R. Muthuraman

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R. Muthuraman
R. Muthuraman.JPG
Muthuraman in Server Sundaram (1964)
Born Muthuraman Radhakrishnan
24 January 1929
Died 16 October 1981(1981-10-16) (aged 52)
Other names Navarasa Thilagam
Occupation Film actor, Producer
Years active 1955–1981
Spouse(s) Sulochana Muthuraman
Children Karthik and 3 More

Muthuraman Radhakrishnan, popularly known as R. Muthuraman (1929–1981) was an Indian film actor who predominantly appeared in Tamil language films.[1] He was a leading actor during the 1960s and 1970s and was fondly called as Navarasa Thilagam. He had paired with all the leading heroines of his time and acted in over a hundred films. Muthuraman's son Karthik is also a popular Tamil actor and politician, and his grandson Gautham Karthik is also an actor who made his debut in Kadal (2013).

Early life[edit]

Muthuraman was born in Theni to a family that had no stage or acting links. He was the son of an advocate and his uncle was a police officer. However, in his youth he was attracted towards films and the fine arts. He joined the field much later in life, as he first became a government employee due to family pressure.[2]

Film career[edit]

In 1947, was acting in stage group called Vairam Nadaka Sabha along with Veteran Manorama, Kulatheivam Rajagopal etc. He was helped by a known philanthropist Sri KSBS Ganapathi (Late) from Thoothukudi to come in Cine field.

Muthuraman was a stage actor in his early days. He joined veteran actor S.S. Rajendran's SSR Nataka Mandram and then Seva Stage and acted in numerous dramas, including Manimagudam, Muthumandapam and Bharathiyar's poetic dramas.

He acted as Suppu, a simpleton in Thenthoosi, a film that starred Gemini Ganesan in the lead role. He went to play a few major roles and many secondary roles in about 100 movies in the sixties and seventies. Although he was a player in an era dominated by stalwarts such as MGR, Sivaji Ganesan and Gemini Ganesan, he made a name and place for himself as a popular supporting actor. This handsome and mature actor was known as Navarasa Thilakam.


He was paired with many heroines of the time including Devika and Jayalalithaa, but his most constant heroine with whom he was paired for a record of 19 times was Kanchana. He starred in many successful films, in co-hero roles in movies such as Kaadhalikka Neramillai and supporting roles in movies such as Server Sundaram.[2]

Family[edit]

Muthuraman was married to Sulochana. The couple had four children, the youngest of whom, Karthik Muthuraman, became a popular actor in his own right.[2]

Death[edit]

In October 1981, Muthuraman arrived at Ooty to attend the shooting for Ayiram Muthangal. When he was jogging as part of a routine exercise, he fainted due to a heart attack. The film unit of Moondram Pirai saw Muthuraman on the road and called for a doctor. But the doctor declared Muthuraman dead on 16 October.[3] He was 52 years old at the time of his death.[4]

Filmography[edit]

1980s[edit]

Year Title Role Co-Stars Director Notes
1982 Pokkiri Raja Rajinikanth, Sridevi S.P. Muthuraman Last film
1980 Guru Raghu Kamal Hassan, Sridevi I. V. Sasi

1970s[edit]

Year Title Role Co-Stars Director Notes
1979 Raja Rajeswari Sujatha Sreekanth N Sambandam
1978 Achchani Lakshmi Shobha Devaraj Mohan
1978 Aval thantha uravu Sharadha Durai
1978 Kaatrinile Varum Geetham Kavita Sp Muthuraman
1978 Anna Poorani K R Vijaya Krishnan Panju
1978 Per solla oru pillai Sripriya Sreekanth Krishnan Panju
1978 Sri Kanchi Kamakshi Sujatha, Sreekanth K S Gopala Krishnan
1977 Aalukkoru Aasai Jayachithra, Thengai Srinivasan SP Muthuraman
1977 Deviyin Thirumanam K R Vijaya, Padmapriya P Madhavan
1977 Mazhai megam Saradha, Sreekanth AS Prakasam
1977 Murugan Adimai KR Vijaya, Vijayakumar R Thiagarajan
1977 Nee Vazha Vendum Sumithra, Manorama A Bhimsingh
1977 Pennjanmam Jaya Prabha, Baskar, Jayamalini AC Thrilok chander
1977 Punitha Anthoniyar Lakshmi, Jayachithra. Savithri Nanjil Durai
1977 Punniyam Seithaval Vijaya kumar, Sripriya, Fatapat Jayalakshmi KS Gopalakrishnan
1977 Thalia Salangaiya Vanisri TR Ramanna
1976 Vazhvu En Pakkam Raju Lakshmi, Sreekanth Krishnan Panju
1976 Kanavan Manaivi Jayalalitha A Bhimsingh
1976 Perum Pugazhum Sujatha, Cho Muktha Srinivasan
1976 Kaalangalil Aval Vasantham Sri Vidya, Chandrakala S P Muthuraman
1976 Nalla Penmani Sri Vidya A Jagannathan
1976 Seervarisai Lakshmi, Manorama K Sornam
1976 Chitra Pournami Sivaji Ganesan, Jayalalitha, Vijayakumari P Madhavan
1976 Inspector Manaivi Jayachithra, Sreekanth, Kumari Padmini S Rajendra Babu
1976 Kula Gauravam Jaynthi, Jaya Sudha Pekketti Sivaram
1976 Muthana Muthallavo Sujatha, Pushpalatha R Vittal
1976 Unmaiye Un Vilai Enna Padmapriya, Sreekanth Cho
1975 Oru Kudumbathin Kadhai Nanditha Bose, Sumithra Durai
1975 Amudha Ravichandran, C. R. Vijayakumari, Rajasree R. Venkatraman
1975 Vaira Nenjam Sivaji Ganesan, Padmapriya C. V. Sridhar
1975 Vaazhnthu Kaattugiren Ramanathan Sujatha, Padmapriya, Sreekanth Krishnan–Panju
1975 Aan Pillai Singam Sivakumar, Sujatha, Sripriya S. P. Muthuraman
1975 Ezhaikkum Kaalam Varum Sreekanth, Shubha, Fatafat Jayalaxmi S. Rajendra Babu
1975 Uravu Solla Oruvan Sujatha, Sivakumar, Padmapriya Devaraj–Mohan
1975 Mayangukiral Oru Maadhu Kumar Sujatha, Vijayakumar, Thengai Srinivasan, Fatafat Jayalaxmi S. P. Muthuraman
1975 Ellorum Nallavare Manjula, Jayanthi, Lokesh S. S. Balan
1975 Kasthuri Vijayam K. R. Vijaya, Sreekanth, Vidhubala P. Madhavan
1975 Avandhan Manidhan Sivaji Ganesan, Jayalalithaa A. C. Tirulokchandar
1975 Piriya Vidai Prameela Srikanth
1975 Anbu Roja Latha Devaraj–Mohan
1974 Avalum Penn Thaane Muthu Sumithra Durai
1974 Kadavul Mama Jayachitra K. Singamuthu
1974 Thai Pirandhal P. Bhanumathi, Sharada A. K. Subramaniam
1974 Engamma Sapatham Jayachitra, Sivakumar, Vidhubala S. P. Muthuraman Again Remade in Tamil as Vanaja Girija (1994)
1974 Engal Kula Dheivam K. R. Vijaya, Jayachitra P. R. Somu
1974 Anbu Thangai Jayalalithaa, Jaya S. P. Muthuraman
1974 Pathu Madha Bandham P. Bhanumathi, B. Saroja Devi, A. V. M. Rajan, Ravichandran, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, Rajasree Krishnan–Panju
1974 Penn Ondru Kanden Prameela Gopu
1974 Roshakkari K. R. Vijaya, Ravichandran, Kumari Padmini Madurai Thirumaran
1974 Vani Rani Dr. Ravi Sivaji Ganesan, Vanisri Tapi Chanakya
C. V. Rajendran
1974 Dheerga Sumangali K. R. Vijaya, Sivakumar, Jayasudha A. C. Tirulokchandar
1974 Dhaagam Nanditha Bose, Major Sundarrajan, Rajakokila Babu Nanthankode
1974 Thirumangalyam Jayalalithaa, Lakshmi, Sivakumar A. Vincent
1973 Malligai Poo K. R. Vijaya, Prameela N. S. Maniam
1973 Radha Prameela, Rani Chandra A. C. Tirulokchandar
1973 Nathayil Muthu Madhu K. R. Vijaya K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1973 Karaikkal Ammaiyar Paramathathan K. B. Sundarambal, Lakshmi, Sivakumar, Kumari Padmini, Srividya A. P. Nagarajan
1973 Deiva Kuzhandhaigal Jaishankar, Jaya, Kumari Padmini S. P. Muthuraman
1973 Veettukku Vandha Marumagal A. V. M. Rajan, Ravichandran, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, Lakshmi R. Vittal Guest Appearance
1973 Thirumalai Deivam King Tondaimann Gemini Ganesan, K. B. Sundarambal, S. Varalakshmi, A. V. M. Rajan, C. R. Vijayakumari, Lakshmi, Sivakumar, Srividya A. P. Nagarajan
1973 Suryagandhi Mohan Jayalalithaa V. Srinivasan
1973 Sondham K. R. Vijaya, Prameela, Sivakumar A. C. Tirulokchandar
1973 Ponnunjal Sivaji Ganesan, Ushanandini C. V. Rajendran
1973 Shanmugapriya Jayanthi K. Krishnamurthy
1973 Nyayam Ketkirom Lakshmi, Kanchana C. V. Rajendran
1973 Rajaraja Cholan Prince Vimaladhithan Sivaji Ganesan, Lakshmi, S. Varalakshmi, Sivakumar, C. R. Vijayakumari A. P. Nagarajan
1973 Nalla Mudivu Gemini Ganesan, Jayanthi C. N. Shanmugam
1973 Maru Piravi Manjula, Nagesh T. R. Ramanna
1973 Petha Manam Pithu Savitri, Jaya S. P. Muthuraman
1972 Itho Enthan Deivam K. R. Vijaya, Major Sundarrajan A. C. Tirulokchandar
1972 Dheivam Mani Gemini Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, Sowcar Janaki, Jaya, Sivakumar M. A. Thirumugam
1972 Bathilukku Bathil A. V. M. Rajan, C. R. Vijayakumari, Vennira Aadai Nirmala C. P. Jambulingam
1972 Vazhaiyadi Vazhai Prameela, Jayachitra, Sriranjani, P. R. Varalakshmi K.S. Gopalakrishnan
1972 Kannamma K. R. Vijaya, Jayakumari Ma. Lakshmanan
1972 Dharmam Engey Sivaji Ganesan, Jayalalithaa, Kumari Padmini A. C. Tirulokchandar
1972 Delhi To Madras Jaishankar, Srividya, Vijayasree I. N. Murthy
1972 Kanimuthu Paappa Jaishankar, Lakshmi, Jaya S. P. Muthuraman
1972 Kasethan Kadavulada Ramu Lakshmi, Thengai Srinivasan Gopu
1972 Kurathi Magan Gemini Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, Master Sridhar, Jayachitra K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1972 Mr. Sampath Sampath Jaya, Cho Cho
1972 Dhikku Theriyadha Kaattil Jayalalithaa, Baby Sumathi N. C. Chakravarthi
1972 Rani Yaar Kuzhanthai Jaishankar, Lakshmi, Jaya, 'Baby' Rani D. Yoganand
1971 Oru Thaai Makkal Ravi M. G. Ramachandran, Jayalalithaa, Udaya Chandrika P. Neelakantan
1971 Soodhattam Jaishankar, K. R. Vijaya 'Madurai' Thirumaran
1971 Punnagai Rajan Gemini Ganesan, Jayanthi, Nagesh K. Balachander
1971 Aathi Parasakthi Gemini Ganesan, Padmini, Jayalalithaa, Vanisri, Rajasree, Vennira Aadai Nirmala K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1971 Moondru Dheivangal Muthu Sivaji Ganesan, Nagesh, Chandrakala, Sivakumar Dada Mirasi
1971 Sudarum Sooravaliyum Gemini Ganesan, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, Jaya S. R. Puttanna
1971 Irulum Oliyum Ramu Vanisri, A. V. M. Rajan S. R. Puttanna
1971 Annai Velankanni Land Lord Gemini Ganesan, Padmini, K. R. Vijaya, Jayalalithaa, Devika, Sivakumar, Srividya K. Thangappan
1971 Savaale Samali Marimuthu Sivaji Ganesan, Jayalalithaa, C. R. Vijayakumari Malliyam Rajagopal Guest Appearance
1971 Veguli Penn Captain Muthu Gemini Ganesan, Devika, Vennira Aadai Nirmala S. S. Devadoss
1971 Avalukendru Oru Manam Gopal Gemini Ganesan, Bharathi, Kanchana C. V. Sridhar
1971 Uyir B. Saroja Devi, Lakshmi Somasundar
1971 Arunodhayam Sivaji Ganesan, B. Saroja Devi, Lakshmi V. Srinivasan
1971 Pudhiya Vazhkai Raju Jaishankar, Jayabharathi, A. Sakunthala C. V. Rajendran
1971 Iru Thuruvam Durai Sivaji Ganesan, Padmini, Rajasree S. Ramanathan Remake of Hindi Film Gunga Jumna 1961
1970 Nilave Nee Satchi Jaishankar, K. R. Vijaya, Manimala, Vijayasree P. Madhavan
1970 Namma Veettu Deivam K. R. Vijaya, Nagesh G. N. Velumani
1970 Sorgam Sivaji Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, Rajasree, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, Vijaya Lalitha T. R. Ramanna
1970 Engirundho Vandhaal Sivaji Ganesan, Jayalalithaa A. C. Tirulokchandar Guest Appearance
1970 Anadhai Anandhan Jayalalithaa, A. V. M. Rajan, Master Sekhar Krishnan–Panju
1970 Kannan Varuvan Jaishankar, Lakshmi, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, Vijaya Lalitha I. N. Murthy
1970 Navagraham Siva Nagesh, Lakshmi, Ragini, Sivakumar K. Balachander
1970 Raman Ethanai Ramanadi Sivaji Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya P. Madhavan
1970 Maanavan Jaishankar, Lakshmi, Sowcar Janaki M. A. Thirumugam
1970 Veettuku Veedu Balu Jaishankar, Lakshmi, Vennira Aadai Nirmala C. V. Rajendran
1970 En Annan Murali M. G. Ramachandran, Jayalalithaa, Vijaya Nirmala P. Neelakantan
1970 Noorandu Kalam Vazhga A. V. M. Rajan, Kanchana, Vennira Aadai Nirmala, L. Vijayalakshmi K. Sampath
1970 Thabalkaran Thangai Gemini Ganesan, Vanisri, Shylashri K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1970 Penn Deivam Padmini, Jaishankar, Lakshmi, Major Sundarrajan M. A. Thirumugam

1960s[edit]

Year Title Role Co-Stars Director Notes
1969 Sivandha Mann Anand Sivaji Ganesan, Kanchana C. V. Sridhar
1969 Avare En Daivam Gemini Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, C. R. Vijayakumari C. N. Shanmugam
1969 Thulabharam A. V. M. Rajan, Sharada, Kanchana A. Vincent
1969 Nirai Kudam Sambath Sivaji Ganesan, Vanisri V. Srinivasan
1969 Gurudhatchanai Sivaji Ganesan, Padmini, Jayalalithaa A. P. Nagarajan
1969 Kanne Pappa Bhaskar K. R. Vijaya, 'Baby' Rani P. Madhavan
1969 Kaaval Dheivam Lakshmi, Sivakumar K. Vijayan Guest Appearance
1969 Suba Dhinam Nagesh, Pushpalatha, Jayabharathi Sreekanth
1968 Ethir Neechal Nair Nagesh, Sowcar Janaki, Jayanthi K. Balachander
1968 Uyira Maanama Jaishankar, Vijaya Nirmala, Krishna Kumari K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1968 Kannan En Kadhalan Sundaram M. G. Ramachandran, Jayalalithaa, Vanisri P. Neelakantan
1968 Teacheramma Jaishankar, C. R. Vijayakumari, Vanisri S. R. Puttanna
1968 Thaer Thiruvizha Muthu / Ram M. G. Ramachandran, Jayalalithaa, C. R. Vijayakumari M. A. Thirumugam
1968 Poovum Pottum P. Bhanumathi, S. V. Ranga Rao, A. V. M. Rajan, Bharathi Dada Mirasi
1968 Devi Devika A. K. Velan
1967 Ooty Varai Uravu Sundaram Sivaji Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, L. Vijayalakshmi C. V. Sridhar
1967 Naan Ravichandran, Jayalalithaa, Nagesh T. R. Ramanna
1967 Anubavam Pudhumai Rajasree C. V. Rajendran
1967 Anubavi Raja Anubavi Janakiraman Nagesh, Rajasree, Jayabharathi K. Balachander
1967 Thiruvarutchelvar Sivaji Ganesan, Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, Padmini, K. R. Vijaya, Srividya, Kutty Padmini A. P. Nagarajan
1967 Muhurtha Naal Jai Shankar, K. R. Vijaya P. Madhavan
1967 Seetha Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, K. R. Vijaya A. P. Nagarajan
1967 Deiva Cheyal Major Sundararajan, Bharathi M. G. Balu
1967 Thangai Sivaji Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, Kanchana A. C. Tirulokchandar
1967 Nenjirukkum Varai Sivaji Ganesan, K. R. Vijaya, Geethanjali C. V. Sridhar
1967 Bama Vijayam Raman Sowcar Janaki, Major Sundararajan, Nagesh, Rajasree, Kanchana K. Balachander
1967 Manam Oru Kurangu A. V. M. Rajan, K. R. Vijaya, Vijaya Rani A. T. Krishnaswamy
1967 Rajathi Udaya Chandrika Ma. Lakshmanan
1966 Namma Veettu Lakshmi B. R. Panthulu, A. V. M. Rajan, Bharathi, Vanisri, M. V. Rajamma B. R. Panthulu Guest Appearance
1966 Major Chandrakanth Srikanth Major Sundararajan, Jayalalithaa, A. V. M. Rajan, Nagesh K. Balachander
1966 Thaaye Unakkaga Sivakumar, Jayalalithaa, C. R. Vijayakumari P. Pullaiah Guest Appearance
1966 Mahakavi Kalidas Sivaji Ganesan, K. B. Sundarambal, Sowcar Janaki, L. Vijayalakshmi R. R. Chandran
1966 Marakka Mudiyumaa? S. S. Rajendran, Devika, Kanchana Murasoli Maran
1966 Kodimalar Ramu C. R. Vijayakumari, A. V. M. Rajan, Kanchana C. V. Sridhar
1966 Chitthi Balu Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, Vijaya Nirmala K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1965 Naanal Inspector Baskaran K. R. Vijaya, Sowcar Janaki, Major Sundarrajan K. Balachander
1965 Thayin Karunai Kalyan Kumar, M. V. Rajamma, Leelavathi, Vadhana G. V. Iyer
1965 Thiruvilaiyadal Shenbaga Pandiyan Sivaji Ganesan, Savitri, K. B. Sundarambal, Devika A. P. Nagarajan
1965 Panchavarna Kili Jaishankar, K. R. Vijaya K. Shankar
1965 Vaazhkai Padagu Gopal Gemini Ganesan, Devika, S. V. Ranga Rao, Geetanjali C. Srinivasan The film was remake of Hindi film as Zindagi (1964)
1965 Panam Tharum Parisu M. R. Radha, C. R. Vijayakumari M. Krishnaswamy
1965 Poojaikku Vandha Malar Ravi Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, Manimala V. Srinivasan
1965 Pazhani Muthu Sivaji Ganesan, S. S. Rajendran, Devika, Pushpalatha A. Bhimsingh
1964 Server Sundaram Raghavan Nagesh, K. R. Vijaya Krishnan–Panju
1964 Amma Engey Chandrakantha, Rajasree, R. S. Manohar G. Vishwanathan
1964 Kalai Kovil Kannan Chandrakantha, Rajasree, S. V. Subbaiah, Nagesh, Jayanthi C. V. Sridhar
1964 Deiva Thirumagal S. A. Ashokan, Chandrakantha, Nalini Sandow M. M. A. Chinnappa Thevar
1964 Nanum Manidhandhaan C. L. Anandan, Chandrakantha, Rajasree A. Sheshagiri Rao
1964 Kadhalikka Neramillai Vasu / Chidambaram Ravichandran, Rajasree, Kanchana, Nagesh C. V. Sridhar First Lead Role
One of Highest grosser of the Year
1964 Karnan Arjuna Sivaji Ganesan, N. T. Rama Rao, Savitri, Devika B. R. Panthulu
1963 Karpagam Rajangam Gemini Ganesan, Savitri, S. V. Ranga Rao, K. R. Vijaya, Sheela K. S. Gopalakrishnan
1963 Annai Illam Sivaji Ganesan, Devika, S. V. Ranga Rao, Jayanthi P. Madhavan
1963 Vanambadi Mohan S. S. Rajendran, Devika, Sheela G. R. Nathan
1963 Kungumam Das Sivaji Ganesan, S. S. Rajendran, C. R. Vijayakumari, Sharada Krishnan–Panju
1963 Paar Magale Paar Shekar Sivaji Ganesan, Sowcar Janaki, Vijayakumari, M. R. Radha, A. V. M. Rajan, Pushpalatha, Kumari Rukmini A. Bhimsingh
1963 Mani Osai Kalyan Kumar, C. R. Vijayakumari, M. R. Radha, Pushpalatha, Kumari Rukmini P. Madhavan
1963 Kadavulai Kanden Kalyan Kumar, M. R. Radha, Devika, Sowcar Janaki, Kumari Rukmini A. S. A. Sami
1962 Sumaithaangi Gemini Ganesan, Devika, L. Vijayalakshmi, K. Balaji C. V. Sridhar
1962 Policekaran Magal Chinnaiah K. Balaji, C. R. Vijayakumari, Pushpalatha, S. V. Sahasranamam, Santha Kumari C. V. Sridhar
1962 Azhagu Nila Kalyan Kumar, Malini, Vasanthi S. Raghavan
1962 Padithal Mattum Podhuma Moorthy Sivaji Ganesan, Savitri, M. R. Radha, K. Balaji, Rajasulochana A. Bhimsingh
1962 Nenjil Or Aalayam Venu Kalyan Kumar, Devika C. V. Sridhar One of Biggest Blockbuster of the Year
Breakthrough in Supporting Role
1961 Arasilangkumari Pulikesi M. G. Ramachandran, Padmini, Rajasulochana A. S. A. Sami & A. Kasilingam
1960 Paadhai Theriyudhu Paar K. Vijayan, L. Vijayalakshmi, S. V. Sahasranamam, S. V. Subbaiah, M. S. Sundari Bai Nemai Ghosh
1960 Padikkadha Medhai Sivaji Ganesan, Sowcar Janaki, S. V. Ranga Rao, P. Kannamba A. Bhimsingh
1960 Mahalakshmi S. V. Sahasranamam, Pandari Bai, K. Balaji, Mynavathi A. L. Narayanan

1950s[edit]

Year Title Role Co-Stars Director Notes
1959 Sahodhari Ravi K. Balaji, Rajasulochana, Prem Nazir, Devika, J. P. Chandrababu A. Bhimsingh
1959 Ulagam Sirikkiradhu M. R. Radha, Sowcar Janaki, Prem Nazir R. Ramamurthy
1959 Naalu Veli Nilam S. V. Sahasranamam, Pandari Bai, Mynavathi, S. V. Subbaiah, Devika V. Srinivasan
1959 Mala Oru Mangala Vilakku Chittor V. Nagaiah, Madhuri Devi, N. N. Kannappa S. Mukherjee Debut Movie
1956 Rangoon Radha Lawyer Sivaji Ganesan, P. Bhanumathi, S. S. Rajendran, Rajasulochana, M. N. Rajam A. Kasilingam Vijay

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. Muthuraman, IMDb, retrieved 29 November 2008
  2. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 April 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  3. ^ "Potpourri of titbits about Tamil cinema - Muthuraman". Kalyanamalai Magazine. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  4. ^ "OBITUARIES" (PDF). Variety. 4 November 1981. Retrieved 18 October 2016.

External links[edit]