The front facade of the Queluz National Palace, with one of the ornate fountains
|Refers to the urbanized portions of the parishes of Massamá, Monte Abraão and Queluz only|
|Time zone||WET (UTC0)|
|• Summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|Postal Zone||(+351) 21X XXX XXX|
|ISO 3166 code||PT|
Queluz (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɛˈluʃ]) is a city located in the municipality of Sintra, in the Greater Lisbon Area of Portugal. It is formed from the urbanized areas of the civil parishes of Massamá, Monte Abraão and Queluz, but also influences the development of surrounding parishes, such as Almargem do Bispo, Belas, Barcarena and Casal de Cambra. With an urban population of 78,273 inhabitants, it is one of the countries top ten urban agglomerations, and classified on 24 July 1997, under Decree-Law No 88/97, as a city.
The origin of the name Queluz has been disputed over time. The prevailing thesis, by David Lim and José Pedro Machado, suggests that the name had its origin in the Arabic terms câ (for tight valley) and Llûs (meaning almond), affirming the suggestion that it was in the The Valley of the Almond Tree. However, another suggestion, has it as forming from the Mountain of Light, Monte Abraão (the Mount of Abraham), where worship of the sun was common.
Human occupation of theis area dates back to the Late Neolithic or early Chalcolithic (between the third and fourth millennium B.C.), owing to the number of Neolithic monuments and vestiges from abandoned settlements unearthed by archeologists. These earliest date established to this settlement was 4200 B.C., followed by comparable settlements in 2000 B.C. (in what today is the civil parish of Massamá).
In the year 1147, when Afonso I of Portugal forces conquered the city of Lisbon, a similar campaign within the Sintra mountains effectively captures the heath of Queluz, bringing the lands under Christian control.
From the first century, until the 18th century, the region was occupied by homes, farms and estates established by the clergy and/or nobility. Throughout most of the 18th century, the town was the residence of the Portuguese Crown, attracting the nobility to the Queluz National Palace
Crossed by Jamor river, the city is interspersed by various parks, with three in distact: two in the civil parish of Queluz and the other in Massamá:
- Forest of Queluz (Portuguese: Matinha de Queluz), a small enclosed, isolated wooded area, it covers 21 hectares, and sustained due to its public use, ecological wealth and as a relic of vegetation climate;
- Park of Salgueiro Maia (Portuguese: Parque de Salgueiro Maia), a small one-hectare park, opened from 9:30 in the morning to early evening, 8:00 p-m, with manicured lawns, an amphitheatre and a playground, that is also used for sport.
- Park of Felício Loureiro (Portuguese: Parque de Felício Loureiro), another emblematic park, fairly wooded and equipped for recreation, leisure and exercise. It is divided into two zones: the first extends along the river Jamor and includes the a sculpture of José Pedro Croft; while the second zone includes an exercise circuit, as well as manicured grassy areas used for recreation and leisure.
Queluz has a micro-climate that is classified as an Upper Thermo-Mediterranean sub-humid type, with average annual precipitation of 825 millimetres (32.5 in).
With three train stations (Monte Abrão, Barcarena-Massamá and Queluz-Belas), Queluz falls within the Sintra-Lisbon corridor, with connections to Amadora and Sintra.
Taxi services within Queluz, handled from the centralized "taxi squares" and services achieved from telephone services.
Between July and August is a free fair outside the D. Maria Pousada that recreates the golden age of the Queluz National Palace. The Seventeenth Fair recreates the reign of Queen Mary I of Portugal, and transports visitors back into a period where artisans and merchants produced arts and crafts. Choral concerts are also common to Sunday afternoons at Queluz National Palace, owing to the three choirs in the city.
Similarly, the Monte Abraão Fair (held every Saturday in the Rua Cidade Desportiva) is the biggest in Queluz, allowing the sale of clothes, handicrafts, fruits and vegetables, flowers and implements.
- Peter IV of Portugal (12 October 1798, Queluz – 24 September 1834, Queluz), son of John VI of Portugal and Carlota Joaquina of Spain, he became King Peter IV of Portugal, before abdicating in favour of his daughter Maria da Gloria; he became the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil, before abdicating this title in favour of his son, returning to Portugal to reclaim the throne for his daughter in the Liberal Wars;
- Miguel I of Portugal (26 October 1802, Queluz – 14 November 1866, Bronnbach, Grand Duchy of Baden), was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and second son of King John VI and his queen, Charlotte of Spain, he was a rebellious youth, who eventually seized the throne from his niece, Maria I of Portugal, inspiring the Liberal Wars with his brother Peter IV of Portugal;
- António José Enes (15 August 1848, Lisbon – 6 August 1901, Queluz), journalist, dramatist, librarian, government minister, colonial administrator and diplomat, who worked for several newspapers/magazines, eventually writing the controversial, anti-clerical drama "Os Lazaristas", and defended the concept of a "United States of Europe", fearing that Portugal would be absorbed by Spain;
- Alberto Pimentel was born in Porto in 1849 and died in Queluz in 1925. He wrote about 200 works of literature and lived with Eça de Queiroz and Ramalho Ortigão. Alberto Pimentel, prose writer of merit, has spent the last years in isolation from his library, surrounded by memorabilia in Queluz, where he died.
- João de Pinho e Cruz Born in 1874 and this was a known doctor in the town of Queluz. He has clinical Almargem Bishop and Queluz, where he resided. It was the only councilman elected by regionalist to officiate in 1925. Former vice chairman of the Senate Hall.
- Manuel Vilela Fernandes de Barros Born in 1875. He lived in Queluz and owned a pharmacy. He was assistant to the registrar, director of the Lusitano College and for some years and third substitute of the judge in the county. He joined the lists of the Portuguese Republican Party in 1919 and 1922. Three years later joined the lists of the Democratic Left. Played in the House of Sintra the positions of member of the Executive Board of Aldermen and deputy executive chief.
- João Baptista Cosiglièri Pedroso Gomes da Silva (Cosiglièri Pedroso) Born in 1883, owned and resided in Queluz. Was a substitute for the prosecutor. In 1925, joining the list of "Left" was elected to the General Prosecutor of the District. He was also Chairman of the Executive Committee (1919) and to the General Prosecutor of the District (1925).
- José Stuart Carvalhais Born in Vila Real, in 1887, lived most of his life on the street Conde Almeida Araujo in Queluz. He was a painter and caricaturist, his work being closely linked to Queluz. His son, told the Jornal de Queluz, said: "To Stuart, Queluz was his refuge, the nostalgia of his childhood transmontana, his love for Nature. The most important point—for him—was the Garden, perhaps because substantiate everything rather than deeply loved."
- Mário Pinto He lived in the city of Queluz for over 40 years. Born in 1926 and began his career as a photographer in 1940. Participated in more than 1,200 international exhibitions around 3,000 cm photographic work accepted. In 1965, Mário Pinto presented an exhibition of his photographs at the Palace of the 2nd Marquis of Pombal, in Queluz. Mário Pinto was celebrating his 25-year career.
- Ruy Belo Ruy Belo was born in Rio Maior in 1933 and died on Monte Abraão in 1978. Was a translator of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Montesquieu and Jose Luis Borges and this is one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. The city of Queluz honored the poet to give his name to a school of Mount Abraham, where he lived for over forty years.
- Alberto Neto Padre Alberto Neto was ordained priest on August 15, 1957. It was known as Padre Alberto and was a pioneer of modern Catholic Portuguese. He was pastor of Fine from 1979 to 1982 and 1984 he was pastor at Rio de Mouro. Before his death he taught at the Lycée de Queluz, now School Padre Alberto Neto.
- Nuno Pires Soares (ed.), Uma População que se Urbaniza (Census of 2001) (PDF) (in Portuguese), Lisbon, Portugal: Instituto Geográfico Português
- Decrete Lei Nº.88/97 (PDF), Lisbon, Portugal: Diário da República, 24 July 1997, retrieved 12 October 2012
- "Projecto de Lei nº 229/VII: Elevação de Queluz à categoria de cidade" (in Portuguese). PCP. Retrieved 6 January 2009.
- In winter the park is closed at around 6:00 p.m.
- Green Plan of the Municipality of Sintra Archived August 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Law Project nº 229/VII
- Cidade de Queluz