RELIKT-1 (sometimes RELICT-1 from Russian: РЕЛИКТ-1) - a Soviet cosmic microwave background anisotropy experiment on board the Prognoz 9 satellite (launched 1 July 1983) gave upper limits on the large-scale anisotropy. A reanalysis of the data in the later years claimed a confident blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Results have been reported in January 1992 at the All-Moscow Astronomy Seminar held at Sternberg Astronomical Institute, and published, for example, in issue 4/1992 of the "Science in USSR" journal and in Soviet Astronomy Letters in May–June 1992. Nevertheless, the Nobel Prize in Physics for 2006 was awarded to a team of American scientists, who announced the fact on April 23, 1992 based on data taken by the COBE spacecraft.
A map of the sky at 37 GHz was built using an 8 mm band Dicke-type modulation radiometer. The radiometer could not conduct multi-band astronomical observations. The entire sky was observed in 6 months. The angular resolution was 5.5 degrees, with a temperature resolution of 0.6 mK.
The heat radiation map of the Universe served as the emblem of the 1989 international conference "The Cosmic Wave Background: 25 Years Later" in L'Aquila, Italy.
The discovery of anisotropy by the RELIKT-1 spacecraft was first reported officially in January 1992 at the All-Moscow Astronomy Seminar held at Sternberg Astronomical Institute.
As a follow-up to RELIKT-1, it was decided in 1986 to study the anisotropy of CMB as part of the Relikt-2 project. The sensitivity of the equipment had greatly increased. The spacecraft was scheduled to launch in 1993-1994, but the launch never took place because of the Soviet Union's break-up and lack of funding.
- Strukov, I. A., Brukhanov, A. A., Skulachev, D. P., & Sazhin, M. V. (1992). "Anisotropy of the microwave background radiation". Soviet Astronomy Letters 18: 153–156. Bibcode:1992SvAL...18..153S.
- Strukov, I. A.; Skulachev, D. P. Deep-Space Measurements of the Microwave Background Anisotropy - First Results of the Relikt Experiment. 1984
- Strukov, I. A.; Brukhanov, A. A.; Skulachev, D. P.; Sazhin, M. V. Anisotropy of relic radiation in the RELICT-1 experiment and parameters of grand unification. Physics Letters B, Volume 315, Issue 1-2, p. 198-202. 09/1993
- The Relikt Experiment at NASA's LAMBDA