RENFE Class 352
RENFE 352 009
The RENFE Class 352 (formerly the T-2000) was a class of twin engined four axle diesel-hydraulic locomotives built by Krauss-Maffei, designed solely for passenger traffic; in particular they were responsible for towing Andalusian Talgo III trains. The class were very successful, heralding a new era of passenger trains in Spain. They were delivered in 1964 and 1965, and were fully withdrawn during the 1990s.
Background and design
With the Talgo II coaches having proved successful, and a new class of coaches—the Talgo III being introduced in the early 1960s—a new type of express locomotive was required to pull them. On 28 May 1962, the Board of Directors of RENFE placed an order for the locomotives needed, and the 2000-T series is born.
Unlike the fixed formation Talgo II trains, the Talgo III was to have a locomotive which was separable from the coaches. Five locomotives were initially built by Krauss-Maffei, who gave the locomotives the internal designation ML 2400; in Spain they are placed in the class 2000-T. The Krauss-Maffei design is chosen since no other manufacturer offers similar power in the reduced height, and low centre of gravity that matches the Talgo trainsets, the internal design is very similar to the DB Class V 200.0 with the same engine and hydraulic drive, and similar bogies, though the exterior, and gauge are totally different. A further five locomotives were then built by Babcock & Wilcox under license.
Being designed solely in order to pull Talgo III trains they have only one cab, an automatic Scharfenberg coupler, buffers specially adapted, and the necessary auxiliary power supply equipment. Each locomotive has two engines, each with its own transmission The two twelve cylinder engines each developed 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) and initially travelled at a maximum speed of 140 kilometres per hour (87 mph), a high speed for the time. In 1986 the maximum line speed limit was increased by RENFE to 160 km/h (99 mph).
Upon delivery of the 2000 T the trains are tested using wagons from Transfesa, which were available at the time. AT delivery and decommissioning they carried a red and silver livery, like all locomotives for the Talgo service, they are given names.
Initially the locomotives had a 'wrap around' windscreen, in the 1980s they were refurbished with the windscreen replaced as part of a cab upgrade and air condition was fitted on the roof at the same time.
Upon delivery, all were assigned to Aravaca.
The first arrivals were assigned to Talgo services from Barcelona to Madrid from 20 August 1964. Hendaye, Bilbao and Seville are also destinations served, at the time they are the fastest machines of the Spanish Railways: On June 7, 1966, 2005T reached a speed of 230 km/h (140 mph) between Sevilla and Los Rosales.
Electrification, and the introduction in the 1970s of the Japanese RENFE Class 269 displaced the locomotives onto non electrified lines. From then on Class 352 are used on non-electrified lines such as Badajoz - Lisbon, Granada - Almeria, Murcia - Cartagena.
In 1980 352-004 is altered in order to tow the new Talgo pendular trains; working between Zaragoza and Madrid from June 1980. Later on it is used on Talgo pendular trains between Madrid and Cartagena.
Between September 1995 to April 1996, 352-004 is used on the Talgo pendular Madrid - Cartagena replacing the damaged 354-008.
The locomotives started to be decommissioned at the turn of the century - with machines requiring major work being removed rather than repaired. In time the last of the class to cease work was 312-001 (which was also the first delivered) was withdrawn in 2002 having given 38 years of service with over 7 million kilometers travelled.
Names and fleet details
|Original number||UIC number||Name||Constructer||constructor number||Year||Withdrawn||Kilometers worked|
|2001 T||352-001-2||"Virgen del Rosario"||Krauss-Maffei||19094||1964||22/04/2002||7443836|
|2002 T||352-002-0||"Virgen Peregrina"||19095||1964||27/04/1993||5416678|
|2003 T||352-003-8||"Virgen del Perpetuo Socorro"||19096||1964||8/06/2001||7253459|
|2004 T||352-004-6||"Virgen del Camino"||19097||1964||21/12/1997||6262292|
|2005 T||352-005-3||"Virgen del Carmen"||19098||1964||28/06/1998||6873765|
|2006 T||352-006-1||"Virgen Santa Maria"||Babcock & Wilcox||888||1965||9/07/1999||6846166|
|2007 T||352-007-9||"Virgen de la Almudena"||889||1965||27/02/1993||5543765|
|2008 T||352-008-7||"Virgen de la Soledad"||890||1965||19/05/2002||7144582|
|2009 T||352-009-5||"Virgen de Gracia"||891||1965||20/05/2002||7405093|
|2010 T||352-010-3||"Virgen de los Reyes"||892||1965||23/10/1994||5948783|
352-009 is preserved under the National Museum of the railways.
The front cabin of 352-005 is on display at the railway museum Museu del Ferrocarril of Vilanova, whilst the front of 352-001 was given to the railway museum of Arganda. The control panel of one Class 352 is also kept in the museum of Délicias.
- RENFE Class 353, RENFE Class 354 - subsequent faster and more powerful locomotives built to a very similar design by Krauss-Maffei.
- HIDROMECHANIC DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES SERIE 352 cuerpo8.es
- Serie 352 Talgo (2000T) Class 352 Talgo (2000T) wefer.com
- Maybach engines in Spain brinternet.com[dead link]
- Because of the dual engine design the eternal problem of these machines is cracks the head gaskets - due to stresses between the two engines
- In the 1990s two were painted briefly in RENFE's 'taxi' livery - yellow and dark blue/grey
- Renfe - Fuera de servicio - 352 www.listadotren.es
- Casas Juan Carlos : Locomotoras diesel 352 y 353. in Via Libre n° 483, 02/2005
- Salmeron i Bosch, Carles : Las locomotoras de España. Editorial Terminus, Barcelona, 1985
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