Réunion National Park
|Réunion National Park|
Western Indian Ocean
|Area||1,053.84 km2 (406.89 sq mi) (core area),
876.96 km2 (338.60 sq mi) (maximum integrated area):12
|Governing body||Parcs nationaux de France|
|Parc national de la Réunion (French)|
Réunion National Park (French: Parc national de La Réunion) is a national park on the island of Réunion, an overseas department of France in the western Indian Ocean. Established on 5 March 2007, the park protects the endemic ecosystems of Les Hauts, Réunion's mountainous interior, and covers around 42% of the island. Notable endemic species include the Réunion cuckooshrike and the Reunion Island day gecko.
Plans for a park date back to 1985, and in a public survey in 2004, the communes of Réunion approved of creating a national park. It officially came intop existence in 2007. The park's volcanic landscape, including the Piton de la Fournaise, an active volcano, was designated a World Heritage Site in 2010, under the name "Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island". The park's mission, other than preserving landscape and biodiversity, is to share knowledge and welcome visitors, and to work together with local communes. It is a popular destination for hiking and mountaineering.
Controversies have emerged over economic development in the park, notably the exploitation of geothermal power. In 2016, the Regional Council of Réunion had plans to downgrade the national park to a regional nature park to ease touristic development. This was contested by the park authorities and politicians from the opposition.
Proposals to create a park were first raised beginning in 1985. The Réunion Environmental Charter and the Regional Development Plan formally established the principle that a park should be created in Les Hauts. The French Ministry of the Environment was officially asked for the creation of a national park.
Between 2000 and 2003, a consultation process was launched, in which the state, the region, the département, and the association of mayors agreed on a protocol and established a steering committee. 27 of 29 institutions endorsed the plan of establishing a national park, and on 29 March 2003, the French Prime Minister signed a decree acknowledging the project.
Debates and negotiations on the limits and objectives of the future national park intensified. Between August and September 2004, the plan was the subject of a public survey, organised by the prefect in the 24 communes of the island. The communes responded positively to the project, adding some recommendations.
The park officially came into existence on 5 March 2007 through a decree taken after advice by the Council of State. In April 2007, the Administration Council took office, between 2007 and 2009 personnel were employed and installations made on the site, and in 2008, work began to set up the charter of the national park.
|Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
View from La Roche Écrite
|Inscription||2010 (34th Session)|
On 1 August 2010, the UNESCO World Heritage committee in its assembly at Brasilia acknowledged the value of the natural sites within Réunion National Park, and included the "Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island" in its World Heritage list.
In its charter, the national park identifies four great objectives: First, to preserve the diversity of landscapes and accompany their evolution. Second, to inverse the loss of biodiversity. Third, to preserve and add value to the culture of the highlands and ensure the transmission of its values. Fourth, to foster economic development for the highland.:3
The core of Réunion National Park covers 1,053.84 km2 (406.89 sq mi) in the interior of the island, corresponding to 42% of its surface and extending over the land of 23 communes. This core area also includes some inhabited and cultivated land. Adjacent to the core is an area of voluntary commitment (aire d'adhésion) covering 876.96 km2 (338.60 sq mi) and touching all 24 communes on th island. Altogether, the park extends over more than 75% of the island.:12 The region is mountainous, resulting from volcanic activity. Two volcanos form its backbone: The Piton des Neiges, over 3,000 m (9,800 ft) high, and the still active Piton de la Fournaise.
Four major areas form the heart of the national park, listed as World Heritage Site:
- Mare Longue forest (also known as Forêts de bois de couleurs des Bas) at Saint-Philippe, including some of the best-preseved remains of low-altitude tropical forest;
- the Cirque de Cilaos with the Pain de Sucre and La chapelle rock formations, in the narrow gorge of the Bras Rouge River, and 100,000-year-old accessible magma chamber;
- the Cirque de Salazie with the Piton d'Anchaing, a 1,356 m (4,449 ft) high dominant massif;
- Grande Chaloupe between Saint-Denis and La Possession, one of the last remainders of the semi-evergreen forest once common in the west of the island, preserved and restored here.
Réunion shares a common natural history with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius and Rodrigues. All three islands have been uninhabited before the 1600s. Human arrival led to massive extinction, and introduced species, such as giant land snails in Réunion, threaten native habitats and species. Less than 25% of Réunion is thought to be covered with original vegetation, mostly restricted to higher altitudes. The forests of Réunion and the other two islands have been classified by the World Wildlife Fund as the Mascarene Forests ecoregion, with a conservation status of "endangered". Conservation International includes Réunion in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot, a priority area for conservation.
The isolation of the island and its diversity of habitats and microclimates have favoured the diversification of a highly endemic flora: Of the 850 known native plant species, 230 are endemic, and half af those are endangered. This native flora is found at various altitudes. Nearly as many exotic plants as native ones, 830, have become naturalised on the island, and 50 are considered invasive, threatening native flora and habitats.
The park's fauna includes notably several endemic bird species, such as Barau's petrel, the Réunion harrier, and the Réunion cuckooshrike. In total, 18 bird species are found at Réunion, half of which are endemic. At least 22 bird species have already gone extinct since human colonisation. A major threat to the bird fauna are introduced cats and rats. Of mammals, the Mauritian flying fox has recolonised the Réunion after having gone extinct from the island. Notable butterfly species include Papilio phorbanta and Salamis augustina, and an endemic reptile is the Reunion Island day gecko.
The national park constitutes one of Réunion's major attractions. Its mountains are a popular destination for hiking and mountaineering; there are more than 900 km (560 mi) of marked trails, crossing such different landscapes as rain forests, sugar cane plantations and volcanic fields. They include three long-distance trails approved by the French Hiking Federation, with mountain lodges along the trail. More than 400,000 people each year visit the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, for which a discovery trail has been established.
The park is gouverned by an administrative council (Conseil d'Administration, CA) composed of 88 members, the majority of them local representatives. It is elected for 6-year terms. A 15-member executive committee (Bureau du Parc national) was established during the first adminsitrative council's term and acts on its behalf.
A scientific council (Conseil Scientifique, CS), with 18 members from various disciplines and 11 outside experts, advises the administrative council and the park's director. Further, there is an economic, social, and cultural council (Conseil économique, social et culturel, CESC) composed of public figures and representatives from local institutions and associations.
The park's regulations, notably regarding the core of the area, are stated in its charter.:142–170
Since the national park's creation, debates have arisen on its management and the impacts on the population of the upland. Inhabitants of the area have criticised that their history and traditions were not respected, citing especially farming activities banned on several occasions while park authorities maintained that every activity was possible, under certain conditions.
The volcanic setting holds potential for renewable energy production from geothermal power, which however conflicts with the national park's vocation of preserving the natural and cultural landscape.:23 As of 2016[update], pilot studies are carried out for two 5 MW geothermal power plants, at the foot of the Piton des neiges and on the Plaine des Sables, on which a project had already been considered and later abandoned. Both sites fall in the aire d'adhésion outside the park's core area, but proposals have also been made for sites within the World Heritage Site boundary.
In February 2016, the conservative majority in the Regional Council of Réunion with president Didier Robert announced plans to transform the national park into a regional nature park. Too restrictive rules, hindering touristic development, were cited as motive. A regional nature park, unlike a national park, functions on the basis of mutual agreements and has no power to establish its own regulations. Park officials and opposition politicians rejected the plan, saying it would threaten the island's biodiversity, the World Heritage listing, and critical access to state funding. It would be the first case of a national park in France to be downgraded. In September 2016, the national park's director, Marylène Hoarau, announced her withdrawal upon pressure from Ségolène Royal, minister for the environment. This led the park's president, Daniel Gonthier, to suspect political interference: Hoarau had criticised Didier Robert for launching a call for proposals on the future of the park. Robert, in an interview, denied involvement in Hoarau's departure and criticised himself the minister for her decision.
- Bénard, J.-F.; Braun, E.; Duchemann, C.; Fontaine, I.; Gombert, S.; Maillot, I. (2013). Hoarau, M., ed. "La Charte du parc national de La Réunion – Les Pitons, cirques et remparts au centre d'un projet de territoire" (in French). Plaine des Palmistes: Parc national de La Réunion. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
- "Parc National de la Réunion – Historique" (in French). La Plaine-des-Palmistes: Parc National de la Réunion. 2008-07-07. Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- Décret n° 2007-296 du 5 mars 2007 créant le Parc national de la Réunion, Act No. 2007-296 of 2007-05-03 (in French). Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
- "Reunion National Park". Saint-Paul: Ile de la Reunion Tourisme. 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- Schipper, J. (2004). "28 – Mascarene Forests". In Burgess, N.; D'Amico Hales, J.; Underwood, E.; et al. Terrestrial Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment. World Wildlife Fund Ecoregion Assessments (2nd ed.). Washington D.C.: Island Press. pp. 267–269. ISBN 978-1-55963-364-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-01.
- Conservation International - Madagascar (2014). "Ecosystem Profile: Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands". Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-11-24.
- "Parc National de la Réunion – Flore" (in French). La Plaine-des-Palmistes: Parc National de la Réunion. 2008-07-07. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- "Parc National de la Réunion – Faune" (in French). La Plaine-des-Palmistes: Parc National de la Réunion. 2008-07-07. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- "Hiking on the island". Saint-Paul: Ile de la Reunion Tourisme. 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- "Parc National de la Réunion – Les instances" (in French). La Plaine-des-Palmistes: Parc National de la Réunion. 2011-04-28. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
- Floch, F. (2013-04-13). "Ile de La Réunion : le parc National autorise tout, mais ...". Réunion La 1ère (in French). Paris. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- Laramée de Tannenberg, V. (2016-06-15). "Le serpent géothermie refait surface à La Réunion". Journal de l'Environnement (in French). Antony. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
- "La Région ne veut plus du Parc national". Imaz Press Réunion (in French). Saint-Denis. 2016-02-24. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
- Fédération des Parcs naturels régionaux de France (2016). Argumentaire – Questions – réponses sur les Parcs naturels régionaux (in French). Fédération des Parcs naturels régionaux de France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-22.
- Massemin, E. (2016-11-18). "Le Parc national de La Réunion menacé de déclassement". Reporterre (in French). Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- "Daniel Gonthier: Didier Robert a "ouvert un trou de souris", Ségolène Royal s'y est engouffrée". Imaz Press Réunion (in French). Saint-Denis. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
- Dupuy, P. (2016-09-20). "Didier Robert : Je n'ai jamais demandé la tête de Marylène Hoarau, la directrice du Parc national". Zinfos974 (in French). Saint-Denis. Retrieved 2016-12-18.
- Dynamic map of Réunion National Park (French)