Ramond–Neveu–Schwarz (RNS) formalism (named after Pierre Ramond, John H. Schwarz, and André Neveu) was an early attempt to introduce fermions through the means of supersymmetry into string theory. In this theory, worldsheet embedded in spacetime is regarded as a bosonic field and the fermionic fields are regarded as the vectors of spacetime.
- P. Ramond (1971), "Dual Theory for Free Fermions," Phys. Rev., D3, 2415.
- Neveu, A., Schwarz, J. (1971). "Tachyon-free dual model with a positive-intercept trajectory." Physics Letters, 34B, 517–518.
- Thomas Mohaupt (2002), "Introduction to String Theory"
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