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Protein RAD9A PDB 3A1J.png
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases RAD9A, RAD9, RAD9 checkpoint clamp component A
External IDs MGI: 1328356 HomoloGene: 32118 GeneCards: RAD9A
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE RAD9A 204828 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 11: 67.32 – 67.4 Mb Chr 19: 4.2 – 4.2 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Cell cycle checkpoint control protein RAD9A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD9A gene.[3]


This gene product is highly similar to Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9, a cell cycle checkpoint protein required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This protein is found to possess 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, which may contribute to its role in sensing and repairing DNA damage. It forms a checkpoint protein complex with RAD1 and HUS1. This complex is recruited by checkpoint protein RAD17 to the sites of DNA damage, which is thought to be important for triggering the checkpoint-signaling cascade. Use of alternative polyA sites has been noted for this gene.[4]


RAD9A has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Lieberman HB, Hopkins KM, Nass M, Demetrick D, Davey S (January 1997). "A human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad9+ checkpoint control gene". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 93 (24): 13890–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.24.13890. PMC 19459Freely accessible. PMID 8943031. 
  4. ^ "Entrez Gene: RAD9A RAD9 homolog A (S. pombe)". 
  5. ^ Yoshida K, Komatsu K, Wang HG, Kufe D (May 2002). "c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates the human Rad9 checkpoint protein in response to DNA damage". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (10): 3292–300. doi:10.1128/mcb.22.10.3292-3300.2002. PMC 133797Freely accessible. PMID 11971963. 
  6. ^ Wang L, Hsu CL, Ni J, Wang PH, Yeh S, Keng P, Chang C (March 2004). "Human checkpoint protein hRad9 functions as a negative coregulator to repress androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (5): 2202–13. doi:10.1128/mcb.24.5.2202-2213.2004. PMC 350564Freely accessible. PMID 14966297. 
  7. ^ Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP, Vidal M (October 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173–8. doi:10.1038/nature04209. PMID 16189514. 
  8. ^ a b Komatsu K, Miyashita T, Hang H, Hopkins KM, Zheng W, Cuddeback S, Yamada M, Lieberman HB, Wang HG (January 2000). "Human homologue of S. pombe Rad9 interacts with BCL-2/BCL-xL and promotes apoptosis". Nat. Cell Biol. 2 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1038/71316. PMID 10620799. 
  9. ^ Xiang SL, Kumano T, Iwasaki SI, Sun X, Yoshioka K, Yamamoto KC (October 2001). "The J domain of Tpr2 regulates its interaction with the proapoptotic and cell-cycle checkpoint protein, Rad9". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 287 (4): 932–40. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5685. PMID 11573955. 
  10. ^ Cai RL, Yan-Neale Y, Cueto MA, Xu H, Cohen D (September 2000). "HDAC1, a histone deacetylase, forms a complex with Hus1 and Rad9, two G2/M checkpoint Rad proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (36): 27909–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M000168200. PMID 10846170. 
  11. ^ a b c Dufault VM, Oestreich AJ, Vroman BT, Karnitz LM (Dec 2003). "Identification and characterization of RAD9B, a paralog of the RAD9 checkpoint gene". Genomics. 82 (6): 644–51. doi:10.1016/s0888-7543(03)00200-3. PMID 14611806. 
  12. ^ a b Volkmer E, Karnitz LM (January 1999). "Human homologs of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad1, hus1, and rad9 form a DNA damage-responsive protein complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (2): 567–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.2.567. PMID 9872989. 
  13. ^ a b Griffith JD, Lindsey-Boltz LA, Sancar A (May 2002). "Structures of the human Rad17-replication factor C and checkpoint Rad 9-1-1 complexes visualized by glycerol spray/low voltage microscopy". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (18): 15233–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200129200. PMID 11907025. 
  14. ^ a b Hirai I, Wang HG (July 2002). "A role of the C-terminal region of human Rad9 (hRad9) in nuclear transport of the hRad9 checkpoint complex". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25722–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203079200. PMID 11994305. 
  15. ^ a b Lindsey-Boltz LA, Bermudez VP, Hurwitz J, Sancar A (September 2001). "Purification and characterization of human DNA damage checkpoint Rad complexes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (20): 11236–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.201373498. PMC 58713Freely accessible. PMID 11572977. 
  16. ^ Bermudez VP, Lindsey-Boltz LA, Cesare AJ, Maniwa Y, Griffith JD, Hurwitz J, Sancar A (February 2003). "Loading of the human 9-1-1 checkpoint complex onto DNA by the checkpoint clamp loader hRad17-replication factor C complex in vitro". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (4): 1633–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0437927100. PMC 149884Freely accessible. PMID 12578958. 
  17. ^ Rauen M, Burtelow MA, Dufault VM, Karnitz LM (September 2000). "The human checkpoint protein hRad17 interacts with the PCNA-like proteins hRad1, hHus1, and hRad9". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (38): 29767–71. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005782200. PMID 10884395. 
  18. ^ Mäkiniemi M, Hillukkala T, Tuusa J, Reini K, Vaara M, Huang D, Pospiech H, Majuri I, Westerling T, Mäkelä TP, Syväoja JE (August 2001). "BRCT domain-containing protein TopBP1 functions in DNA replication and damage response". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (32): 30399–406. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102245200. PMID 11395493. 

Further reading[edit]