Quino

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Quino
Quino (13331254273) (cropped).jpg
Quino in 2014
BornJoaquín Salvador Lavado Tejón
(1932-07-17)17 July 1932
Mendoza, Argentina
Died30 September 2020(2020-09-30) (aged 88)
Mendoza, Argentina
NationalityArgentine, Spanish
Area(s)Cartoonist
Pseudonym(s)Quino
Notable works
Mafalda
Signature
Signature of Quino

Joaquín Salvador Lavado Tejón, better known by his pen name Quino (Spanish: [ˈkino]; 17 July 1932 – 30 September 2020), was an Argentine-Spanish cartoonist. His comic strip Mafalda (which ran from 1964 to 1973) is popular in many parts of the Americas and Europe and has been praised for its use of social satire as a commentary on real-life issues.[1]

Early life[edit]

Joaquín Salvador Lavado Tejón was born in Mendoza, Argentina, on 17 July 1932 to emigrant Andalusian parents from Fuengirola, Málaga. Because of their limited social circle, he spoke with an Andalusian accent until the age of six. He retained an affection for his parents' Spanish culture and flamenco into his later years. He obtained Spanish citizenship in 1990 and remained a dual citizen of Spain and Argentina.[2][3]

He was called "Quino" from his childhood on, to distinguish him from his uncle, the illustrator Joaquín, who helped to awaken his vocation of cartooning at an early age.[4] In 1945, after the death of his mother, he enrolled and started his studies at Escuela de Bellas Artes de Mendoza.[5] Shortly after, his father died in 1948 when Quino was 16 years old. A year later he abandoned his studies, with the intent to become a cartoonist. Soon he would sell his first illustration, an advertisement for a fabric store.[6]

His first humor page was published in the weekly magazine, Esto Es,[7] which led to the publication of other works in many other magazines: Leoplán, TV Guía, Vea y Lea, Damas y Damitas, Usted, Panorama, Adán, Atlántida, Che, the daily Democracia, etc.[8] In 1954, his cartoons became regulars in Rico Tipo, Tía Vicenta, and Dr. Merengue.[3][9]

Career[edit]

Mafalda[edit]

Statue of Mafalda in the "Paseo de la Historieta", Buenos Aires

His first compilation book, Mundo Quino, was published in 1963. At the same time he was developing pages for an advertising campaign for Mansfield, an electrical household appliance company, for which he created the character of Mafalda, basing her name on the same sounds as in the Mansfield brand name.[2][3] The advertising campaign never was executed, which led to the publication of Mafalda’s first story in Leoplán. Subsequently, it appeared regularly in the weekly magazine Primera Plana,[10] since the director of the magazine was a friend of Quino. Between 1965 and 1967 it was published in the newspaper El Mundo; soon after the first compilation book was released, it began to be published in Italy, Spain (where, on account of Franco-era censorship, it was tagged as “for adults only”), Portugal, and many other countries.[11][12] It was also translated to 12 languages.

Mafalda was created as an irreverent and non-conformist six-year-old who hated fascism, militarism and soup, and loved the Beatles. The character attempted to reflect the world of adults as seen through the eyes of a smart child.[13][14] Her friends reflected different personalities like the insecure but studious Felipe, the gossip-girl Susanita, the sturdy but dim-witted Manolito, the naive Miguelito, the rebel and witty Libertad and Mafalda’s baby brother Guille. The character and the series has been compared to Charles M. Schulz's Peanuts comic series.[15]

Quino abandoned the story of Mafalda on 25 June 1973, claiming that he wanted to avoid repeating himself; in later years, however, he said that the changing political landscape in Latin America had also influenced his decision: "If I had continued drawing her, they would have shot me."[13][16] Following the 1976 coup d'état in Argentina, he moved to Milan, Italy, where he continued to create humor pages.[13][17] Although he never returned to Mafalda and her friends in a comic strip format, he did use the character at certain specific moments: to explain the Organic Law on the Right to Education (LODE) on a commission from the Spanish government in 1986,[2] for a COVID-19 awareness campaign in 2020,[18] and, in 1977, to illustrate the Declaration of the Rights of the Child for UNICEF.[19][20] Argentine producer Daniel Mallo converted 260 Mafalda strips into a TV show in 1965.[21]

In 2008, at the initiative of the Museo del Dibujo y la Ilustración, the company Subterráneos de Buenos Aires created a mural of Mafalda in the Perú metro station at the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires.[22] In 2009, Quino participated with an original Mafalda work, created for El Mundo, in the Bicentennial: 200 years of Graphic Humor that the Museo del Dibujo y la Ilustración held at the Eduardo Sívori Museum of Buenos Aires.[3]

Later works[edit]

Quino in 2004

While Mafalda continued to be used for human rights campaigns in Argentina and abroad, Quino dedicated himself to writing other editorial-style comics. The comics were published in Argentina and abroad. Since 1982, the Argentine newspaper Clarín has published his cartoons weekly.[23]

After a visit with Cuban cartoon director Juan Padrón, the two produced a series of cartoons. Between 1986 and 1988, they made six Quinoscopio cartoons through the Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industrias Cinematográficos, none of which were longer than six minutes.[24] In addition, the pair worked on 104 short Mafalda cartoons in 1994. Quino eventually retired in 2006.[3] While Mafalda concentrated on children and their innocent, realistic view of the world, his later comics featured ordinary people with ordinary feelings.[25] The humor is characteristically cynical, often poking fun at real-life situations, such as marriage, technology, authority, and food. This cynical humor is attributed as one of the reasons for his success throughout Latin America and much of the world outside Latin America.[13][25] His cartoons of aporteñado Argentine topic of the 1960s and 1970s have been edited and translated into 26 different languages apart from the original Rioplatense Spanish.[13][26] Collected in numerous volumes by Argentine publisher Ediciones de la Flor, these comics are readily available.[27]

Personal life[edit]

Quino married Alicia Colombo in 1960. The couple never had children.[9] He and his wife lived in exile in Milan starting in 1976, before returning to Argentina seven years later when the military dictatorship came to an end. He subsequently divided his time between Buenos Aires, Madrid, and Milan.[13] He was an agnostic.[28] In 2017, degenerative glaucoma left him nearly blind.[29] [30]

Collections[edit]

A portion of Quino's work resides at Vanderbilt University's Special Collections Library, as part of their Eduardo Rosenzvaig collection.[31]

Awards and honors[edit]

The kind of ideas that he works with are of the most difficult, and I am amazed at their variety and depth. Also, he knows how to draw, and to draw in a funny way. I think that he is a giant.[32]

Quino won many international awards and honors throughout his career. In 1982, Quino was chosen Cartoonist of the Year by fellow cartoonists around the world, and twice, he won the Konex Platinum Award for Visual Arts.[33] In 1988, he was named an Illustrious Citizen of Mendoza.[34] In 2000 he received the second Quevedos Ibero-American Prize for Graphic Humor.[35] In March 2014 he was awarded the French Legion of Honour.[36] Additionally, the Colegiales neighbourhood of Buenos Aires named their plaza Plaza Mafalda.[37]

In May 2014 Quino was presented with the Senator Domingo Faustino Sarmiento cultural award by the Senate of Argentina.[38][39]

In 2014, Quino was awarded the Prince of Asturias award in recognition of his work, 50 years after creating the character of Mafalda.[40] He received the prize from King Felipe VI of Spain on 24 October 2014 at a ceremony in Oviedo, Spain.[41]

An asteroid discovered in January 1999 was named 27178 Quino after him.[42][43]

Death[edit]

Quino died on 30 September 2020 from a stroke, at the age of 88.[3][44][45][46]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Knudde, Kjell (30 September 2020). "Quino". Lambiek. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Grijelmo, Álex (30 September 2020). "Muere Quino, creador de Mafalda y el dibujante más internacional del idioma español". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Mercedes, Milligan (30 September 2020). "'Mafalda' Creator Quino Dies Aged 88". Animation Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  4. ^ Mitchell, Damon (30 September 2020). "Argentine cartoonist and creator of 'Mafalda' has sadly died". Euro Weekly News Spain. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  5. ^ "Quino: 'Leo chistes que dibujé hace 30 años que siguen de actualidad' | Andalucía". Elmundo.es. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  6. ^ Milligan, Mercedes (30 September 2020). "'Mafalda' Creator Quino Dies Aged 88". Animation Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  7. ^ Mur, Robert (30 September 2020). "Muere Quino, el creador de Mafalda". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  8. ^ Visión: la revista latinoamericana. 27. Casa Visión. 1964. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Quino". Silent Satire. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  10. ^ Luciana Palacios. "Mafalda, a 50 years old little girl". The Munich Eye. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  11. ^ "Evita, Gardel, Maradona y...Mafalda | Cultura". El Pais. 13 August 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  12. ^ "Quino, on the Funny Side of Freedom". Archived from the original on 23 June 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link), The UNESCO Courier, interview with Lucía Iglesias Kuntz, June/July 2000, Retrieved 8 June 2009
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Quino, creator of Mafalda comic character, dies aged 88". BBC News. 30 September 2020. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  14. ^ "Argentine creator of Mafalda cartoon strip dies". Bangkokpost. 1 October 2020. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  15. ^ "Argentina's Quino, creator of 'Mafalda' comic, dies". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  16. ^ Paula Arenas (14 April 2014). "Quino: "Si no dejaba de pintar a Mafalda me pegaban un tiro"". Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  17. ^ "Quino, Premio Príncipe de Asturias de Comunicación y Humanidades". Fundación Principesa de Asturias. 21 May 2014.
  18. ^ Abdala, Verónica (4 May 2020). "Cuarentena por coronavirus: diez ilustradores se suman a la campaña para cuidarnos". Clarin (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 31 May 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  19. ^ "Declaración de los derechos del niño". Archivo Museo de la Memoria y los Derechos Humanos.
  20. ^ "Declaración de los Derechos del Niño" Archived 8 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Amnesty International, Retrieved 7 June 2009
  21. ^ Press, Europa (30 September 2020). "Adiós a Quino, el legado del creador de Mafalda en cine y televisión". Cultura Ocio. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  22. ^ "Mafalda y los personajes de Quino llegaron al subte". La Nacion (in Spanish). 20 November 2008. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  23. ^ Boyd, Deborah (2018). Mafalda as a site of refuge : Quino's comic, state repression, and audiences in Argentina since 1964 (Thesis). University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  24. ^ "Juan Padrón". IMDb.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2009.
  25. ^ a b Calatrava, Almundena (30 September 2020). "Argentine cartoonist Quino, creator of 'Mafalda' comic, dies". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  26. ^ Silva, Cynthia (30 September 2020). "Latinos mourn death of Quino, creator of "Mafalda" cartoon". NBC News. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  27. ^ "Muere el creador de Mafalda, el dibujante argentino Quino". Deutsche Welle. 30 September 2020. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020. (in Spanish)
  28. ^ Braceli, Rodolfo (15 July 2016). "Quino: A los argentinos les atrae el fútbol por la misma razón que no les atraen las cosas importantes". Diario Uno. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  29. ^ "Quino, el papá de Mafalda cumple 88 más enérgico que nunca". Efecto Cocuyo. 18 July 2020. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  30. ^ Staff, Forbes (30 September 2020). "Perfil: Quino, el hombre que recorrió el mundo de la mano de Mafalda • Forbes México". Forbes México (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  31. ^ "Collections by Subject | Special Collections | Library | Vanderbilt University". Library.vanderbilt.edu. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  32. ^ "Comica Argentina: A Rich Culture Of Cartoons & Comics". Paul Gravett. 13 June 2001. Archived from the original on 12 December 2019. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  33. ^ Baral, Susmita (22 May 2014). "Quino, Argentine Cartoonist, Receives Spain's 'Prince Of Asturias Award For Communication And Humanities' For Comic 'Mafalda'". Latin Times. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  34. ^ Milligan, Mercedes (30 September 2020). "'Mafalda' Creator Quino Dies Aged 88". Animation Magazine. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  35. ^ "Premio Quevedos 2000: QUINO". Premio Quevedos. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  36. ^ "Bande dessinée. Quino, le père de Mafalda, reçoit la Légion d'honneur". Ouest-france.fr (in French). 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  37. ^ "Con la presencia de Quino, se inauguró la plaza "Mafalda"". Clarin (in Spanish). 21 August 2005. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  38. ^ "El Congreso distingue a Quino | Ministerio de Cultura - Presidencia de la Nación". Cultura.gob.ar (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  39. ^ "Senado Argentina on Twitter: "[FOTO] Quino en el @SenadoArgentina al recibir la Mención de Honor "Senador Domingo Faustino Sarmiento" "". Twitter. 28 May 2014. Archived from the original on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  40. ^ "Mafalda's creator 'Quino' wins Prince of Asturias Award". Buenos Aires Herald. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  41. ^ "Ceremonia de entrega de los Premios 2014 (Photo gallery)". RTVE. 24 October 2014. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  42. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  43. ^ "IAU Minor Planet Center". minorplanetcenter.net. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  44. ^ "Murió Quino, el creador de Mafalda". Pagina 12 (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  45. ^ https://www.latimes.com/obituaries/story/2020-10-02/argentine-cartoonist-quino-mafalda-comic-strip-dies
  46. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/10/05/world/americas/quino-dead.html

External links[edit]