Qutbu l-Din Aibak

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Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak
founder of Mamluk Dynasty
Born Turkestan
Died 1210
Dynasty Mamluk Dynasty
Religion Islam

Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak, Aibak also spelled Aybak (born 1150—died 1210), the founder of Turkish dominion in India, was born of Turkic parents in Turkistan. He ruled Northwest India. He was the founder of Mamluk Dynasty (in Delhi). He was an able general of Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad (also known as Muhammad of Ghor). He also built the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi and the Adhai-Din-Ka-Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer. He started the construction of Qutb Minar in memory of sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki which was completed by his successor, Iltutmish.

In his childhood, Quṭb was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur, Persia,[citation needed][dubious ] where he was purchased by the local Qazi. After the death of his master he was sold by his master's son and become eventually a slave of Muhammad of Ghur. He came into the possession of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad, who put him in charge of the royal stables or Amir-i-Akhur. Eventually he was appointed to military command, and in 1193, after conquering Delhi, Muʿizz al-Dīn returned to Khorāsān and left the consolidation of the Ghūrid conquests in northwest India to Quṭb. With his headquarters at Delhi, Quṭb subjugated areas between the Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna (Jumna) rivers. He then turned his attention to the Rajputs who were still resisting Ghūrid domination. In 1195–1203 he mounted campaigns against their strongholds, while his lieutenant Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji conquered Bihar and Bengal.

When Muʿizz al-Dīn was assassinated (1206), Quṭb al-Dīn was his logical successor. He was still technically a slave, but he quickly obtained manumission. He married the daughter of Tāj al-Dīn Yildiz of Ghazna, one of the other principal claimants to succeed Muʿizz al-Dīn, and, by other judiciously arranged marriages, consolidated his rule. His son-in-law, ablest general, and successor, Iltutmish (reigned 1211–36), basing his power on the conquests of Quṭb, was able to establish the independence of the Delhi Sultanate.

Surviving inscriptions describe Quṭb as Malik (“king”), and the Quṭb Mīnār in Delhi still stands to commemorate his victories.

He died of injuries received in a polo match. He was buried in Lahore near the Anarkali Bazaar. He was succeeded by Iltutmish, another slave who rose to the level of a Sultan, thus extending the Slave Dynasty.His successor was Sultan Altmush.[1]


  1. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica