Quiet eye

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Quiet eye is a technique reported to improve outcomes in various tasks requiring human visual attention.[1] It has been the subject of several articles in journalistic periodicals,[2][3][4] and of scientific studies that evaluate it in relation to activities such as sports and surgical training.[5][6][7]

[Quiet-eye theory] is deceptively simple: Before you perform an action, you focus your gaze on the salient aspects of your goal—the rim, the catcher’s mitt, the malignant tissue, and so on. In recent years, using eye-tracking technology, researchers have found that locking onto the relevant stimulus during the right time frame—typically the few hundred milliseconds before, during and after the movement—greatly improves your chances of success.

— David Kohn, The Atlantic (What Athletes See)[1]

History[edit]

Professor Joan Vickers is credited as the originator of quiet eye theory,[1][3] and has been working on the topic since the early 1980s.[4]

Applications and mechanism[edit]

Quiet eye theory can be used both to predict performance,[4] and sometimes, as quiet eye training, as a means to improve performance.[2][7]

Quiet eye training is hypothesised to work by improving attentional control, allowing greater cognitive effort to be devoted to the principal task and as such improving motor learning and the robustness of motor skills under pressure.[8][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kohn, David (2015-11-18). "What Athletes See". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  2. ^ a b Britten, Nick (2010-07-13). "'Quiet Eye' technique can greatly improve putting, scientists claim". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  3. ^ a b Wallace, Charles (2014-06-16). "The 'quiet eye' aids elite golfers to focus on putting". Financial Times. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  4. ^ a b c Clothier, Julie (2005-03-21). "'Quiet Eye' helps elite athletes". CNN. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  5. ^ Vine, Samuel J.; Moore, Lee J.; Wilson, Mark R. (2011-01-28). "Quiet Eye Training Facilitates Competitive Putting Performance in Elite Golfers". Frontiers in Psychology. 2 (8). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00008. PMC 3111367.
  6. ^ Wood, Greg; Wilson, Mark R. (2012). "Quiet-eye training, perceived control and performing under pressure". Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 13 (6): 721–728. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.05.003. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  7. ^ a b Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N. (2014). "Quiet eye training improves surgical knot tying more than traditional technical training: a randomized controlled study". The American Journal of Surgery. 208 (2): 171–177. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2013.12.042. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  8. ^ Behan, Michael; Wilson, Mark (2008-05-20). "State anxiety and visual attention: The role of the quiet eye period in aiming to a far target". Journal of Sports Sciences. 26 (2): 207–215. doi:10.1080/02640410701446919. Retrieved 2017-07-17.
  9. ^ Gonzalez, C. C.; Causer, J.; Miall, R. C.; Grey, M. J.; Humphreys, G.; Williams, A. M. (2015-09-10). "Identifying the causal mechanisms of the quiet eye" (PDF). European Journal of Sport Science. doi:10.1080/17461391.2015.1075595. Retrieved 2017-07-17.