Gonzalo Queipo de Llano
|Gonzalo Queipo de Llano|
5 February 1875|
Tordesillas, Castilla y León, Kingdom of Spain
|Died||9 March 1951
Seville, Andalucia, Francoist Spain
|Buried at||La Macarena Basilica, Seville ( )|
|Allegiance|| Kingdom of Spain (1896–1931)
Spanish Republic (1931–1936)
Francoist Spain (1936–1951)
|Years of service||1896–1939|
|Commands held||Nationalist Army of the South
Captain General of Andalusia
Captain General of Madrid
Spanish Civil War
|Awards||Laureate Cross of Saint Ferdinand (Grand Cross)
Order of Military Merit (Grand Cross)
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra, 1st Marquis of Queipo de Llano (5 February 1875 – 9 March 1951) was a Spanish military leader who rose to prominence during Francisco Franco's coup d'état and the subsequent Spanish Civil War.
A career Army man, de Llano was a brigadier general in 1923 when he began to speak out against the army and Miguel Primo de Rivera. Demoted, he served three years in prison but refused to stop criticizing even on his release, as a result of which he was dismissed altogether in 1928. In 1930, he became a revolutionary but on a failed attempt to overthrow King Alfonso XIII, he fled to Portugal. He returned to his native land in 1931 after the departure of Alfonso XIII and assumed command of the 1st Military District of the Spanish Republican Army. He was later appointed by Niceto Alcalá Zamora to the Chief of the military staff of the President (Queipo's daughter was married to a son of Alcalá Zamora). Even as he rose in prominence, he remained critical of the shifting governments, joining in on a plot to overthrow the Popular Front government in May, 1936.
During the Spanish Civil War, de Llano secured the capture of Seville with a force of at least 4,000 troops. There, he ordered mass killings. Subsequently, he was appointed the commander of the Nationalist Army of the South. His influence began to decline in February 1938, when Francisco Franco named himself Sole Head of the New State and appointed his brother-in-law Ramón Serrano Súñer Minister of the Interior and Propaganda.
- Jackson, Gabriel. The Spanish Republic and the Spanish Civil War, 1931–1939. Princeton University Press. Princeton. 1967. p. 225.
- Preston, Paul. The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution and Revenge. Harper Perennial. London. 2006. p. 106.
- Preston, Paul. 2012. The Spanish Holocaust. Harper Press. London. p. 330–331.
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- Stanley G. Payne (1970). The Spanish Revolution. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-00124-8.
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- Stanley G. Payne, (1999). Fascism in Spain, 1923–1977. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-16564-7.
- Stanley G. Payne, (2008). Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany, and World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12282-4.
- Paul Preston. The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution and Revenge. Harper Perennial. London. (2006). ISBN 0-393-32987-9 / 0-393-32987-9 ISBN 978-0-393-32987-2.
- Paul Preston (2012). The Spanish Holocaust. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. (2012), ISBN 9780393064766.
- Ronald Radosh; Mary Habeck, Grigory Sevostianov (2001). Spain Betrayed: The Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War with Mary R. Habeck and Grigorii Nikolaevich Sevostianov. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08981-3. OCLC 186413320
- Rúben Emanuel Serém (2012). Conspiracy, Coup d'État and Civil War in Seville (1936–1939): History and Myth in Francoist Spain (PDF). PhD dissertation. London: LSE.
- Hugh Thomas. The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. 2003, 4th edition. (1961, 1987, 2003). London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-101161-0. OCLC 248799351.
|New creation||Count of Queipo de Llano
1 April 1950 – 9 March 1951
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Martí