RAF Coningsby

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RAF Coningsby
Air Force Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
Near Coningsby, Lincolnshire in England
A Eurofighter Typhoon takes off from RAF Coningsby.
A Eurofighter Typhoon takes off from RAF Coningsby.
RAF Coningsby.png
Loyalty binds me[1]
RAF Coningsby is located in Lincolnshire
RAF Coningsby
RAF Coningsby
Shown within Lincolnshire
Coordinates53°05′35″N 000°09′58″W / 53.09306°N 0.16611°W / 53.09306; -0.16611Coordinates: 53°05′35″N 000°09′58″W / 53.09306°N 0.16611°W / 53.09306; -0.16611
TypeRoyal Air Force station
Area420 hectares (1,000 acres)[2]
Site information
OwnerMinistry of Defence
OperatorRoyal Air Force
Controlled byNo. 1 Group (Air Combat)
Open to
the public
Access to BBMF Hangar only
ConditionOperational
Websitehttp://www.raf.mod.uk/rafconingsby/
Site history
Built1940 (1940)
In use1940 – present
Garrison information
Current
commander
Group Captain Mark Flewin
Occupants See Based units section for full list.
Airfield information
IdentifiersIATA: QCY, ICAO: EGXC, WMO: 03391
Elevation24 feet (7 m) AMSL
Runways
Direction Length and surface
07/25 2,744 metres (9,003 ft) Asphalt and Concrete
Source: RAF Coningsby Defence Aerodrome Manual[3]

Royal Air Force Coningsby or RAF Coningsby (IATA: QCY, ICAO: EGXC), is a Royal Air Force (RAF) station located at located 13.7 kilometres (8.5 mi) south west of Horncastle, and 15.8 kilometres (9.8 mi) north west of Boston, in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. It is a Main Operating Base of the RAF and home to the Typhoon Force Headquarters and two front-line Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 units, No. 3 Squadron & No. 11 Squadron. In support of frontline units, No. 29 Squadron is the Typhoon Operational Conversion Unit and No. 41 Squadron is the Typhoon Operational Evaluation Unit. Coningsby is also the home of the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) which operates a variety of historic RAF aircraft.

History[edit]

Second World War[edit]

Plans for an airfield at Coningsby began in 1937 as part of the RAF's expansion scheme plan. However progress in the compulsory purchase of the land was slow and delayed the start of work for two years.[4] The station opened in due course on 4 November 1940 under No. 5 Group, part of RAF Bomber Command.[5][6][7] The first flying unit, No. 106 Squadron with the Handley Page Hampden medium bomber, arrived in February 1941, with active operations taking place the following month when four Hampdens bombed Cologne in Germany.[7] The squadron was joined in April 1941 by No. 97 Squadron equipped with Avro Manchester medium bombers.[6][5] In May 1942, aircraft from Coningsby participated in the 'Thousand Bomber' raid on Cologne.[7]

The original grass runways were found to be unsuitable for heavy bomber operations so the station was closed for nearly a year between September 1942 and August 1943, whilst paved runways were laid in preparation for accommodating such aircraft. At the same time further hangars were constructed.[4][5]

Three Avro Lancaster B.IIIs of No. 619 Squadron, airborne from RAF Coningsby whilst based there during 1944.
Three Avro Lancaster B.IIIs of No. 619 Squadron, airborne from RAF Coningsby whilst based there during 1944.

The first unit to return was the now famous No. 617 'Dambusters' Squadron. Equipped with Avro Lancaster heavy bombers, the squadron was stationed at Coningsby from August 1943. Due to its specialist nature, the Dambusters carried out limited operations whilst at Coningsby, with the most notable being Operation Garlic, a failed raid targeting the Dortmund-Ems canal in Germany, when five out of the eight Lancasters on the mission failed to return home. As the squadron required more space, its moved to nearby RAF Woodhall Spa in January 1944, swapping places with another Lancaster unit, No. 619 Squadron, which itself later moved on to RAF Dunholme Lodge.[4][8]

Further Lancaster squadrons were based at Coningsby during the final months of the war, including No. 61 Squadron from RAF Skellingthorpe, No. 83 Squadron and No. 97 Squadron.[5]

Post war[edit]

Following the Second World War, Coningsby was home to the Mosquito-equipped No. 109 Squadron and No. 139 Squadron, then became part of No. 3 Group, with Boeing Washington aircraft from 1950. On 17 August 1953 52-year-old Air Vice-Marshal William Brook, the Air Officer Commanding of No. 3 Group, took off from the base in a Gloster Meteor, and crashed into a Dutch barn at Bradley, Staffordshire.

Jet aircraft[edit]

The airfield received its first jet aircraft—the English Electric Canberra—in 1953.[9] During 1956, the station expanded with the runway being extended.[9] Avro Vulcans arrived in 1962, which were transferred to RAF Cottesmore in November 1964.[9]

From 1964–66, the station had been initially designated to receive the proposed RAF fighter, the advanced BAC TSR-2 ,[9] which was cancelled for purported economic reasons in April 1965 by the Labour Government. The TSR2 was planned to join No. 40 Squadron at Coningsby in 1968 to replace the Canberra.

Phantoms[edit]

The TSR2's intended replacement—the American General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark—was shelved on 16 January 1968[10] when its costs overshot the UK's budget (it would have cost £425m for 50 aircraft). The TSR2 had large development costs, whereas the F-111 (also known as Tactical Fighter Experimental, or TFX) could be bought off the shelf. Coningsby was planned to get the General Dynamics F-111K, the RAF version of the F-111; also in the 1966 Defence White Paper, it was intended that the Anglo-French AFVG, later the UKVG, would replace the TSR2 (it did eventually as the Tornado). 50 F-111Ks were planned with 100 AFVGs (to enter service by 1970); Denis Healey claimed the F-111s and AFVGs would be cheaper than the TSR2 programme (158 aircraft) by £700m. As Minister of Aviation throughout 1965, the Labour MP Roy Jenkins had also wanted to similarly cancel the Olympus-powered Concorde, but the 1962 Anglo-French treaty imposed prohibitive steep financial penalties for cancellation; the Hawker Siddeley P.1154 and HS.681 were cancelled at the same time.

After a parliament debate on 1 May 1967 about the prices of both F-111 and TSR2, Denis Healey simply wanted an aircraft programme that involved no research & development. Healey claimed that, over fifteen years, the TSR2 programme would cost £1,700m and the F-111 and AFVG would cost £1,000m—a large amount in 1965; none of the costings for these two figures were forthcoming, or how both numbers were arrived at, and could well have been fiction. AFVGs were also planned to replace the Buccaneer in the Royal Navy—Tornados were never were flown by the Royal Navy, as the carriers for them, the CVA-01s, were cancelled. But the Royal Navy did operate fourteen Phantoms on Ark Royal, until the new smaller carriers entered service—48 Phantoms had been designated for the Fleet Air Arm, with twenty of these ending up at Leuchars, and Ark Royal's Phantoms ended up at Leuchars in 1978. Eagle was never converted to Phantom use as it was deemed too expensive, and the carrier would simply be scrapped in January 1972, with its Sea Vixen aircraft. Another alternative considered by the Labour government in July 1965 for the TSR-2 was to order Spey-engined French Mirage IV aircraft, to be known as the Mirage IVS; it would have avionics from the TSR-2, and be partly made by BAC at Warton.[11]

RAF Phantom from No. 43 Squadron in September 1980; 6 Sqn was the first to get operational Phantoms in May 1969 at Coningsby; 54 Sqn received the aircraft in September 1969; both squadrons were disbanded in 1974

Spey-engined Phantoms (the plane the government eventually bought, having been ordered in February 1964 for the Fleet Air Arm, instead of the P.1154) were chosen in 1966 for the station's future as with the scrapping of aircraft carriers the Phantoms were not needed for the Fleet Air Arm,[9] with all RAF Phantom training taking place on the airfield, and the station became part in Fighter Command[9] until December 1967, when it joined Air Support Command as the Phantoms were initially in a ground attack role. Phantoms first saw operational service with the Fleet Air Arm in 1970. The first Phantom FGR2 (Fighter/Ground attack/Reconnaissance) arrived at Coningsby on 23 August 1968, with the first aircrew OCU course (228 OCU) beginning in October 1968. Air-defence Phantoms (FG1) also entered service in 1969 at RAF Leuchars. On 18 May 1970, a Phantom flew from the base non-stop to RAF Tengah, covering 8,680 mi (13,970 km) in 14 hours and 14 minutes at an average speed of 602 mph (969 km/h). In April 1968, Strike Command was formed and the airfield was transferred to 38 Group.

41 Sqn joined in April 1972, and stayed until 1977. The other ground attack Phantom squadrons (four of them) were at RAF Bruggen. 111 Sqn replaced their Lightnings (from Wattisham) with Phantoms from 1 October 1974. On 1 January 1975, 29 Sqn joined and stayed until 1987, when disbanded. On 1 November 1975, 23 Sqn joined until February 1976, when moved to Wattisham. In March 1976, 56 Sqn joined until July 1976, then went to Wattisham.

The Phantom's role changed to air defence in October 1974 when the airfield transferred to 11 Group in RAF Strike Command, when the SEPECAT Jaguar (situated in Norfolk) took over the ground attack role. 111 Sqn were the first to take the new air defence Phantoms. During 1975, the UK's air defence transferred to the Phantom FGR.2 from five squadrons of Lightnings. The UK was covered by NATO Early Warning Area 12. Three Sector Operations Centres were at Buchan, Boulmer and Neatishead; in the 1960s, the UK had the Linesman/Mediator radar system, which was obsolete by the 1970s. No 29 Sqn formed with Phantoms at Coningsby on 1 January 1975; until then the Phantom FG.1 had been operating with the Royal Navy only. On 3 March 1975 a Phantom crashed into a nearby house, with both pilot and navigator ejecting. The Queen visited the station on 30 June 1976. Part of 228 OCU, 64 Sqn trained the navigators and instructors at the base; hardened aircraft shelters were built in 1981.

Tornados[edit]

Panavia Tornado F3 ZE785 of No. 41 Squadron in July 2007.

Panavia Tornado F3 squadrons began to form from November 1984, namely No. 229 OCU/No. 65 Squadron.[12] Tornado training took place until April 1987, when the Phantoms left (to RAF Leuchars) and Coningsby had the first (No. 29 Squadron) Tornado air defence squadron.[13] To accommodate these new aircraft, extensive hardened aircraft shelters (HAS) and support facilities were built.[12] No. 5 Squadron arrived in January 1988, having prevously operated the English Electric Lightning.[14] The Tornado F3 carried the GEC-Marconi AI.24 Foxhunter radar.

During the Gulf War, Tornados from Coningsby were based for three months at Dhahran International Airport. Tornado engines were serviced on the northern section of the former RAF Woodhall Spa, denoted as RAF Woodhall.

Jaguars[edit]

No. 6 Squadron flew the last of the RAF's Jaguar aircraft at Coningsby briefly from April 2006 to May 2007; it was stood down from RAF service on 30 April 2007.

Eurofighter Typhoon[edit]

A Eurofighter Typhoon from No. 3 Squadron takes off in 2008.

Coningsby was the first airfield to receive the Phantoms,[9] the Tornado ADV[9] and was the first to receive its replacement, the Eurofighter Typhoon. No. 56 Squadron was posted here until March 2003 but relocated to RAF Leuchars and in 2008 to RAF Waddington to allow airfield improvements required for the arrival of the Typhoon. No. 5 Squadron also flew F3s from Coningsby until its disbandment in 2003 (this unit is now at Waddington). Typhoon arrived in May 2005 with No. 17 Squadron, after the RAF first publicly displayed the aircraft at Coningsby in December 2004. No 11 Squadron joined the station as a Typhoon unit in 2006.[15] In July 2007, the Typhoon became operational from the airfield (and the UK). The Typhoon also became operational from RAF Leuchars in September 2010. BAE Systems Military Air Solutions, who produce the aircraft, are also stationed on the airfield with the contract to maintain the aircraft.[16] On 1 July 2008, the Typhoon was declared by the RAF as being combat ready. The aeroplane, unlike the Tornado, needs no reheat to take off. RAF Coningsby is currently home to three Eurofighter Typhoon squadrons; No. 3 Squadron, No. XI Squadron and No. 29 Squadron.

Role and operations[edit]

RAF Coningsby's mission statement is 'To develop the future, deliver the present and commemorate the past of the Royal Air Force's combat air power.'[17] The station is home to nearly 3,000 military personnel, civil servants, and contractors.[18]

Typhoon operations[edit]

The Eurofighter Typhoon FGR4 provides the RAF with a multi-role combat capability for air policing, peace support and high intensity conflict. RAF Coningsby is the home to two front-line Typhoon units, No. 3(F) Squadron and No. 11 Squadron. They are accompanied by No. 29(R) Squadron which is the Typhoon Operational Conversion Unit which trains new crews.

From 2019 the new joint No. 12 Squadron RAF will assist Qatari pilots training on the Typhoon, until a planned move to Qatar.

Quick Reaction Alert[edit]

Since June 2007 Coningsby's Typhoons have been responsible for maintaining the Quick Reaction Alert (Interceptor) South mission (QRA(I)S). Aircraft and crews are held at a high state of readiness, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, to respond to unidentified aircraft approaching UK airspace. QRA missions range from civilian airliners which have stopped responding to air traffic control, to intercepting Russian aircraft such as the Tupolev Tu-95 Bear and Tu-160 Blackjack.

Test and Evaluation[edit]

The fourth Typhoon unit is No. 41 (Test and Evaluation) Squadron which is part of the Air Warfare Centre. The squadron develops operational tactics and evaluates new avionics and weapons systems. Formerly the Fast Jet and Weapons Operational Evaluation Unit (FJWOEU), it is a merger of the Strike/Attack OEU (previously based at MOD Boscombe Down), the Tornado F3 OEU (previously based at RAF Waddington) and the Air-Guided Weapons OEU (previously based at RAF Valley).

Battle of Britain Memorial Flight[edit]

Coningsby has been home of the Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) and the associated visitor centre since March 1976 when it arrived from RAF Coltishall.[9][19] The BBMF operate one of two remaining airworthy Avro Lancaster bombers in the world, alongside; six Spitfires of various types; two Hurricanes; a Dakota and two Chipmunks, the latter type being used for pilot training.

The BBMF is accessed via a separate entrance to the main base, with a car park, to the west of the airfield. The memorabilia display is free but there is a small charge for the hour-long guided tour around the hangar.

Force Protection[edit]

No. 7 Force Protection Wing Headquarters provides operational planning, command and control to two RAF Regiment field squadrons attached to the wing, No. 63 (Queen's Colour) Squadron (based at RAF Northolt) and No. 2623 (East Anglian) Squadron (RAuxAF) (based at RAF Honington) whose purpose is to protect RAF bases at home and abroad from ground attack. Part of No. 5 RAF Police Squadron, under the command of No. 8 RAF Force Protection Wing at RAF Waddington, is also based at the station and provides policing, security and guarding.

Air Land Integration (ALI) Cell[edit]

No. 7 Force Protection Wing includes the Air Land Integration (ALI) Cell, which provides a forward air control capability. The ALI Cell trains and provides Joint Terminal Attack Controllers (JTACS) and Tactical Air Controller Parties (TACPS) to support RAF and joint operations. The ALI Cell moved to Coningsby from RAF Honington in Suffolk and came under the control off the wing in June 2018.[20]

Expeditionary Air Wing[edit]

No. 121 Expeditionary Air Wing was formed at Coningsby on 1 April 2006 and encompasses most of the non-formed unit personnel. The EAW does not include any of the flying squadrons. The Station Commander also commands the EAW.

Command[edit]

Group Captain Mark Flewin was appointed as Coningsby station commander in October 2018, replacing Group Captain Baulkwill.[21] The station's Honorary Air Commandant is Prince William, Duke of Cambridge.[22]

The station is under the command of No. 1 Group (Air Combat).[23]

Based units[edit]

Lancaster PA474 seen in 1988

Flying and major non-flying units based at RAF Coningsby.[24][25][26]

Royal Air Force[edit]

No. 1 Group (Air Combat) RAF

No. 2 Group (Air Combat Support) RAF

RAF Air Warfare Centre

The deployable elements of the station structure form the core of No. 121 Expeditionary Air Wing.[27]

British Army[edit]

Royal Engineers (8 Engineer Brigade, 170 Engineer Group, 20 Works Group Royal Engineers (Air Support)

  • 532 Specialist Team Royal Engineers (Airfields) (STRE)

Heritage[edit]

Station badge and motto[edit]

RAF Coningsby's badge, awarded in December 1958, features a depiction of Tattershall Castle. The local landmark, dating from the 15th century castle is located approximately 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the north west of the station.[28]

The station's motto is Loyalty binds me.[28]

Gate guardians[edit]

Two preserved aircraft are located at the main gate of RAF Coningsby and act as gate guardians for the station. The first is McDonnell Douglas F-4M Phantom FGR.2 'XT891' wearing No. 41 Squadron markings and the second Panavia Tornado F3 'ZE760' in No .5 Squadron markings.[29][30]

Within the No. 3 Squadron hardened aircraft shelter (HAS) complex , Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR.3 'XW924' is on display and within the No.11 Squadron HAS complex is English Electric Lightning F.6 'XT753'. A further Lightning F.6, 'XS897' (wearing 'XP765') is preserved in the No. 29 Squadron site.[29][29]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

Station Commanders[edit]

BBMF Hangar

The following Station Commanders are listed in the rank held at the time of appointment:

  • Group Captain Bob Judson (2004–2006)
  • Group Captain Stuart Atha DSO (2006–2008)
  • Group Captain J J Hitchcock (2008–2010)
  • Group Captain Martin Sampson DSO (2010–2012)
  • Group Captain Johnny Stringer (2012–2014)
  • Group Captain Jez Attridge OBE (2014–2016)
  • Group Captain Mike Baulkwill (2016–Present)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Pine, L.G. (1983). A dictionary of mottoes (1 ed.). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 131. ISBN 0-7100-9339-X.
  2. ^ "Defence Estates Development Plan 2009 – Annex A". GOV.UK. Ministry of Defence. 3 July 2009. p. 18. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  3. ^ "RAF Coningsby Defence Aerodrome Manual" (PDF). Royal Air Force. Military Aviation Authority. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Bomber Command – Coningsby". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Marriott 1997, p. 76.
  6. ^ a b Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Action Stations: Wartime Military Airfields of Lincolnshire and the East Midlands v. 2, page 64
  7. ^ a b c "History – WWII to Phantoms". RAF Coningsby. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  8. ^ Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Action Stations: Wartime Military Airfields of Lincolnshire and the East Midlands v. 2. Page ?
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Action Stations: Wartime Military Airfields of Lincolnshire and the East Midlands v. 2. Page 67.
  10. ^ Hansard March 1968
  11. ^ Hansard December 1965
  12. ^ a b Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Action Stations: Wartime Military Airfields of Lincolnshire and the East Midlands v. 2. Page 221.
  13. ^ Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore Action Stations: Wartime Military Airfields of Lincolnshire and the East Midlands v. 2. Page 222.
  14. ^ http://www.tornado-data.com/History/timeline.htm Tornado Data
  15. ^ RAF Coningsby squadrons retrieved 29 December 2008
  16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/lincolnshire/7923988.stm BAE Systems maintenance contract
  17. ^ "About us". RAF Coningsby. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  18. ^ "RAF Coningsby – The Station". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  19. ^ Battle of Britain Memorial Flight Visitor Centre
  20. ^ "Air Land Integration (ALI) Cell" (PDF). One to One - The RAF Coningsby Journal. Issue 2: 7. 2018.
  21. ^ "RAF Coningsby Welcomes New Station Commander". Forces Network. 18 October 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  22. ^ "RAF Regiment Association Official Site". Rafregt.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  23. ^ "No 1 Group". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  24. ^ "RAF Coningsby – Who's Based Here". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  25. ^ "An introduction to...20 Works Group Royal Engineers" (PDF). Wittering View. Lance Publishing Ltd.: 18 Spring 2015.
  26. ^ "RAF Police – Force Protection – Squadrons and Units". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  27. ^ "121 Expeditionary Air Wing Training". Royal Air Force. 17 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2018-01-01. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
  28. ^ a b "RAF Coningsby". RAF Heraldry Trust. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  29. ^ a b c "RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire". Demobbed - Out of Service British Military Aircraft. February 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  30. ^ "Preserved Aircraft Information". Bomber County Aviation Resource. Retrieved 17 March 2019.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]