Raḥmān is an Arabic term that is commonly translated as "compassionate" or "beneficent". In the Islamic context; definite Al-Rahman is a name of God in Islam. There is debate as to whether this is also the name of a pre-Islamic Arabian deity, or if it simply an epithet of God as Al-Rahim "the Merciful" definitely is. As the terms "Raḥmān" ("the merciful," a divine epithet), "the God of Israel", and the "Lord of Judah", can also be seen in 6th and 7th centuries inscriptions of Jewish Yemeni Himyarite_Kingdom. The Quraish appeared to be confused as to why Muhammad used this term. The pagan, Suhail ibn Amr, asked Muhammad to replace his insignia, "By the Name of God, Al-Rahman, the most Merciful," (b-ismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi) with "By Your Name O Allah!" (b-ismika yā -llāh!) Furthermore, Suhail said, "As for 'Rahman,' by Allah, I do not know what it means." It is thus unlikely an elative of Raḥim.
Surah 19 is the Surah in which the name Al-Rahman is mentioned most frequently (16 times). In verse 18 of this Sura, Maryam (Mary) says: "I seek refuge in Al-Rahman, that you may be righteous." Mary asks for protection from Al-Rahman against one whom she perceives as a man entering her private chambers, but who in fact is the Archangel Jibrāʾīl (Gabriel). In 19:45, Abraham says to his father, a disbeliever and idol-worshipper: "I fear you could be struck with the wrath of Al-Rahman, then become an ally of the devil."