renamed Canadian Venture||Scrapped, India||2004|
|Stewart J. Cort||Jan. 1, 1972||Aug. 7, 1976||1000||bulk carrier||Jan. 1, 1972||still active||present||Last "classic" Queen|
|Presque Isle||1973||(shared)||1000||bulk carrier||1973||still active||present||Integrated barge|
|James R. Barker||Aug. 7, 1976||Apr. 25, 1981||1004||bulk carrier||Aug. 7, 1976||still active||present||First stern-ender Queen|
|Mesabi Miner||Feb. 14, 1978||(shared)||1004||bulk carrier||Feb. 14, 1978||still active||present|
|George A. Stinson||July 15, 1978||(shared)||1004||bulk carrier||July 15, 1978||still active||present|
|Edwin H. Gott||July 19, 1978||(shared)||1004||bulk carrier||July 19, 1978||still active||present|
|Edgar B. Speer||May 8, 1980||(shared)||1004||bulk carrier||May 8, 1980||still active||present|
|William J. Delancy||Apr. 25, 1981||present||1013' 6"||bulk carrier||Apr. 25, 1981||Renamed Paul R. Tregurtha||present|
|1. First with stanchion-less hold, side ballast tanks, and telescoping hatches|
- The USS Superior and HMS St Lawrence were still afloat, but were inactive.
- Available records indicate only her tonnage. At 1605 tons she was 80% larger than the USS General Pike. Her length, therefore, could have been about 180 feet. At her launch she was the largest ship in the U.S. Navy
- Two other U.S. Naval vessels, the USS New Orleans and the USS Chippewa, were under construction at Sackett's Harbor in 1815. At 204 feet and 2805 tons they might have shared the title, but they were not finished before the end of the war and were never launched. They were sold for scrap in 1833. 
- Not active after the war
- This is the length of her gun deck. LOA was slightly more. At 2305 tons she was not as large as the American vessels planned and under construction the following year.
- She was the only first-rate ship-of-the-line built by the British Navy for fresh water seas.
- See further details at HMS St Lawrence
- The files at BGSU say she was 147 feet. The report in  say she was 160 feet. Contemporary length figures sometimes refer to keel length, sometimes to deck length, sometimes to length overall. If the Kingston Chronicle figure is correct, the Great Britain eclipses the Michigan. The hull of the Great Britain was converted to a barque in early 1845, and renamed the Eleanora. The final disposition of the Eleanora is not known. Links accessed Mar. 12, 2011
- Thompson says that the Great Western was the largest for a time, as do a number of contemporary reports. Built in 1839, at 183 feet, the Great Western was the first ship with a second passenger deck. A search of transcripts of contemporary newspaper articles at  indicates that three other vessels were longer, even though the Great Western with a wider beam had greater capacity. The Great Lakes paddle steamer Great Western is not to be confused with the oceangoing SS Great Western.
- Not to be confused with a later side-wheel steamer of the same name.
- Contemporary reports list 330, 340, and 350 feet.
- Dismantled in 1862  her hull was converted into a propeller freighter Apr. 11, 1864.
- The source of data for this article, unless otherwise cited, is the book Queen of the Lakes by Mark L. Thompson or the vessel files included in the Historical Collections of the Great Lakes Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. Where contradictions in records have been found, the data from Mark Thompson's book has been given preference.
- Boatnerd Great Lakes Shipwrecks Q Archived May 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Lewis, Walter Queen of the Lakes (Propeller) Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Image search; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- BGSU  Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Modderman, Mary; March 27, 1998 Requiem for a Ferry Queen Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Death of a Great Lakes Queen  LostLiners.com; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- United States Coast Guard, April 21, 2006 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2011. Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Detroit Free Press Illinois (Steamboat) 20 Apr 1841 Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed March 3, 2011
- See LaSalle's Griffin and Thompson, pp. 13-14
- Mansfield, John Brandt (ed.), History of the Great Lakes, J.H. Beers & Co., Chicago, 1899, p. 81
- Cox, Isaac Joslin; The journeys of Rene Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle. Volume 1, (hosted by the Portal to Texas History Archived February 10, 2000, at the Wayback Machine.)
- Parkman, Francis; LaSalle and the Discovery of the Great West ; Little, Brown, & Co.; Boston; 1879; p. 109
- Cox, p.2
- About the Great Lakes Early Sail and Steam Vessels Archived February 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed March 3, 2011
- About the Great Lakes History and Development of Great Lakes Ships Archived January 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.; Accessed March 3, 2011
- Eaton, Conan Bryant (1966). The Naming: A Part of the History of Washington Island. Sturgeon Bay, WI: the Door County Advocate. p. 7.
- Encyclopedia of the War of 1812 by David and Jeanne Heidler; Accessed Mar. 15, 2011
- Ships-of-the-Line ; Accessed March 20, 2011
- The Kingston Chronicle on May 14, 1831
- Cleveland Weekly Herald George Washington (Steamboat) Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed March 14, 2011
- Maritime History of the Great Lakes
- Buffalo Commercial Advertiser Empire (Steamboat), 5 Jun 1844 Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Lewis, Walter Passenger Steamboat Empire Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Buffalo Daily Republic Plymouth Rock (Steamboat) Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Buffalo Commercial Advertiser Western World (Steamboat), 21 Apr 1854 Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011
- Buffalo Daily Republic Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Mar. 2, 2011
- Buffalo Daily Courier (Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Mar. 2, 2011)
- The Buffalo Post, et al Maritime History of the Great Lakes; Accessed Mar. 2, 2011
- Lewis, Walter Empire (Steamboat) U8559, 10 May 1862 Maritime History of the Great Lakes, Images; Accessed Feb. 28, 2011