Rama

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Rama
Morality, Virtue, Ideal son, Ideal king, Ideal student, Ideal teacher, Ideal brother, Ideal husband, Ideal man
Lord Rama with arrows.jpg
Devanagari राम
Sanskrit transliteration Rāma
Affiliation Seventh avatar of Lord Vishnu
Abode Ayodhya, Santanaka
Mantra Om Shri Ramaya Namah
Weapon The Bow (Kodandam)
Consort Sita
Parents
Siblings Lakshmana, Bharata, Shatrughna
Children Lava and Kuśa
Texts Ramayana
Region Indian Subcontinent
Festivals Rama Navami, Deepavali, Dussehra

Rama (/ˈrɑːmə/;[1] Sanskrit: राम Rāma) or Srī Rāmachandra (Sanskrit : श्री रामचन्द्र) is the seventh avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. He is the central figure of the Hindu epic Ramayana, which is the principal narration of the events connected to his incarnation on Earth, his ideals and his greatness. Rama is one of the many deities in Hinduism and especially of the various Vaishnava sects. Religious texts and scriptures based on his life have been a formative component in numerous cultures of South and Southeast Asia.[2] Along with Krishna, Rama is considered to be one of the most important avatars of Vishnu. In Rama-centric sects, he is considered the Supreme Being, rather than an avatar.

Born as the eldest son of Kaushalya and Dasharatha, ruler of Kosala Kingdom (now in Uttar Pradesh), Rama is referred as ''Maryada Purushottama"[3] within Hinduism, which literally means the Perfect Man or Lord of Self-Control or Lord of Virtue. His wife Sita is considered by Hindus to be an avatar of Lakshmi and the embodiment of a great woman.[3][4]

Rama and his brothers Lakshman, Bharat, Shatrughna were the "chaturvyuha" expansions of Vishnu (Vasudev, Sankarshan, Pradyumna, Aniruddha). Rama's life and journey is one of adherence to dharma despite harsh tests and obstacles and many pains of life and time. For the sake of his father's honour, Rama abandons his claim to Ayodhya's throne to serve an exile of fourteen years in the forest.[5] His wife Sita and brother Lakshmana decide to join him, and all three spend the fourteen years in exile together. While in exile, Sita is kidnapped by Ravana, the king of Lanka. After a long and arduous search, Rama fights a colossal war against Ravana's armies. In a war of powerful and magical beings, greatly destructive weaponry and battles, Rama slays Ravana in battle and liberates his wife.[6] Having completed his exile, Rama returns to be crowned king in Ayodhya and eventually becomes emperor,[5] rules with happiness, peace, duty, prosperity and justice—a period known as Rama Rajya.

The legend of Rama is deeply influential and popular in the societies of the Indian subcontinent and across South East Asia. Rama is revered for his unending compassion,[7] courage and devotion to religious values and duty. The deity Hanuman declared Rama to be a supreme being, and said that, by chanting the name of Lord Rama, all earthly problems may be resolved. By chanting the name of lord Rama 10 million times, Moksha can be achieved.

Etymology[edit]

The name Rama appears repeatedly in Hindu scriptures. Besides the name of the protagonist of the Ramayana (subject of the current article), the name is also given to other heroes including Parashu-Rama (Bhargava Rama) and Bala-Rama.

In the Vishnu sahasranama, Rama is the 394th name of Vishnu. In the interpretation of Adi Shankara's commentary, translated by Swami Tapasyananda of the Ramakrishna Mission, Rama has two meanings: the supreme Brahman who is the eternally blissful spiritual Self in whom yogis delight, and the One (i.e., Vishnu, the supreme Brahman) who out of His own will assumed the enchanting form of Rama, the son of Dasaratha.[8]

Other names of Rama include Ramavijaya (Javanese), Phreah Ream (Khmer), Phra Ram (Lao and Thai), Megat Seri Rama (Malay), Raja Bantugan (Maranao), Ramudu (Telugu) and Ramar (Tamil).

The greatness of chanting of Rama's name is mentioned in the Ramacharitamanasa.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

In Sanskrit, the word Rama (राम) means 'charming'. The name is commonly given to male in India and Nepal.

Some of the popular names of Rama are:

  • Rama - charming
  • Ramachandra - Rama with a moon
  • Raghava - of the lineage of Raghu
  • Raghunandan-scion of Raghu
  • Siyaavara - husband of Sita
  • Ayodhyapati - king of Ayodhya
  • Dashrathaputra - son of Dasharatha
  • Maryada-Purushottama - best ideal man

Literary sources[edit]

Valmiki composing the Ramayana.

The primary source of the life and journey of Rama is the epic Ramayana as composed by the Rishi Valmiki. The Vishnu Purana also recounts Rama as Vishnu's seventh avatar, and in the Bhagavata Purana, ninth skandha, adhyayas 10 & 11, the story of the Ramayana is again recounted in brief up to and including the slaying of Ravana and Prince Rama's return to Ayodhya. Additionally, the tales of Rama are reverently spoken of in the Mahabharata. The earliest documentation of Rama is in the Buddhist text of Dasharatha Jataka.[16]

The epic had many versions across India's regions. However, other scriptures in Sanskrit also reflect the life of Ramayana. The followers of Madhvacharya believe that an older version of the Ramayana, the mula-Ramayana, previously existed. They consider it to have been more authoritative than the version by Valmiki. Another important shortened version of the epic in Sanskrit is the Adhyatma Ramayana. The seventh century CE Sanskrit "Bhatti's Poem" Bhaṭṭikāvya of Bhatti who lived in Gujarat, is a retelling of the epic that simultaneously illustrates the grammatical examples for Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī as well as the major figures of speech and the Prakrit language.[17] Versions of the Ramayana exist in most major Indian languages; examples that elaborate on the life, deeds and divine philosophies of Rama include the epic poem Ramavataram by the 12th-century poet Kambar in Tamil, and Ramcharitmanas, a Hindi version of the Ramayana by the 16th-century saint, Tulsidas. Contemporary versions of the Ramayana include Sri Ramayana Darshanam by Kuvempu in Kannada and Ramayana Kalpavruksham by Viswanatha Satyanarayana in Telugu, both of which have been awarded the Jnanpith Award. The epic has transformed across the diverse regions of India, which boast their own unique languages and cultural traditions.[18] In Agastyasamhita, Lord Shiva is depicted as worshipping Lord Rama, who bestows upon him the ability to grant "moksha".[19]

To the Valmiki Ramayana,[20] Rama was born in Ayodhya, India, on 9th day (now celebrated across India as Ram Navami) of Chaitra lunar month (March–April), when Moon and Jupiter were rising in the east in Cancer sign and four other planets (Sun, Mars, Saturn, Venus) were exalted in their exaltation signs. Jupiter in the sign Cancer is exalted.

According to Valmiki Ramayana and other ancient sources, Rama was born about 880 thousand years ago, near the end of Treta Yuga, and eleven thousand years after his coronation, Dwapara Yuga started that lasted 864,000 years, followed by Kali Yuga in which 3101 years had elapsed at the beginning of Christian Era.[21][22][23]

Composition of Ramayana in its current form is usually dated to 7th - 4th Century BCE.[24][25][26]

Balkand[edit]

Rama(left third from top) depicted in the Dashavatara(ten avatars) of Vishnu. Painting from Jaipur, now at the Victoria and Albert Museum
Rama as Child
Vishwamitra came to Dasaratha and asked him to send Rama with him to fight with the demons
Vishwamita train Rama in Archery
Ahalya offering fruits and flowers to Rama - her saviour, a 5th-century AD Stone sculpture from Deogah, currently in the National Museum, New Delhi.
Rama portrayed as exile in the forest, accompanied by his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana
Hanuman meets Sri Rama in Forest

Rama and Sita[edit]

Rama with Sita on the throne, their children Lava and Kusha on their laps. Behind the throne, Lakshamana, Bharata and Shatrughna stand. Hanuman bows to Rama before the throne. Vashishta to the left

At Mithila,Rama breaks Shiva's bow and Janaka arranges the marriage of his daughter Sita to Rama.[27] The Wedding of Rama and Sita concerns two entities coming together to form a whole. An Indian marriage forges an alliance not only between two people, but also two families.

Maryada Purushottama[edit]

Lord Rama got fed up with asking a non-responding Varuna (God of the oceans) to help him and took up the Brahmastra.
Lord Rama tired of asking a non-responding Varuna (God of the oceans) to help him, and took up the Brahmastra

As a person, Rama personifies the characteristics of an ideal person(purushottama),[3][28] who is to be emulated. He had within him all the desirable virtues that any individual would seek to aspire, and he fulfils all his moral obligations(maryada). Rama's purity and piety in his intentions and actions inspires affection and devotion for him from a variety of characters from different backgrounds. For example, he gave up his rightful claim to the throne, and agreed to go into exile for fourteen years, to fulfill the vow that his father had given to Kaikeyi, one of King Dasharatha's wives. This is in spite of the fact that Kaikeyi's son, Bharat, begged him to return to Ayodhya and said that he did not want to rule in place of Rama. But Rama considered his dharma as a son above that of his own birthright and his life's ambition. For such supreme sacrifices, and many other qualities, Rama is considered a maryada purushottama or the best of upholders of Dharma, God in the form of an exemplary human.[29]

Bharata and Lakshmana[edit]

Main articles: Bharata (Ramayana) and Lakshmana
See also: Shatrughna
Ram and Sita worship Shiva at Rameswaram, as his companions Vibhishana(right) looks on with Lakshman, Tumburu and Narada along with the Vanar Sena.

Absent when Rama is exiled, upon his return Bharata is appalled to learn of the events. And even though Kaikeyi had done all this for his benefit, Bharata is angered at the suggestion that he should take Ayodhya's throne. Denouncing his mother, Bharata proclaims to the city that he would go to the forest to fetch Rama back and would serve out his term of exile himself. Although initially resentful and suspicious, people of Ayodhya hail Bharata's selfless nature and courageous act. Despite his fervent pleas to return, Rama asserts that he must stay in the forest to keep his father's word. He orders Bharata to perform his duty as king of Ayodhya, especially important after Dasharatha's death and orders Shatrughna to support and serve him. Returning saddened to the city, Bharata refuses to wear the crown or sit on the throne. Instead, he places the slippers of Rama that he had taken back with him on the throne and rules Ayodhya assiduously keeping Rama's beliefs and values in mind. When Rama finally returns, Bharata runs personally to welcome him back.

Bharata is hailed for his devotion to his elder brother and dharma, distinguished from Lakshmana as he is left on his own for fourteen years. But he unfailingly denies self-interest throughout this time, ruling the kingdom only in Rama's name.[30] Vasishtha proclaims that no one had better learnt dharma than Bharata[31] and for this piety he forms an essential part of the conception of perfect manhood, of the Seventh Avatara of Vishnu.

Shatrughna's role to Bharata is akin to that of Lakshmana to Rama. Believed to be one-quarter of Vishnu incarnated or as the incarnation of his eternal companion, Ananta Sesha, Lakshmana is always at Rama's side.[32] Although unconstrained by Dasharatha's promise to Kaikeyi, Lakshmana resists Rama's arguments and accompanies him and Sita into the forest. During the years of exile, Lakshmana constantly serves Rama and Sita – building huts, standing guard and finding new routes. When Sita is kidnapped, Rama blazes with his divine power and in his immense rage, expresses the desire to destroy all creation. Lakshmana prays and pleads for Rama to calm himself and despite the shock of the moment and the promise of travails to come, begin an arduous, but systematic search for Sita. During times when the search is proving fruitless and Rama fears for Sita and expresses despair in his grief and loneliness, Lakshmana encourages him, providing hope and solace.

Rama, Sita and Lakshmana. Indian painting, 1875

When Rama in his despair fears that Sugriva has forgotten his promise to help him trace Sita, Lakshmana goes to Kishkindha to remind the complacent monarch of his promise to help. Lakshmana twangs the bow inside the hall quaking the entire building and threatens to destroy Sugriva and the monkey kingdom with his own divine power. Lakshmana is unable to tolerate Sugriva breaking his vow to Rama while enjoying material and sensual pleasures while Rama suffers alone. It is only through the diplomatic intervention of Queen Tara, Vali's wife, that Lakshmana is pacified. Tara then scolds and galvanises Sugriva into honouring his promise to Rama. Sugriva and Rama are then reconciled with the help of Lakshmana and Tara. Sugriva sends the monkey hoards to find the location of Sita and lead the monkey army into battle against the demonic forces of Ravana.[33]

Lakshman is uniquely responsible for slaying Indrajit, the invincible son of Ravana who had earlier defeated Indra and the devas, outwitted the Vanara's on several occasions and even twice defeated the brothers.[34] Rishi Agastya later points out that this victory was the turning point of the conflict. Rama is often overcome with emotion and deep affection for Lakshmana, acknowledging how important and crucial Lakshmana's love and support was for him. He also trusts Lakshmana to carry out difficult orders – Lakshmana was asked to take Sita to the ashrama of Valmiki, where she was to spend her exile. Lakshmana's deep love for Rama, his unconditional service and sacrifice as well as qualities of practical judgment and clear-headedness make him Rama's superior in certain situations and perspectives. Lakshmana symbolizes a man's duty to his family, brothers and friends and forms an essential part of the conception of ideal manhood, that Rama primarily embodies.

Jatayu, Hanuman and Vibhishana[edit]

Ravana kidnapping Sita while Jatayu on the left tried to help her. 9th century Prambanan bas-relief, Java, Indonesia

When Rama and Lakshmana begin the desperate search to discover where Sita had been taken, after traversing a distance in many directions, they come across the magical eagle Jatayu, who is dying. They discover from Jatayu that Ravana was flying away with a crying, struggling Sita towards the south. Jatayu had flown to the rescue of Sita, but owing to his age and the Ravana's power, had been defeated. With this, Jatayu dies in Rama's arms. Rama is overcome with love and affection for the bird that sacrificed its own life for Sita and the rage of his death returns to him in the climactic battle with Ravana.

Rama's only allies in the struggle to find Sita are the Vanaras of Kishkindha. Finding a terrified Sugriva being hunted by his own brother, king Vali, Rama promises to kill Vali and free Sugriva of the terror and the unjust charge of plotting to murder Vali. The two swear everlasting friendship over sacred fire. Rama's natural piety and compassion, his sense of justice and duty as well as his courage despite great personal suffering after Sita's kidnapping inspire devotion from the Vanaras and Sugriva, but especially Hanuman, Sugriva's minister. Devoted to Rama, Hanuman exerts himself greatly over the search for Sita. He is the first to discover that Sita was taken to Lanka and volunteers to use his divine gifts in a dangerous reconnaissance of Lanka, where he is to verify Sita's presence. Hanuman hands Rama's ring to Sita as a mark of Rama's love and his imminent intention of rescuing her. Though captured, he candidly delivers Rama's message to Ravana to immediately release Sita and when his tail is burned, he flies and sets Lanka on fire. When Lakshmana is struck down and near death and Rama overcome with love and concern for his brother, Hanuman flies to the Himalayas on the urgent mission to fetch the sanjeevani medicinal herbs, bringing the entire mountain to Lanka so that no time is lost in saving Lakshmana.[35] The Vanaras fight the rakshasas, completely devoted to Rama's cause. They angrily dismiss Ravana's efforts to create international divisions within their army when he suggested that Rama considered them, monkeys as mere animals. At the end of the war, Indra restores life to the millions of fallen Vanaras.[36]

Before the onset of war, Vibheeshana, Ravana's youngest brother comes to join Rama. Although he loves his brother and Lanka, he fails in repeated efforts to make Ravana follow religious values and return Sita. Vibheeshana believes that Ravana's arrogance and callousness will cause the destruction of Lanka, which is a gross violation of a king's duty and that Ravana's actions have only propagated evil. Vibhishana refuses to defend the evil of Ravana's ways and inspired by Rama's compassion and piety, leaves Lanka to join the Vanara Army.[37] His knowledge of rakshasa ways and Ravana's mind help Rama and the Vanaras overcome black magic and mystical weapons. At the end of the war, Rama crowns Vibheeshana as the king of Lanka. Vibheeshana and to a greater extent Hanuman, embody the perfect devotee in the wider conception of perfect manhood.

Rama In War[edit]

The epic story of Ramayana was adopted by several cultures across Asia. Shown here is a Thai historic artwork depicting the battle that took place between Rama and Ravana

When Rama is thirteen years old, he and his brother Lakshmana are taken by Vishwamitra to the forests, with the purpose of killing rakshasas who are wrecking the tapasya and sacrifices of brahmins. When asked to slay the demoness, Rama demurs, considering it sinful to kill a woman. But Vishwamitra explains that evil has no gender. Rama replies that "My father asked me to follow your orders, I will obey them even if it is a sin". Rama proceeds to slay Tataka, a cursed yaksha demoness. The killing of Tataka liberates the yaksha soul who was cursed for a sin, and had to adopt a rakshasi's body. It restores the purity of the sacrifices of the brahmins who live nearby and protects the animals who live in the forest and travellers. Rama and Lakshmana are taught the advanced military arts and given the knowledge of all celestial weapons by Vishwamitra. The main purpose of Vishwamitra's exursion is to conduct his yagna without interruption from two evil demons, Maricha and Subahu sons of Tataka. Rama and Lakshmana guard the sacrifice and when the two demons appear, Rama shoots an arrow named Manava Astra that carries Maricha across the lands and into the ocean, but does not kill him. Rama and his brother then proceed to kill Subahu and accompanying demons. Rama explains to Lakshmana that leaving Maricha alive was an act of compassion, but the others did not heed the point and chose to attack.[38] During the forest exile, sages plead for protection and help against evil rakshasas who spoil their sacrifices and religious activities and terrorize them. Many rakshasas had even killed and eaten sages and innocent people. At Janasthana, Rama uses his exceptional prowess to single-handedly kill over fourteen thousand demon hordes led by the powerful Khara, who is a cousin of Ravana and Dushana.

Raja Ravi Varma Painting – Rama Conquers Varuna

Varuna[edit]

Rama Setu bridge as seen from the air, Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu

Faced with the dilemma of how to cross the ocean, Rama performs a penance tapasya, fasting and meditating in perfect dhyana for three days and three nights to Samudra, the Lord of Oceans. The ocean god does not respond and Rama on the fourth morning, pointed the Brahmastra towards the ocean. The Vanaras are dazzled and fearful at witnessing the enraged Rama demolish the oceans and Lakshmana prays to calm Rama's mind. Just as Rama invokes the Brahmastra, considered the most powerful weapon capable of destroying all creation, Varuna arises out of the oceans. He bows to Rama, and begs for pardon. Since Rama had to use the weapon, he suggests Rama re-direct the weapon at a demonic race that lives in the heart of the ocean. Rama's arrows destroys the demons, and establishes a purer, liberated environment there. Varuna promises that he would keep the oceans still for all of Rama's army to pass and Nala-Neel construct a bridge(Rama's Bridge) across to Lanka. Rama justifies his angry assault on the oceans as he followed the correct process of petitioning and worshipping Varuna, but obtaining the result by force for the greater good.[39]

The bridge today is known as Rama Setu, which supposedly has its existence between India and Sri Lanka, originates from Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu, India.

Facing Ravana[edit]

Main article: Ravana
Ravana, Demon King of Lanka

Rama asserted his dedication to dharma when he offered Ravana a final chance to make peace, by immediately returning Sita and apologizing, despite his heinous actions and patronage of evil, but Ravana refused. In the war, Rama slayed the most powerful rakshasa commanders, including Atikaya, Ravana's brother, Kumbhakarna along with hundreds of thousands of rakshasa soldiers. He defeated Ravana in their first battle, destroying his chariot and weapons, and severely injuring him, but he allowed Ravana to live and return to fight another day. But since he was playing the part of a human being, Rama also proved vulnerable on occasion to his enemies. He was put to a deep sleep along with Lakshmana by the nagapash of Indrajit, but they recovered when Garuda, the vehicle of Vishnu and enemy of serpents appear. Before Indrajit was killed, he twice defeated Lakshman and Rama and in both occasions Hanuman's intervention saved them from certain death.[40]

Rama launched at his foe a fearsome a bolt

In the grand finale of the battle, Rama engaged Ravana, who through the devastation of losing his sons, his brothers and friends and millions of his warriors, aroused his magical powers and made full use of the boons of Shiva and Brahma. Rama and Ravana competed fiercely, inflicting severe injuries on one another with powerful weapons capable of destroying the universe. After a long and arduous battle, Rama successfully decapitated Ravana's central head, but an ugly head, symbolic of all of Ravana's evil powers arose in its place. After another long battle, Rama decapitated it again, only to find another growing in its place. This cycle continues and as darkness approached, Ravana's magical powers increased in force. Mathali, Indra's charioteer who had been sent by Indra after being counselled by the witnessing Rishis, Danavas and Devas. Seeing the war, Vibhishana then told Rama that Ravana had obtained amrita, the nectar of immortality, from the gods. Though he could not consume it, he nevertheless stored a vessel of it in his stomach. This amrit was causing his heads to regenerate as soon as they were cut off. Upon the advice of Agastya, Rama worshiped Lord Surya(his ancestor), with the famous Aditya Hridayam prayer and then invoked Brahmastra. Rama fired an arrow into Ravana's chest/stomach and evaporated the store of amrit, finally killing him. However it is stated in the Ramayana that Ravana called for Rama as he was shot and as a result, was immediately dispatched to Heaven.[41] Following Ravana's death, Rama expressed deep compassion. After investing Vibhishana as the next king of Lanka, he asked the new king and the surviving rakshasas to properly cremate their dead king, despite his patronage of evil.[42]

Rama Rajya[edit]

The return of Rama
Coronation of Rama with Sita (center on the throne), surrounded by his brothers and other deities including Hanuman (bottom left)

Rama's birthday is celebrated as Rama Navami (on Chaitra Shukla Navami, Punarvasu Nakshatra fourth Pada).[43] Diwali is celebrated as a festival to commemorate the successful victorious return of Lord Rama after killing of the demon Ravana to Ayodhya with Sita, Lakshmana, Hanuman, Sugriva, Jambavan, Angada etc., which coincided with the end of his exile period. Then Lord Rama's Coronation(Saamraajya Pattabhisekham) ceremony took place on the following day at the same Muhurtha kept for Rama's Coronation that is given by Dasharatha and Vasistha before Rama's 14 years of Exile, Paduka Pattabhisekham (happened before Rama completing his exile time done by Rama's brother Bharatha, when then Ayodhya is ruled by his Paduka or shoes till the end of 14 years exile time period of Rama returning Ayodhya). Lord Rama ruled Bharatvarsha through his virtues that is popularly known as period of Ram Rajya that lasted for 11,000 years. Ram Rajya means the embodiment Of Dharma Or Dharma has taken a form of Ramachandra.[44]

International Influence[edit]

Rama(Yama) and Sita(Thida) in Yama Zatdaw, the Burmese version of the Ramayana

Rama remains an immensely revered and inspirational figure to people across the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia. In Jainism, Rama is enumerated among the nine "Baladeva". Hundreds of towns and villages are named after Rama.[45][46]

Rama is a great hero to the adherents of Agama Hindu Dharma and to the Muslims who practice Abangan, a syncretic form of Islam and Hinduism, in Indonesia. He is revered by the people throughout Indochina who otherwise adhere to different forms of Buddhism, Islam and Hinduism. His regal bearing and fighting prowess is emulated in various Indian martial arts that in turn influenced various Southeast Asian fighting systems such as silat. The Rama Leela is performed across South East Asia in numerous local languages and the story has been the subject of art, architecture, music, folk dance and sculpture. The ancient city of Ayutthaya stands in Thailand, as the tribute of an ancient Thai kingdom to the great legend. Many ancient and medieval era kings of India and South East Asia have adopted Rama as their name.

Rama Worship[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Rama Navami[edit]

Main article: Rama Navami

Rama's day and time of birth,[47] as well as marriage to Sita are celebrated by Hindus across the World as Rama Navami. It falls on the ninth day of a Hindu lunar year or Chaitra Masa Suklapaksha Navami. This day is observed as the marriage day of Rama and Sita as well as the birthday of Rama. People normally perform Kalyanotsavam(marriage celebration) for small statues of Rama and Sita in their houses and at the end of the day the idols are taken in a procession on the streets. This day also marks the end of nine-day Festival celebrated in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh called Vasanthothsavam(Festival of Spring), that starts with Ugadi. Some highlights of this day are:

  1. Kalyanam(Ceremonial wedding performed by temple priests) at Bhadrachalam on the banks of the river Godavari in Bhadradri Kothagudem district of Telangana.
  1. Panakam, a sweet drink prepared on this day with jaggery and pepper.
  1. Procession of idols in the evening that is accompanied with play of water and colours.
  1. For the occasion, Hindus are supposed to fast(or restrict themselves to a specific diet).
  1. Temples are decorated and readings of the Ramayana take place. Along with Rama, people also pray to Sita, Lakshmana and Hanuman.

Vijayadashmi[edit]

Main article: Vijayadashami

The occasion of victory over Ravana and the rakshasas is celebrated as the 10-day Vijayadashami, also known as Dussehra. The Rama Leela is publicly performed in many villages, towns and cities in Northern India and also in places where there is a large population of North Indians. Hindus also celebrate Vijayadashmi as the day of victory of Goddess Durga over the Rakshas Mahishasura.

Diwali[edit]

Main article: Diwali

In some parts of India, Rama's return to Ayodhya and his coronation is the main reason for celebrating Diwali, also known as the Festival of Lights. In Malaysia, Diwali is known as Hari Deepavali and is celebrated during the seventh month of the Hindu solar calendar. It is a federal public holiday. In many respects it resembles the traditions followed in the Indian subcontinent. In Nepal, Diwali is known as Tihar and celebrated during the October/November period.

In Guyana, Diwali is marked as a special occasion and celebrated with a lot of fanfare. It is observed as a national holiday in this part of the World and some ministers of the Government also take part in the celebrations publicly. Just like Vijayadashmi, Diwali is celebrated by different communities across India to commemorate different events in addition to Rama's return to Ayodhya. For example, many communities celebrate one day of Diwali to celebrate the Victory of Krishna over the demon Narakasur.

Temples[edit]

Ram, Sita, Lakshman, Hanuman, at Vallipuram Temple, Sri Lanka

Temples dedicated to Rama are found all over India and in places where Indian migrant communities have resided. In most temples, the standing idol of Rama is accompanied by that of his wife Sita and brother Laxman. In some instances, the monkey God, Hanuman sits at the feet of Rama or is situated facing the Rama family at a distance or at the entrance of the temple. There are numerous Rama temples in Tamil nadu that date from the end of the first millinium of the common era.[48] Important Rama temples include:

In Jainism[edit]

Main articles: Rama in Jainism and Salakapurusa

Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana forms one of the nine set of Baladeva, Vasudeva and Prativasudeva whose stories forms a basis of Jain universal history.[49][50] Rama is described as a pious layman in Jain scriptures. Jain scriptures tells different version of Ramayana than Valmiki's version. According to this version, Lakshmana(Vasudeva) is the one who kills Ravana(Prativasudeva). Rama(Baladeva) is described as a non-violent person who attains moksha. Lakshmana and Ravana, on the other hand, goes to hell on account of their violence & will attain moksha in their next birth. Ravan will take birth as tirthankara of next era. It is said that in the end, Rama and Sita take Jain diksha in this version.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Rama". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Dimock Jr, E.C. (1963). "Doctrine and Practice among the Vaisnavas of Bengal". History of Religions. 3 (1): 106–127. doi:10.1086/462474. JSTOR 1062079. 
  3. ^ a b c Hess, L. (2001). "Rejecting Sita: Indian Responses to the Ideal Man's Cruel Treatment of His Ideal Wife". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 67 (1): 1–32. doi:10.1093/jaarel/67.1.1. PMID 21994992. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  4. ^ Kanungo, H. "The Distinct Speciality of Lord Jagannath" (PDF). Orissa Review. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  5. ^ a b Griffith, R.T.H. (1870–1874). The Rámáyana of Válmíki. London: Trübner & Co.; Benares: E. J. Lazarus and Co. 
  6. ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 73. 
  7. ^ Goswami, S.D. (2001). Vaisnava Compassion. La Crosse, Florida: GN Press. 
  8. ^ "श्रीविष्णुसहस्रनामस्तोत्रम् (Shri Vishnu sahasranama)|note search with string 'राम'". 
  9. ^ Das 2010, p. 63
  10. ^ Miller 2008, p. 217
  11. ^ Gupta 1993, p. 65
  12. ^ Varma 2010, p. 1565
  13. ^ Poddar 2001, pp. 26–29
  14. ^ Sharma 2003, p. 77
  15. ^ Poonja 2000, p. 440
  16. ^ Jaiswal, Suvira (1993). "Historical Evolution of Ram Legend". Social Scientist. 21 (3 / 4 March April 1993): 89–96. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  17. ^ Fallon, Oliver. 2009. Bhatti's Poem: The Death of Rávana (Bhaṭṭikāvya). New York: Clay Sanskrit Library [1]. ISBN 978-0-8147-2778-2 | ISBN 0-8147-2778-6 |
  18. ^ The Oral Tradition and the many "Ramayanas", Moynihan @Maxwell, Maxwell School of Syracuse University's South Asian Center
  19. ^ Christopher Justice (1997). Dying the Good Death: The Pilgrimage to Die in India's Holy City. SUNY Press. p. 162. ISBN 0791432629. 
  20. ^ Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Sarga 18, shlokas 8-10.
  21. ^ Bonner, Arthur (1990). Averting the Apocalypse: Social Movements in India Today. Duke University Press. p. 354. ISBN 9780822310488. 
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  23. ^ Woods, Michael (2007). India. Basic Books. pp. 148–151. 
  24. ^ "Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas - Volume 1" Page 44, by Swami Parmeshwaranand , 2001
  25. ^ Simanjuntak, Truman (2006). Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective : R.P. Soejono's Festschrift. p. 361. 
  26. ^ See Sankalia, H.D., Ramayana: Myth or Reality, New Delhi, 1963
  27. ^ Gabriel Arquilevich (2006). World religions. teacher created. p. 142. ISBN 1557346240. 
  28. ^ http://www.ayodhya.com/ayotemplet.jsp?sno=25
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  30. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 132
  31. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 130
  32. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 656
  33. ^ The Ramayana. R.K.Narayan. Vision Books. 1987. Chapter 7.
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  35. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 447
  36. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 499
  37. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 369–72
  38. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 29
  39. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 376–81
  40. ^ B. A van Nooten William (2000). Ramayana. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-22703-3. 
  41. ^ Rajeev Persaud
  42. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 488–89
  43. ^ R. Menon, The Ramayana, pp. 645
  44. ^ http://veda.wikidot.com/rama
  45. ^ "Unifying Force of Hinduism: The Harekrsna Movement", By Haripada Adhikary, P. 177.
  46. ^ "Symbols of India", p. 226
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  49. ^ Jacobi, Herman (2005). Vimalsuri's Paumachariyam (2nd ed.). Ahemdabad: Prakrit Text Society. 
  50. ^ Iyengar, Kodaganallur Ramaswami Srinivasa (2005). Asian Variations In Ramayana. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1809-3. 

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