RAD1 homolog

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Protein RAD9A PDB 3A1J.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases RAD1, HREC1, RAD1 homolog, RAD1 checkpoint DNA exonuclease
External IDs MGI: 1316678 HomoloGene: 37695 GeneCards: RAD1
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE RAD1 204461 x at fs.png

PBB GE RAD1 204460 s at fs.png

PBB GE RAD1 210216 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)


Location (UCSC) Chr 5: 34.91 – 34.92 Mb Chr 15: 10.49 – 10.5 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD1 gene.[3][4][5]


This gene encodes a component of a heterotrimeric cell cycle checkpoint complex, known as the 9-1-1 complex, that is activated to stop cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited by RAD17 to affected sites where it may attract specialized DNA polymerases and other DNA repair effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described.[5]


RAD1 homolog has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Freire R, Murguía JR, Tarsounas M, Lowndes NF, Moens PB, Jackson SP (September 1998). "Human and mouse homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1(+) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD17: linkage to checkpoint control and mammalian meiosis". Genes Dev. 12 (16): 2560–73. doi:10.1101/gad.12.16.2560. PMC 317084Freely accessible. PMID 9716408. 
  4. ^ Bluyssen HA, van Os RI, Naus NC, Jaspers I, Hoeijmakers JH, de Klein A (January 1999). "A human and mouse homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1+ cell cycle checkpoint control gene". Genomics. 54 (2): 331–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5582. PMID 9828137. 
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: RAD1 RAD1 homolog (S. pombe)". 
  6. ^ a b Volkmer E, Karnitz LM (January 1999). "Human homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1, hus1, and rad9 form a DNA damage-responsive protein complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (2): 567–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.2.567. PMID 9872989. 
  7. ^ Hang H, Zhang Y, Dunbrack RL, Wang C, Lieberman HB (April 2002). "Identification and characterization of a paralog of human cell cycle checkpoint gene HUS1". Genomics. 79 (4): 487–92. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6737. PMID 11944979. 
  8. ^ Bermudez VP, Lindsey-Boltz LA, Cesare AJ, Maniwa Y, Griffith JD, Hurwitz J, Sancar A (February 2003). "Loading of the human 9-1-1 checkpoint complex onto DNA by the checkpoint clamp loader hRad17-replication factor C complex in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (4): 1633–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0437927100. PMC 149884Freely accessible. PMID 12578958. 
  9. ^ Rauen M, Burtelow MA, Dufault VM, Karnitz LM (September 2000). "The human checkpoint protein hRad17 interacts with the PCNA-like proteins hRad1, hHus1, and hRad9". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (38): 29767–71. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005782200. PMID 10884395. 
  10. ^ Bao S, Tibbetts RS, Brumbaugh KM, Fang Y, Richardson DA, Ali A, Chen SM, Abraham RT, Wang XF (June 2001). "ATR/ATM-mediated phosphorylation of human Rad17 is required for genotoxic stress responses". Nature. 411 (6840): 969–74. doi:10.1038/35082110. PMID 11418864. 
  11. ^ Dufault VM, Oestreich AJ, Vroman BT, Karnitz LM (Dec 2003). "Identification and characterization of RAD9B, a paralog of the RAD9 checkpoint gene". Genomics. 82 (6): 644–51. doi:10.1016/s0888-7543(03)00200-3. PMID 14611806. 
  12. ^ Griffith JD, Lindsey-Boltz LA, Sancar A (May 2002). "Structures of the human Rad17-replication factor C and checkpoint Rad 9-1-1 complexes visualized by glycerol spray/low voltage microscopy". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (18): 15233–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200129200. PMID 11907025. 
  13. ^ Hirai I, Wang HG (July 2002). "A role of the C-terminal region of human Rad9 (hRad9) in nuclear transport of the hRad9 checkpoint complex". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25722–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203079200. PMID 11994305. 
  14. ^ Lindsey-Boltz LA, Bermudez VP, Hurwitz J, Sancar A (September 2001). "Purification and characterization of human DNA damage checkpoint Rad complexes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (20): 11236–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.201373498. PMC 58713Freely accessible. PMID 11572977. 

Further reading[edit]