R-37M at 2013 MAKS Airshow
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||Russian Federation Air Force (RFAF)|
|Designer||Tactical Missiles Corporation|
|Manufacturer||Tactical Missiles Corporation|
|Mass||600 kilograms (1,320 lb)|
|Length||4.20 metres (13 ft 9 in)|
|Diameter||38 centimetres (15 in)|
|Warhead weight||60 kg (135 lb)|
|Wingspan||0.7 m (2 ft 4 in)|
|Propellant||Boost-Sustain Solid Rocket|
|150-398 km |
|Maximum speed||Mach 5 (6,125 km/h; 3,806 mph)|
|Inertial with mid-course update, semi-active and active radar homing|
The Vympel R-37M (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13/AA-13 Axehead) is a Russian supersonic air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Ракета Высокой Дальности (Raketa-Vysokoy Dalnosty), "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codenames 'Axehead' and 'Andi'. It was developed from the R-33.
The missile was designed in the early 1980s and first flown in 1989. Testing of the R-37 continued through the 1990s, and in 1994, a trial round scored a kill at a range of 162 nautical miles (300 km). However, the program appears to have been dropped around 1998 on grounds of cost.
The R-37 was developed from the R-33. For compatibility with aircraft that did not have the MiG-31's sophisticated radar, the semi-active seeker was replaced with a variant of the Agat 9B-1388 active seeker; mid-body strakes enhance lift and hence range, and folding tail controls allow semi-conformal carriage on planes that are not as big as the MiG-31. According to Defence Today, the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles (150 km) for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles (398 km) for a cruise glide profile. According to Jane's there are two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M; the latter has a jettisonable rocket booster that increases the range to "300-400km" (160–220 nm).
The R-37M designation has since been used for a modernized variant of the missile, also known as RVV-BD (Raketa Vozduh-Vozduh Bolyshoy Dalnosty, English for Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile). R-37M is hypersonic and has range exceeding 300km. It will be carried by the modernized MiG-31BM interceptors and Su-35S and Su-57 multirole fighters. It is not known if the long range air-to-air missile for the Su-57, designated as Izdeliye 810, is a derivative of the R-37M.
The missile can attack targets ranging in altitude between 15–25,000 meters. Missiles can be guided semi-actively or actively through Agat 9B-1388 system.
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