Syagrus romanzoffiana

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Queen palm
Starr 020617-0019 Syagrus romanzoffiana.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Subfamily: Arecoideae
Tribe: Cocoeae
Genus: Syagrus
Species: S. romanzoffiana
Binomial name
Syagrus romanzoffiana
(Cham.) Glassman[1]
  • Cocos romanzoffiana Cham.
  • Calappa romanzoffiana (Cham.) Kuntze
  • Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc.
  • Cocos australis Mart.
  • Cocos plumosa Hook.f.
  • Cocos datil Drude & Griseb.
  • Cocos geriba Barb.Rodr.
  • Cocos acrocomioides Drude
  • Cocos martiana Drude & Glaz
  • Calappa acrocomioides (Drude) Kuntze
  • Calappa australis (Mart.) Kuntze
  • Calappa datil (Drude & Griseb.) Kuntze
  • Calappa martiana (Drude & Glaz.) Kuntze
  • Calappa plumosa (Hook.f.) Kuntze
  • Cocos arechavaletana Barb.Rodr.

Syagrus romanzoffiana, the queen palm[3] or cocos palm, is a palm native to South America, from Paraguay and northern Argentina (mostly Misiones Province) north to western Brazil and northern Uruguay and west to eastern Bolivia.[2][4] It had been classified within the Cocos genus as Cocos plumosa, was assigned to Arecastrum, then moved to Syagrus. As a result of the nomenclature confusion, they often retain a previous name in popular usage. Its transfer to Syagrus and the subsumation of Arecastrum may have been premature. A genetics team led by Bee F. Gunn found that S. romanzoffiana did not group with other Syagrus species at all, but instead with Lytocarium weddellianum.[5] S. romanzoffiana is a medium-sized palm, quickly reaching maturity at a height of up to 15 m (49 ft) tall, with pinnate leaves having as many as 494 leaflets, although more typically around 300, each leaflet being around 50 centimetres (18 in) in length and 3–5 centimetres (1–2 in) in width.

The palm has a wide introduced range due to its popularity as an ornamental garden tree.

Named after Nikolay Rumyantsev (1754–1826), who was Russia's Foreign Minister and Imperial Chancellor and notable patron of the Russian voyages of exploration. He sponsored the first Russian circumnavigation of the globe.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

The queen palm is found in most tropical and subtropical areas. It is very popular as an ornamental tree and much used in urban landscaping. However, the fronds die early and must be pruned to keep the tree visually pleasing. Its leaves and inflorescences are used as cattle fodder, especially for milking cows. Its fruits are edible, being sought by birds, as well as by mammals, including some wild canids, such as the pampas fox[6] and the crab-eating fox.[7] The fruits consist of a hard nut surrounded with a thin layer of fibrous flesh that is orange and sticky when ripe. The flavor is sweet and could be described as a mixture of plum and banana.


As an invasive species[edit]

The queen palm is reportedly naturalized in Florida, Australia (Queensland and New South Wales), Honduras, and the Island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean.[2] In some areas is known for attracting pests and in some regions it has been classified as a noxious weed.[8][9]

In the Australian state of Queensland it has become invasive to the point that it is now restricted by the Department of Primary Industries and most local councils.[10][11]

In the United States state of Florida the palm has spread to an extent that it is classified as a category II invasive species.[12]

The bases of the pruned fronds remain on the tree for several months and are an ideal breeding place for snails and caterpillars.


  1. ^ "Syagrus romanzoffiana". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-03-16. 
  2. ^ a b c Kew World Checklist for Selected Plant Families, Syagrus romanzoffiana
  3. ^ "Syagrus romanzoffiana". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  4. ^ Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
  5. ^ Gunn, Bee F. (2004). "Phylogeny of Cocoeae (Arecaceae)...etc". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 91 (3): 509. JSTOR 3298627. 
  6. ^ BACKES, Paulo & IRGANG, Bruno,Mata Atlântica: as árvores e a paisagem, Porto Alegre, Paisagem do Sul, 2004, pg.133
  7. ^ ROCHA, Vlamir, REIS, Nelio R dos & SEKIAMA, Margareth l.- "[ Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnívora, Canidae), em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil].
  8. ^ Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean). Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
  9. ^ Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
  10. ^ Cocos or Queen palm Fact Sheet, Queensland Government, February 2013.
  11. ^ Dowe, J.L. (2010). Australian palms: biogeography, ecology and systematics: 1-290. CSIRO Publishing.
  12. ^ ENH-767/ST609: Syagrus romanzoffiana: Queen Palm

External links[edit]