Quercus infectoria

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Aleppo oak
Quercus infectoria.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
Subgenus: Quercus subg. Quercus
Section: Quercus sect. Quercus
Species:
Q. infectoria
Binomial name
Quercus infectoria
Oliv. 1801
Synonyms[1][2]
List
  • Quercus carpinea Kotschy ex A.DC.
  • Quercus grosseserrata Kotschy ex Wenz.
  • Quercus puberula O.Schwarz
  • Quercus thirkeana K.Koch
  • Quercus amblyoprion Woronow ex Maleev
  • Quercus araxina (Trautv.) Grossh.
  • Quercus boissieri Reut.
  • Quercus goedelii Balansa & Kotschy ex A.DC.
  • Quercus inermis Ehrenb. ex Kotschy
  • Quercus microphylla J.Thiébaut 1948 not Née 1801
  • Quercus petiolaris Boiss. & Heldr. 1853 not Benth. 1840
  • Quercus pfaeffingeri Kotschy
  • Quercus polycarpos Kotschy ex A.DC.
  • Quercus syriaca Kotschy
  • Quercus tauricola Kotschy
  • Quercus tenuicola Boiss.
  • Quercus veneris A.Kern.
  • Quercus woronowii Maleev

Quercus infectoria or the Aleppo oak is a species of oak well known for producing galls (called manjakani in Malaysia, majuphal in India) that have been traditionally used for centuries in Asia medicinally while also used in softening leather and in making black dye and ink.[3]

Description[edit]

Quercus infectoria is a small tree, growing to 1 to 2 metres (4 to 6 feet) in height.[citation needed] The stems are crooked, shrubby looking with smooth and bright-green leaves borne on short petioles of 3–4 centimetres (1+141+12 inches) long. The leaves are bluntly mucronate, rounded, smooth, unequal at the base and shiny on the upper side.

The galls arise on young branches of the tree when gall wasps[4] sting the oak tree and deposit their larvae. The chemical reaction causes an abnormality in the tree, causing hard balls to be formed. They are corrugated in appearance.

Gall chemistry[edit]

The galls from Quercus infectoria contain the highest naturally occurring level of tannin, approximately 50–70%,[5] as well as syringic acid, β-sitosterol, amentoflavone, hexamethyl ether, isocryptomerin, methyl betulate, methyl oleanate and hexagalloyl glucose.[6][7][5][8] They also contain 2–4% each of gallic and ellagic acid that are polymerized to make tannins.[9][10][11] Tannins have been used for hundreds of years for medical purposes and are currently indispensable in dermatology[12] and have been used for tanning of leather.

Tannins[edit]

Tannins comprise a large group of natural products widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They have a great structural diversity, but are usually divided into two basic groups: the hydrolyzable type and the condensed type. Hydrolyzable tannins include the commonly occurring gallic and ellagic acid contained in the nut galls.

Hydrolyzable tannins are present in many different plant species but are found in particularly high concentrations in nut galls growing on Rhus semialata (Chinese and Korean gallotannins) and Quercus infectoria (Turkish and Chinese gallotannins), the seedpods of Caesalpinia spinosa (Tara tannins), and the fruits of Terminalia chebula. The gallic and ellagic acid hydrolyzable tannins react with proteins to produce typical tanning effects; medicinally, this is important to topically treat inflamed or ulcerated tissues. They also contribute to most of the astringent property of manjakani and in small insignificant doses, are great for skin whitening and killing microorganisms.

Although both types of tannin have been used to treat diseases in traditional medicine, the hydrolyzable tannins have long been considered official medicinal agents in Europe and North America. They have been included in many pharmacopoeias, in the older editions in particular, and are specifically referred to as tannic acid. These were recommended for treatment of inflammation and ulceration, including topical application for skin diseases and internal use for intestinal ulceration and diarrhea. In China, tannin-containing substances, such as galls, pomegranate rinds, and terminalia fruits, are used in several medicinal preparations.

Distribution[edit]

Quercus infectoria is indigenous to parts of southern Europe (Greece and the East Aegean Islands) and the Middle East (Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, Israel and Jordan).[13]

Pharmacology[edit]

The galls of Quercus infectoria have also been pharmacologically documented to possess astringent, antidiabetic,[14] antitremorine, local anaesthetic,[15] antiviral,[16] antibacterial,[17] antifungal,[18] larvicidal[19] and anti-inflammatory[20] activities. The main constituents found in the galls of Quercus infectoria are tannin (50-70%) and small amount of free gallic acid and ellagic acid.[21][22][23]

The wide range of pharmacological activities of this plant might support the efficacy of extract preparation of Quercus infectoria that are widely used in Malaysia for treating many kinds of health problems since many decades ago. The nutgalls have been pharmacologically documented on their antiamoebic,[24] anticariogenic[25] and anti-inflammatory[26] activities, to treat skin infections and gastrointestinal disorders.[27][28][29][30]

Uses[edit]

Quercus infectoria can be used as a thickener in stews or mixed with cereals for making bread.[31]

Also known as Majuphal in Indian traditional medicine, manjakani has been used as dental powder and in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis.[32][33]

The so-called "Aleppo tannin" is Tannic acid gained from Aleppo oak galls, which displays unique chemical properties essential in the preparation of gold sols (colloids) used as markers in Immunocytochemistry.[34] [35]

Nowadays, gallnut extracts are also widely used in pharmaceuticals, food and feed additives, dyes, inks, and metallurgy.

Galls[edit]

Gall nut extracts are widely used in pharmaceuticals, medical laboratory techniques as well as inks which use "Aleppo tannin",[36] food and feed additives, dyes, and metallurgy.

Tanning[edit]

Tannin, a substance contained in the galls of the Quercus infectoria, has been used for centuries for the tanning of leather.

Medical laboratory techniques[edit]

The so-called "Aleppo tannin" is tannic acid gained from Aleppo pine galls, which displays unique chemical properties essential in the preparation of gold sols (colloids) used as markers in immunocytochemistry.[37] [38]

Teeth and gum remedy[edit]

Also known as majuphal in Indian traditional medicine, manjakani has been used as dental powder and in the treatment of toothache and gingivitis.[39][40]

Uterine and vaginal therapy[edit]

The galls, locally known as manjakani in Malaysia, are used in combination with other herbs as drinking remedies by women after childbirth to restore the elasticity of the uterine wall, and in many vaginal tightening products.[41] The extract of manjakani was claimed by the Malay Kelantanese to be highly beneficial for postpartum women. Hazardous effects of the extract were not reported so far. In addition, the Arabs, Persians, Indians, Malays and Chinese have traditionally used the galls after childbirth to treat vaginal discharge and related postpartum infections.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Quercus infectoria G.Olivier". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ "Quercus infectoria Olivier". Tropicos. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  3. ^ Kottakkal AVS (1995). The Indian Medicinal Plants.
  4. ^ Muhamad Z; Mustafa AM (1994). Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd.
  5. ^ a b Dar MS; Ikram M (1979). "Studies on Quercus infectoria; isolation of syringic acid and determination of its central depressive activity". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 35 (2): 156–161. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097197. PMID 419182.
  6. ^ Dar MS; Ikram M (1979). "Studies on Quercus infectoria; isolation of syringic acid and determination of its central depressive activity". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 35 (2): 156–61. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097197. PMID 419182.
  7. ^ Hwang JK; Kong TW; Baek NI; Pyun YR (2000). alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med.
  8. ^ Hwang JK; Kong TW; Baek NI; Pyun YR (2000). alpha-Glycosidase inhibitory activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med.
  9. ^ Ikram M; Nowshad F (1997). "Constituents of Quercus infectoria". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 31 (3): 286–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097531. PMID 866492.PubMed
  10. ^ Evans WC (1996). Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin. London: WB Saunders Co. Ltd.
  11. ^ Wiart C; Kumar A (2001). Practical Handbook of Pharmacognosy. Malaysia: Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
  12. ^ Regina Fölster-Holst M.D.; Eva Latussek Ph.D.2 (2007). "Synthetic Tannins in Dermatology — A Therapeutic Option in a Variety of Pediatric Dermatoses". Pediatric Dermatology. Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel. 24 (3): 296–301. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2007.00406.x. PMID 17542884.
  13. ^ T. K. Lim 2012. Quercus infectoria. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants, pages 16-26
  14. ^ Hwang JK; Kong TW; Baek NI; Pyun YR (2000). α-Glycosidase Inhibitory Activity of hexagalloylglucose from the galls of Quercus infectoria. Planta Med.PubMed
  15. ^ Dar MS; Ikram M; Fakouhi T (1976). "Pharmacology of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. J Pharm Sci. 65 (12): 1791–4. doi:10.1002/jps.2600651224. PMID 1032663.PubMedPubMed
  16. ^ Hussein G; Miyashiro H; Nakamura N; Hattori M; Kakiuchi N; Shimotohno K (2000). Inhibitory effects of Sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus protease. Phytother Res. doi:10.1002/1099-1573(200011)14:7<510::AID-PTR646>3.0.CO;2-B.
  17. ^ Fatima S; Farooqi AHA; Kumar R; Kumar TRS; Khanuja SPS (2001). Antibacterial activity possessed by medicinal plants used in tooth powders. J Med Aromatic Plant Sci.
  18. ^ Digraki M; Alma MH; Ilcim A; Sen S (1999). Antibacterial and antifungal effects of various commercial plant extracts. Pharm Biol.
  19. ^ Redwane A; Lazrek HB; Bouallam S; Markouk M; Amarouch H; Jana M (2002). Larvicidal activity of extracts from Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.). J Ethnopharmacol.PubMedFull Text
  20. ^ Kaur G; Hamid H; Ali A; Alam MS; Athar M (2004). "Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 90 (2–3): 285–92. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.009. PMID 15013194.PubMedFull Text
  21. ^ Ikram M; Nowshad F (1997). "Constituents of Quercus infectoria". Planta Medica. Planta Med. 31 (3): 286–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1097531. PMID 866492.PubMed
  22. ^ Evans WC (1996). Pharmacopoeial and related drugs of biological origin. London: WB Saunders Co. Ltd.
  23. ^ Wiart C; Kumar A (2001). Practical Handbook of Pharmacognosy. Malaysia: Pearson Education Malaysia Sdn Bhd.
  24. ^ Sawangjaroen; Sawangjaroen K; Poonpanang P.; et al. (2004). "Effects of Piper longum fruit, Piper sarmentosum root and Quercus infectoria nut gall on caecal amoebiasis in mice". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 91 (2–3): 357–60. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.01.014. PMID 15120461.PubMed
  25. ^ Kaur G; Hamid H; Ali A; Alam MS; Athar M (2004). "Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 90 (2–3): 285–92. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.009. PMID 15013194.PubMed
  26. ^ Kaur G; Alam MS; Athar M (2007). "Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages". Chemico-Biological Interactions. Chem Biol Interact. 171 (3): 272–82. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2007.10.002. PMID 18076871.PubMed
  27. ^ Kaur G; Alam MS; Athar M (2007). "Quercus infectoria galls possess antioxidant activity and abrogates oxidative stress-induced functional alterations in murine macrophages". Chemico-Biological Interactions. Chem Biol Interact. 171 (3): 272–82. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2007.10.002. PMID 18076871.PubMed
  28. ^ Kaur G; Hamid H; Ali A; Alam MS; Athar M (2004). "Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 90 (2–3): 285–92. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.009. PMID 15013194.PubMed
  29. ^ Dayang F.B.; Hikmah M.I.; Mastura M. (2005). An alternative phytotherapeutic agent for treatment of hospital-acquired MRSA infections. J Med Sci.
  30. ^ Voravuthikunchai; S.P.; Limsuwan; S. and Chusri (2007). New perspectives on herbal medicines for treating bacterial infections. Houxton: Studium Press.
  31. ^ Stashia Eleaness; Rosland Abel (2013). "1". In Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (ed.). The extraction of essential oil from Quercus infectoria (Manjakani) galls using supercritical carbon dioxide pressure swing technique. Faculty of Chemical Engineering.
  32. ^ Kottakkal AVS. (1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Orient Longman Ltd.
  33. ^ Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer Publishers.
  34. ^ Frank Mayer (1988). Electron Microscopy in Microbiology. Vol. 20. London: Academic Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780080860497. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  35. ^ Gareth Griffiths (1993). Fine Structure Immunocytochemistry. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-642-77097-5.
  36. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Aleppo oak |accessdate=17 May 2015
  37. ^ Frank Mayer (1988). Electron Microscopy in Microbiology. Vol. 20. London: Academic Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780080860497. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  38. ^ Gareth Griffiths (1993). Fine Structure Immunocytochemistry. Berlin & Heidelberg: Springer. p. 185. ISBN 978-3-642-77097-5.
  39. ^ Kottakkal AVS. (1995). Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Orient Longman Ltd.
  40. ^ Bhattacharjee SK. (2001). Handbook of Medicinal Plants. India: Pointer Publishers.
  41. ^ Muhamad Z; Mustafa AM (1994). Traditional Malay Medicinal Plants. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd.

External links[edit]