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Exterior of a quinzhee facing the entrance

A quinzhee or quinzee /ˈkwɪnz/ is a snow shelter made by gathering a large pile of snow and then hollowing it out. This is in contrast to an igloo, which is made from blocks of hard snow. The word is of Athabaskan origin,[1][2] and entered the English language by 1984.[3] A quinzhee can be made for winter camping and survival purposes or for fun.

A similar but more elaborate snow-house is called a lumitalo.

Differences between a quinzhee and an igloo[edit]

An igloo is made by cutting blocks from packed snow and stacking them. A quinzhee is made by making a pile of snow, then hollowing out the inside. Quinzhees typically have an inside height after excavation which allows for sitting or crouching but not standing.

The snow for a quinzhee need not be of the same quality as required for an igloo. Quinzhees are not usually meant as a form of permanent shelter, while igloos can be used for seasonal habitation. The construction of a quinzhee is much easier than the construction of an igloo, although the overall result is somewhat less sturdy and more prone to collapsing in harsh weather conditions. Quinzhees are normally constructed in times of necessity, usually as an instrument of survival, so aesthetic and long-term dwelling considerations are normally exchanged for economy of time and materials.


A quinzhee made in Finland

Quinzhee are typically built on a flat area where snow is in abundance. Builders break up any snowdrifts or naturally formed piles to reduce the risk of collapse due to different amounts of sintering that can occur. Snow is typically piled 6 to 10 feet high in a circle 8 feet in diameter. It is then left for 2 to 8 hours to sinter, allowing the moisture in the different levels of snow to spread among the crystals and the snow crystals to bond. Packing the snow down speeds the bonding process. Many builders insert small sticks of the same length, approximately 10-24 inches (25 cm), into the top of the structure to be used as a guide when digging out the interior. Colder weather calls for thicker walls. According to Halfpenny and Ozane, in general the wall at the base should be at least 12 inches wide and at the top about 8 inches thick. A small air vent for circulation can be poked in the roof.[4]

Much time and effort is used to hollow out the center of a Quinzee, though this can be reduced by building around a hollow structure, such as a makeshift tent or dome. The inside of a shelter can easily rise above freezing point, so to avoid dripping meltwater irregular or bumpy surfaces are often smoothed to direct the flow of water down the walls to gather around the edges.


Quinzhees can collapse from poor snow conditions, warm weather, blowing rain, construction problems (hitting a supporting wall), failure to let the snow sinter long enough, or from people climbing on it. Collapse poses a danger of suffocation.

For safety, one person should be outside the quinzee while another is digging inside. Place a shovel, branch, hiking pole, or such near the head of sleeping person for roof support, to break a falling roof to create an air gap, and/or a tool to dig out. One shovel should be left outside to mark the door and aid rescuers in digging occupants out.


A lumitalo is a more elaborate snow-house or building made out of snow in a manner similar to a quinzhee. The term is Finnish in origin.[5]

The city of Houghton, Michigan, builds a lumitalo as part of its annual Winter Carnival held by Michigan Technological University.[6]

See also[edit]


  • Halfpenny, James C. & Roy Ozanne (1989). Winter: An Ecological Handbook. Boulder, CO: Johnson Books. pp. 230–234. 


  1. ^ Allen & Mike's Really Cool Backcountry Ski Book: Traveling and Camping Skills for a Winter Environment, Allen O'Bannon, illustrations by Mike McClelland, Chockstone Press, 1996, ISBN 1-57540-076-6, pg. 80-86.
  2. ^ Streever, Bill (2009). Cold: Adventures in the World's Frozen Places. New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-316-04291-8. 
  3. ^ "Does English still borrow words from other languages?". BBC News Online. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-05. Some examples that the Oxford English Dictionary suggests entered English during the past 30 years include tarka dal, a creamy Indian lentil dish (1984, from Hindi), quinzhee, a type of snow shelter (1984, from Slave or another language of the Pacific Coast of North America), popiah, a type of Singaporean or Malaysian spring roll (1986, from Malay), izakaya, a type of Japanese bar serving food (1987), affogato, an Italian dessert made of ice cream and coffee (1992). 
  4. ^ Winter: An Ecological Handbook', James C. Halfpenny & Roy Ozanne, Johnson, 1989, p. 230-234
  5. ^ Lumitalo and other Heikinpäivä events Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Keweenaw Peninsula. February 8, 2002.
  6. ^ Houghton's Snow House Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Keweenaw Peninsula. February 8, 2002.

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