Quli Qutb Mulk
|Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk|
|First Sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty|
|1st Sultan of the Qutb Shahi Sultanate of Golconda|
|Successor||Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah|
|Died||2 September 1543 (aged 72–73)|
Hyderabad, Sultanate of Golconda
Qutb Shahi tombs, Hyderabad
|House||Qutb Shahi dynasty|
|Father||Uways Quli Beg|
Quli Qutb Mulk (1470 – 1543), known by the regnal name Quli Qutb Shah (also transliterated in different ways), was the founder of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, which ruled the Sultanate of Golconda in southern India from 1518 to 1687.
Originally named Sultan Quli, he was a Shi'i Turkmen from the city of Hamadan in Persia. He was the son of Uways Quli Beg, of the Qara Qoyunlu dynasty, and Maryam Khanum, a daughter of the Hamadan noble Malik Saleh. Through his father, he was descended from the Turkmen ruler Qara Yusuf twice over; his grandparents, Pir Quli Beg and Khadija Begum, were grandchildren of Qara Yusuf's sons Qara Iskander and Jahan Shah respectively.
Sultan Quli migrated to Delhi with some of his relatives and friends, including his uncle Allah Quli Beg, in the beginning of the 16th century. Later, he travelled south to Deccan and served the Bahmani sultan. Due to his successful leadership in military conflicts, he received the title "Qutb-ul-Mulk".
Establishing the Qutb Shahi Sultanate
Extension of the Sultanate
Quli Qutb Shah was a contemporary of Krishana Deva Raya and his younger brother Achyuta Deva Raya of the Vijayanagara Empire. Quli extended his rule by capturing forts at Warangal, Kondapalli, Eluru, and Rajamundry, while Krishnadevaraya was fighting the ruler of Odisha. He defeated Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan), the ruler of Khammam, and captured the fort. He forced Odisha's ruler Vishwanath Dev Gajapati to surrender all the territories between the mouths of Krishna and Godavari rivers. He was able to occupy Eluru, Rajamundry and Machilipatnam extending his rule to Coastal Andhra. Quli's campaign against Krishnadevaraya continued until Timmarusu, the Prime Minister of Krishnadevaraya, defeated the Golconda army.
Death and succession
In 1543, while he was offering his prayers, Quli Qutb Shah was assassinated by his second son, Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah. Jamsheed also blinded Quli's eldest son and heir, Kutbuddeen, and assumed the throne. His sixth son Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah fled to Vijayanagara. Jamsheed also killed his brother (the third son of Quli Qutb Shah), Abdul Quadeer, who had revolted after their father's death.
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| Qutb Shahi dynasty
Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah