Quli Qutb Mulk

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Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk
The First Sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty
Reign1512–1543
SuccessorJamsheed Quli Qutb Shah
Born1470
Hamadan, Iran
DiedSeptember 2, 1543(1543-09-02) (aged 72–73)
Hyderabad
Burial
Qutb Shahi tombs, Hyderabad
IssueJamsheed Quli Qutb Shah
Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah
HouseQara Qoyunlu
FatherUways Quli Beg
MotherMaryam Khanum

Sultan Quli Qutb Shah (also transliterated in different ways), a Turkmen[1][2][3] from Hamadan in Iran,[4] was the founder of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, which ruled the Sultanate of Golconda in southern India from 1518 to 1687. He died in 1543.[5]

Background[edit]

Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was a descendant of Qara Yusuf via his paternal grandfather (Pir Quli Beg who was grandson of Qara Iskander) and paternal grandmother (Khadija Begum who was granddaughter of Jahanshah). His father was Uways Quli Beg and mother was Maryam Khanum (daughter of Malik Saleh of Hamadan).[6][7] He migrated to Delhi with some of his relatives and friends, including his uncle Allah Quli Beg in the beginning of the 16th century. Later he migrated south to Deccan and served Bahmani sultan.[8]

Setting up Qutb Shahi Sultanate[edit]

Tomb of Sultan Quli Qutb Shah in Hyderabad

After the disintegration of the Bahmani Sultanate into the five Deccan sultanates, he declared independence and took title Qutb Shah, and established Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda.

Extension of Sultanate[edit]

Quli Qutb Shah was a contemporary of Krishana Deva Raya and his younger brother Achyuta Deva Raya of the Vijayanagara empire. Quli extended his rule by capturing forts at Warangal, Kondapalli, Eluru, and Rajamundry, while Krishnadevaraya was busy fighting the ruler of Odisha. He defeated Sitapati Raju (known as Shitab Khan), the ruler of Khammam, and captured the fort. He forced Odisha's ruler to surrender all the territories between the mouths of Krishna and Godavari rivers. He was able to occupy Eluru, Rajamundry and Machilipatnam extending his rule to Coastal Andhra. Quli's campaign against Krishnadevaraya continued until Timmarusu, the Prime Minister of Krishnadevaraya, defeated the Golconda army.

Death and Succession[edit]

Sultan Quli Qutb Shah died in 1543. His younger son, Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah, assassinated him while he was offering his prayers.[8] Jamsheed also blinded Quli's elder son and heir, Kutbuddeen and assumed the throne. His other son Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah fled to Vijayanagar.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ahmed, Farooqui Salma (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. p. 177.
  2. ^ Bowman, John Stewart (2013). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. p. 276.
  3. ^ Bolar, Varija R. (2012). "Turks In Karnataka - social sciences ejournals archive". Dept. of History and Archaeology. 4: 419.
  4. ^ Iranian Culture and South Asia:1500-1900, Juan R.I. Cole, Iran and the Surrounding World: Interactions in Culture and Cultural Politics, ed. Nikki R. Keddie, Rudi Matthee, (University of Washington Press, 2002), 25.
  5. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  6. ^ Minorsky, V. (1955-01-01). "The Qara-qoyunlu and the Qutb-shāhs (Turkmenica, 10)". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 17 (1): 50–73. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00106342. JSTOR 609229.
  7. ^ Ramanand Vidya Bhawan, The Indian Historical Quarterly, Volume 16, Issues 1-4, 1985, p.711
  8. ^ a b George Michell, Mark Zebrowski, The New Cambridge History of India: 1. The Portuguese in India, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 17.
Preceded by
-
Qutb Shahi dynasty
1512–1543
Succeeded by
Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah