Qutb al-Din Aibak

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Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak
Founder of Mamluk Dynasty in Delhi
Reign 12 June 1206 –1210
Successor Iltutmish
Born 1150
Turkestan
Died 1210 (aged 60)
Delhi Sultanate
Dynasty Mamluk Dynasty
Religion Islam

Quṭb al-Dīn Aibak,[1] Aibak also spelled Aybak (1150–1210) was the founder of Turkic dominion in northwestern India and the Mamluk Dynasty in Delhi.

History[edit]

Qutb was born to Turkic parents in Turkistan. In his childhood, Quṭb was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur, Persia,[citation needed][dubious ] where he was purchased by the local Qazi. After the death of his master he was sold by his master's son and become eventually a slave of Muhammad Ghori. He came into the possession of Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad (also known as Muhammad of Ghor), who put him in charge of the royal stables or Amir-i-Akhur.

Eventually Quṭb was appointed to military command. He became an able general of his owner Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad. In 1193 and after conquering Delhi, Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad returned to Khorāsān and left the consolidation of the Ghūrid conquests in northwest India to Quṭb. With his headquarters at Delhi, Quṭb subjugated areas between the Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna (Jumna) rivers. He then turned his attention to the Rajputs who were still resisting Ghūrid domination. In 1195–1203 he mounted campaigns against their strongholds, while his lieutenant Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji conquered Bihar and Bengal.

When Muʿizz al-Dīn was assassinated in 1206, Quṭb al-Dīn was his logical successor. He was still technically a slave, but he quickly obtained manumission. He married the daughter of Tāj al-Dīn Yildiz of Ghazna, one of the other principal claimants to succeed Muʿizz al-Dīn, and, by other judiciously arranged marriages, consolidated his rule.

Works[edit]

He built the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in Delhi and the Adhai-Din-Ka-Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer. He started the construction of Qutb Minar in memory of sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki which was completed by his successor, Iltutmish.

Surviving inscriptions describe Quṭb as Malik (“king”), and the Quṭb Mīnār in Delhi still stands to commemorate his victories.

Death and successor[edit]

He died of injuries received in a polo match. He was buried in Lahore near the Anarkali Bazaar. His son-in-law, able general, and successor, Iltutmish (reign: 1211–36), basing his power on the conquests of Quṭb, was able to establish the independence of the Delhi Sultanate under the Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi)−Slave Dynasty.[1]

References[edit]


Preceded by
Qutb-ud-din Aybak
Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi) (1206–1290)
1210
Succeeded by
Iltutmish
Preceded by
Qutb-ud-din Aybak
Sultan of Delhi
1210
Succeeded by
Iltutmish