|16th Director of Central Intelligence|
February 5, 1993 – January 10, 1995
|Preceded by||Robert Gates|
|Succeeded by||John M. Deutch|
|United States Under Secretary of the Navy|
March 9, 1977 – December 7, 1979
|Preceded by||David R. Macdonald|
|Succeeded by||Robert J. Murray|
Robert James Woolsey Jr.
September 21, 1941
|Education||Stanford University (BA)|
St John's College, Oxford (MA)
Yale University (LLB)
Robert James Woolsey Jr. (born September 21, 1941) is an American political appointee who has served in various senior positions. He headed the Central Intelligence Agency as Director of Central Intelligence from February 5, 1993, until January 10, 1995. He held a variety of government positions in the 1970s and 1980s, including as United States Under Secretary of the Navy from 1977 to 1979, and was involved in treaty negotiations with the Soviet Union for five years in the 1980s. His career also included time as a professional lawyer, venture capitalist and investor in the private sector.
Woolsey was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the son of Clyde (Kirby) and Robert James Woolsey, Sr. He graduated from Tulsa's Tulsa Central High School. In 1963, he received his BA from Stanford University (Phi Beta Kappa), and in 1965 his MA from University of Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar, and an LLB from Yale Law School in 1968.
Woolsey has held important positions in both Democratic and Republican administrations. His influence has been felt during the administrations of Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has also worked at the Shea & Gardner law firm, as Associate (1973–77) and partner (1979–89, 1991–93).
Woolsey has served in the U.S. government as:
- Advisor (during military service) on the U.S. Delegation to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT 1), Helsinki and Vienna, 1969–1970
- General Counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, 1970–73
- Under Secretary of the Navy, 1977–1979
- Delegate at Large to the U.S.-Soviet Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) and Nuclear and Space Arms Talks (NST), Geneva, 1983–1986
- Ambassador to the Negotiation on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), Vienna, 1989–1991
- Director of CIA, 1993–1995
Relationship with Bill Clinton
Never once in his two-year tenure did CIA director James Woolsey ever have a one-on-one meeting with Clinton. Even semi-private meetings were rare. They only happened twice. Woolsey told me: "It wasn't that I had a bad relationship with the president. It just didn't exist."
Another quote about his relationship with Clinton, according to Paula Kaufman of Insight on the News:
Remember the guy who in 1994 crashed his plane onto the White House lawn? That was me trying to get an appointment to see President Clinton.
David Halberstam notes in War in a Time of Peace (p. 191) that Clinton chose Woolsey for CIA director because the Clinton campaign had courted neoconservatives leading up to the 1992 election, promising to assist democratic Taiwan, Bosnia in Bosnian War, and be tougher on human rights violations in China, and it was decided that they ought to give at least one neoconservative a job in the administration.
Woolsey was CIA director when Aldrich Ames was arrested, on February 21, 1994, for treason and spying against the United States. The CIA was criticized for not focusing on Ames sooner, given the obvious increase in Ames' standard of living; and there was a "huge uproar" in Congress when Woolsey decided that no one in the CIA would be dismissed or demoted at the agency. Woolsey declared: "Some have clamored for heads to roll in order that we could say that heads have rolled ... Sorry, that's not my way." Woolsey abruptly resigned on Dec 28, 1994.
He is currently a member of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors, Advisor of the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, co-founder of the United States Energy Security Council, Founding Member of the Set America Free Coalition, and a senior vice president at Booz Allen Hamilton for Global Strategic Security (since July 15, 2002).
He is a Patron of the Henry Jackson Society, a British think tank. Woolsey has had long-standing contact with Central and Eastern Europe and as a Member of the Board of Advisors of the Global Panel Foundation based in Berlin, Copenhagen, Prague, Sydney, and Toronto. He was formerly chairman of the Freedom House board of trustees. He is a member of the International Advisory Board of NGO Monitor.
Woolsey is a member of the Project for the New American Century (PNAC) and was one of the signatories to the January 26, 1998 letter sent to President Clinton that called for the removal of Saddam Hussein. That same year he served on the Rumsfeld Commission, which investigated the threat of ballistic missiles for the U.S. Congress.
Woolsey previously served as chairman of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, a nonprofit, nonpartisan D.C.-based research institute that focuses on foreign policy and national security.
Woolsey currently sits on the Strategic Advisory Board for Genie Energy with Dick Cheney, Rupert Murdoch, and Lord Jacob Rothschild. Genie is known for discovering a "massive" oil strata in Syria’s Golan Heights near Israel.
Woolsey joined as a senior adviser to Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump in September 2016. He resigned on January 5 amid Congressional hearings into cyber attacks and public statements by Donald Trump critical of the United States Intelligence Community.
On October 27, 2017, Woolsey's spokesman told NBC News that Woolsey has cooperated with the investigations of the FBI and that of Special Counsel Robert Mueller into a meeting that then-Donald Trump campaign advisor Michael Flynn held in September 2016. Woolsey alleges that, during the meeting, Flynn offered to help officials of Turkish government return Turkish dissident Fethullah Gülen to Turkey.
In April 2021, Woolsey was officially banned from entering Russia with the counter sanction set by the Russian government in response to sanctions under the Biden administration. He also accused the Soviet Union to be responsible for the Assassination of US President John F. Kennedy in a published book in 2021.
Woolsey has been known primarily as a neoconservative Democrat—hawkish on foreign policy issues but liberal on economic and social issues. In 2008 he endorsed Senator John McCain for president and served as one of McCain's foreign policy advisors. He has called himself a "Scoop Jackson Democrat" and a "Joe Lieberman Democrat", with "social democratic" domestic views. He regards the label "neoconservative" as a "silly term".
Woolsey was a keynote speaker at the EELPJ symposium on wind energy and biofuels in Houston, Texas on February 23, 2007, during which he outlined the national security arguments in favor of moving away from fossil fuels. In a July 2007 interview with The Futurist magazine he argued that U.S. dependence on Middle Eastern oil ranks "very high" as a national security concern.
Woolsey is featured in Thomas Friedman's Discovery Channel documentary Addicted to Oil, and in the documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car? (2006), addressing solutions to oil dependency through the development of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and use of biomass fuels such as cellulosic ethanol. He is a founding member of the Set America Free Coalition, dedicated to freeing the United States from oil dependence. He is on the board of directors for the electric vehicle advocacy group Plug In America and is an advisor to The Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, a think tank focused on energy security.
Woolsey wrote the foreword to 50 Simple Steps to Save the Earth from Global Warming.
Woolsey is known for clearly articulating the national security argument in support of moving away from fossil fuels and towards distributed generation. He has advocated for measures to fight global warming.
Within hours of the September 11 attacks, Woolsey appeared on television suggesting Iraqi complicity. In September 2002, as Congress was deliberating authorizing President Bush to use force against Iraq, Woolsey told The Wall Street Journal that he believed that Iraq was also connected to the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building and the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993.
In 2005, Steve Clemons, a senior fellow at the New America Foundation think tank, accused Woolsey of both profiting from and promoting the Iraq War. Melvin A. Goodman, senior fellow at the Center for International Policy and former CIA division chief, told The Washington Post that "Woolsey was a disaster as CIA director in the 1990s and is now running around this country calling for a World War IV to deal with the Islamic problem".
During a January 14, 2009, interview by Peter Robinson on Uncommon Knowledge, Woolsey described the CIA's intelligence about alleged Iraqi chemical and biological weapons as a "failure" before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He criticized the Bush administration for lumping together many different materials with different capabilities under the broad category of weapons of mass destruction. He also stated that the Iraqis engaged in "red on red deception" in which Generals were led to falsely believe that their rival Generals had weapons, and he described the American intelligence failure as a reasonable mistake rather than an act of incompetence.
Along with six other former directors, Woolsey was one of the signatories to the letter of September 18, 2009, sent to President Barack Obama urging him to exercise authority to reverse Attorney General Eric Holder's decision on August 24 to reopen the criminal investigation of CIA interrogations.
In 2010, Woolsey supported Oklahoma SQ 755, forbidding courts from considering or using Sharia, recording a message aired for thousands of Oklahomans. Woolsey, along with co-authors such as former Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence William G. Boykin and activist Frank Gaffney, released a book entitled Shariah: The Threat to America, published by the Center for Security Policy. The book "describes what its authors call a 'stealth jihad' that must be thwarted before it's too late", and argues: "Most mosques in the United States already have been radicalized, that most Muslim social organizations are fronts for violent jihadists and that Muslims who practice sharia law seek to impose it in this country".
Woolsey believes that Edward Snowden's disclosure of classified intelligence methods has done grave damage to the security of western nations. During an interview with Fox News on December 17, 2013, discussing the idea of granting Snowden amnesty, Woolsey stated, "I think giving him amnesty is idiotic. ... He should be prosecuted for treason. If convicted by a jury of his peers, he should be hanged by his neck until he is dead". In a CNN interview, Woolsey said "the blood of a lot of these French young people is on [Snowden's] hands."
In a letter to the editor published in the July 5, 2012, The Wall Street Journal, Woolsey wrote that he supported the release of Jonathan Pollard, citing the passage of time: "When I recommended against clemency, Pollard had been in prison less than a decade. Today he has been incarcerated for over a quarter of a century under his life sentence." He pointed out that of the more than 50 recently convicted Soviet and Chinese spies, only two received life sentences, and two-thirds were sentenced to less time than Pollard has served so far. He further stated that "Pollard has cooperated fully with the U.S. government, pledged not to profit from his crime (e.g., from book sales), and has many times expressed remorse for what he did." Woolsey expressed his belief that Pollard is still imprisoned only because he is Jewish. He said, "anti-Semitism played a role in the continued detention of Pollard ... For those hung up for some reason on the fact that he's an American Jew, pretend he's a Greek- or Korean- or Filipino-American and free him."
In April 2021, Woolsey stated in an interview, while promoting his book Operation Dragon: Inside the Kremlin's Secret War on America, where he claims the Soviet Union ordered the assassination of John F. Kennedy, that he believes aliens were responsible for an anecdote told to him by 'someone he respects.'
- Foundation for Defense of Democracies
- Project for the New American Century
- Genie Energy
- Committee on the Present Danger
- Henry Jackson Society
- World Affairs Council of Washington, D.C.
- Richard Woolsey
- http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r101:S02NO9-642: Thomas.loc.gov[dead link]
- Q&A with Richard Miniter on Osama bin Laden on National Review Online
- Kaufman, Paula (3 June 2002). "Woolsey wary of more attacks; former CIA director James Woolsey says the U.S. could ensure a more peaceful world by toppling Iraq's Saddam Hussein and ceasing its toleration of Mideast tyrants". Insight on the News.
- FBI. "Aldrich Ames". FBI Website. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- Powell, Bill (2002-11-01), Treason: How a Russian Spy Led an American Journalist to a U.S. Double Agent, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-7432-2915-0
- John Broder (29 December 1994). "Woolsey Resigns as CIA Director'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- "James Woolsey". Right Web. Archived from the original on 19 September 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2006.
- International Advisory Board of NGO Monitor
- "Project New American Century : The Indy Voice - "Be the change you want to see in the world ..."". Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2006.
- "Report". Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. 15 July 1998. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "VantagePoint Venture Partners adds former CIA director, analyst to cleantech team". VentureBeat. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Shipman, Tim (21 June 2008). "John McCain hires former CIA director Jim Woolsey as green advisor". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
- James Woolsey and Richard Foster join Lux
- "Breaking America's Oil Addiction: Fuel Freedom Launches Campaign" Archived 2013-06-28 at archive.today "Bask Magazine", October 24, 2012
- "An Interview With The Honorable R. James Woolsey". The Jamestown Foundation. 18 December 2003. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Americaabroadmedia.org Archived 2014-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
- Armstrong, Martin (4 May 2017). "Is There Really More Oil in The Golan Heights than in Saudi Arabia? Who's Genie Energy?". Armstrong Economics.
- Iwp.edu Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
- "Former CIA director Woolsey named to Imperial Pacific's new advisory committee". Marianas Variety. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- Diamond, Jeremy (12 September 2016). "Former CIA chief under Clinton joins Trump campaign". CNN. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
- "Linton's former CIA director advising Trump on national security". Politico. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Rucker, Philip (5 January 2017). "Former CIA director James Woolsey quits Trump transition team". The Washington Post.
- Dilanian, Ken (27 October 2017). "Ex-CIA Director Spoke to Mueller About Flynn's Alleged Turkish Scheme". NBC News.
- Greta Van Susteren (27 March 2017). Ex-CIA Head: 'I Had Nothing to do With General Flynn' (video). NBC News. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
- "Moscow imposes entry bans on senior US officials". Badische Zeitung. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- "Former CIA director claims the Soviet Union was responsible for the assassination of JFK". Retrieved 17 April 2021.
- Indyk, Martin (2009). Innocent Abroad: An Intimate Account of American Peace Diplomacy in the Middle East. Simon and Schuster. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4165-9429-1.
- Halberstam, David (2002). War in a Time of Peace. Simon and Schuster. pp. 191–92. ISBN 0-7432-1824-8.
- McMahon, Robert (3 June 2008). "McCain's Brain Trust". Newsweek. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- Intelligence and Security with James Woolsey Archived 2009-02-06 at the Wayback Machine. Uncommon Knowledge. Filmed on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
- EELPJ Symposium February, 2007
- Ending the Oil Era Archived 2007-06-26 at the Wayback Machine The Futurist July, 2007
- "Plug In To The World's Quietest Inaugural Parade". The Wired. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- "Homeland Security Today_ US Oil Complex Vulnerable to Attack". HSToday. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
- Woolsey, James (2008). Foreword to 50 Simple Steps to Save the Earth from Global Warming. Freedom Press, 2008.
- Former CIA Director Asserts Iraq May be Behind Terrorist Attacks CNN September 12, 2001
- Morrison, Micah (2 September 2002). "The Iraq Connection". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 June 2008.
- Woolsey Needs to Make a Choice Between Being a War Profiteer or War Pundit Archived 2006-08-30 at the Wayback Machine The Washington Note July 10, 2005
- "War in Iraq, with Mel Goodman". The Washington Post. 15 April 2003. Archived from the original on 21 August 2008.
- Melvin A. Goodman Staff list Center for International Policy
- Letter to President Obama from Former Directors of Central Intelligence or Directors of the CIA, September 18, 2009
- Ure, Laurie. "Oklahoma voters face question on Islamic law". www.cnn.com.
- Priest, Dana and Arkin, William (December 2010) Monitoring America Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post
- Tomlinson, Lucas (17 December 2013). "Ex-CIA director: Snowden should be 'hanged' if convicted for treason". Fox News.
- "Ex CIA chief: Blood of French people on Snowden's hands". CNN.
- Woolsey, James (5 July 2012). "It's Time to Commute Jonathan Pollard's Sentence". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- "Pollard's fate". The Jerusalem Post. 10 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Ex-CIA Chief Blames Anti-Semitism for Detention of Pollard Archived 2014-04-07 at the Wayback Machine
- Woolsey, R. James; Pacepa, Ion Mihai (23 February 2021). Operation Dragon: Inside the Kremlin's Secret War on America. Encounter Books. ISBN 978-1-64177-146-7.
- Alexander, Harriet (6 April 2021). "Former CIA director says he 'hopes we can be friendly' with aliens". www.msn.com. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
- "Former Trump Adviser Woolsey Denies Lobbying for Congolese Government". BuzzFeed.
- "Nancye Miller Woolsey Bio — UN Women for Peace Association". Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- Cornell, Thomas Clapp. Adam and Anne Mott: their ancestors and their descendants. A.V. Haight, 1890 Retrieved November 10, 2013.
- "Correspondence with Director Woolsey". Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Biographical information CIA.org
- "Former CIA Director Jim Woolsey Takes to the Stage in John Goldfarb, Please Come Home"
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- James Woolsey's interview with The Politic
- James Woolsey & Michael Garin – "Dixie Chicken" @YouTube
- One-on-One Interview with James R. Woolsey Report by Leadel.NET
- SourceWatch Profile
- Turning Oil into Salt by R. James Woolsey & Anne Korin
- Woolsey's political donations
- World War IV speech by James R. Woolsey
- Institute of World Politics
- Membership at the Council on Foreign Relations