Quintus Tineius Rufus (consul 127)

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Quintus Tineius Rufus , also known as Turnusrufus the Evil in Jewish sources (c. AD 90 – after 131) was a senator and provincial governor under the Roman Empire. He is known for his role unsuccessfully combating the uprising of the Jews under Simon bar Kokhba and Elasar. The Church Fathers and rabbinic literature emphasize his role in provoking the revolt.[1]

His memory varies; in Jewish tradition, Rufus conducted the war against the Jewish people. There is an inscription in his honor in Scythopolis. He was the first of his family to attain high office in Rome; that his son also did implies that he was not blamed for the unsuccessful start of the Roman war against Bar Kochba.


O. Salomies identifies his place of origin as the Etruscan town of Volterra, despite an inscription mentioning Q.Tineius Q.f. Sab. Her[mes] in Nicomedia.[2] Rufus was Legatus Augusti pro praetore of Thracia from 123 to 126,[3] after which he was made Consul suffectus for the nundinium May to September 127.

A few years after he held the fasces, Rufus was appointed consular legate of Judaea; his tenure ends a period of 10 years following Lusius Quietus where little is known of the provincial governors; an Aquila is recorded as governor during those years, but when he governed or his full identity is not clear.[4] Rufus' tenure began in 130 and continued to 133.[5]

Rufus is last recorded in 132; whether he died or was replaced is uncertain. He left a son, Quintus Tineius Sacerdos Clemens, who became Consul in 158 and later one of the pontifices.


  1. ^ William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, The Cambridge History of Judaism: The late Roman-Rabbinic period (Cambridge University Press, 1984), p. 35 ISBN 9780521772488
  2. ^ Salomies, "Die Herkunft der senatorischen Tineii", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 60 (1985), pp. 199-202
  3. ^ Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 13 (1983), pp. 158-163
  4. ^ Werner Eck suggests he may be identical with L. Statius Aquila, suffect consul in 116. (Eck, Senatoren von Vespasan bis Hadrian (München: Beck'sche, 1970), p. 18 n. 88)
  5. ^ Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", pp. 169-173