Quotations from the Hebrew Bible in the New Testament
In about ninety instances, the Septuagint is literally quoted. In around eighty further instances, the quote is altered in some way. For example, at Matthew 21:42 Jesus says "Did ye never read in the scriptures that the stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner?" - a reference to Psalm 118:22. Likewise, Mark 12:10. The Epistle of Jude quotes the pseudepigraphal Book of Enoch (1 Enoch 1:9) and the Assumption of Moses.
When the New Testament was written, the Old Testament was not divided into chapters and verses, and there is therefore no uniform standard for these quotes and the authors had to provide contextual references:
- When Luke 20:37 refers to Exodus 3:6, he quotes from "Moses at the bush", i.e. the section containing the record of Moses at the bush.
- Mark 2:26 refers to 1 Samuel 21:1-6, in the words "in the days of Abiathar".
- Romans 11:2 refers to 1 Kings ch. 17-19, in the words, "in Elias", i.e. in the portion of the history regarding Elias.
- Easton's Bible Dictionary, "Quotations" (New and revised ed., T. Nelson and Sons, 1897)
- Beale, Gregory K., and D. A. Carson. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich [u.a.]: Baker Academic [u.a.], 2008. ISBN 0-8010-2693-8
- Archer, Gleason Leonard, Gregory Chirichigno, and Evangelical Theological Society. Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament. Chicago: Moody Press, 1983. ISBN 0-8024-0236-4
- Brooke Foss Westcott, Fenton John Anthony Hort. The New Testament in the Original Greek, 1925, pp. 601-618