Robot Operating System
Robot Operating System Logo
Cart pushing simulation in RVIZ
|Original author(s)||Willow Garage|
Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Noetic Ninjemys (ROS 1) / 23 May 2020
Foxy Fitzroys (ROS 2)
|Written in||C++, Python, or Lisp|
|Operating system||Linux, MacOS (experimental), Windows 10 (experimental)|
|Type||Robotics suite, OS, library|
Robot Operating System (ROS or ros) is robotics middleware (i.e. collection of software frameworks for robot software development). Although ROS is not an operating system, it provides services designed for a heterogeneous computer cluster such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. Running sets of ROS-based processes are represented in a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor data, control, state, planning, actuator, and other messages. Despite the importance of reactivity and low latency in robot control, ROS itself is not a real-time OS (RTOS). It is possible, however, to integrate ROS with real-time code. The lack of support for real-time systems has been addressed in the creation of ROS 2.0, a major revision of the ROS API which will take advantage of modern libraries and technologies for core ROS functionality and add support for real-time code and embedded hardware.
Software in the ROS Ecosystem can be separated into three groups:
- language-and platform-independent tools used for building and distributing ROS-based software;
- ROS client library implementations such as roscpp, rospy, and roslisp;
- packages containing application-related code which uses one or more ROS client libraries.
Both the language-independent tools and the main client libraries (C++, Python, and Lisp) are released under the terms of the BSD license, and as such are open source software and free for both commercial and research use. The majority of other packages are licensed under a variety of open source licenses. These other packages implement commonly used functionality and applications such as hardware drivers, robot models, datatypes, planning, perception, simultaneous localization and mapping, simulation tools, and other algorithms.
Early days at Stanford (2007 and earlier)
Sometime before 2007, the first pieces of what eventually would become ROS were beginning to come together at Stanford University. Eric Berger and Keenan Wyrobek, PhD students working in Kenneth Sailsbury's robotics laboratory at Stanford, were leading the Personal Robotics Program. While working on robots to do manipulation tasks in human environments, the two students noticed that many of their colleagues were held back by the diverse nature of robotics: an excellent software developer might not have the hardware knowledge required, someone developing state of the art path planning might not know how to do the computer vision required. In an attempt to remedy this situation, the two students set out to make a baseline system that would provide a starting place for others in academia to build upon. In the words of Eric Berger, “something that didn’t suck, in all of those different dimensions”.
In their first steps towards this unifying system, the two build the PR1 as a hardware prototype and began to work on software from it, borrowing the best practices from other early open source robotic software frameworks, particularly switchyard, a system that Morgan Quigley, another Stanford PhD student, had been working on in support of the STAIR (STanford Artificial Intelligence Robot) by the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Early funding of US$50,000 was provided by Joanna Hoffman and Alain Rossmann, which supported the development of the PR1. While seeking funding for further development, Eric Berger and Keenan Wyrobek met Scott Hassan, the founder of Willow Garage, a technology incubator which was working on an autonomous SUV and a solar autonomous boat. Hassan shared Berger and Wyrobek's vision of a “Linux for robotics”, and invited them to come and work at Willow Garage. Willow Garage was started in January 2007, and the first commit of ROS code was made to SourceForge on the seventh of November, 2007.
Willow Garage (2007-2013)
Willow Garage began developing the PR2 robot as a follow-up to the PR1, and ROS as the software to run it. Groups from more than twenty institutions made contributions to ROS, both the core software and the growing number of packages which worked with ROS to form a greater software ecosystem. The fact that people outside of Willow were contributing to ROS (particularly from Stanford's STAIR project) meant that ROS was a multi-robot platform from the beginning. While Willow Garage had originally had other projects in progress, they were scrapped in favor of the Personal Robotics Program: focused on producing the PR2 as a research platform for academia and ROS as the open source robotics stack that would underlie both academic research and tech startups, much like the LAMP stack did for web-based startups.
In December 2008, Willow Garage met the first of their three internal milestones: continuous navigation for the PR2 over a period of two days and a distance of pi kilometers. Soon after, an early version of ROS (0.4 Mango Tango) was released, followed by the first RVIZ documentation and the first paper on ROS. In early summer, the second internal milestone: having the PR2 navigate the office, open doors, and plug itself it in, was reached. This was followed in August by the initiation of the ROS.org website. Early tutorials on ROS were posted in December, preparing for the release of ROS 1.0, in January 2010. This was Milestone 3: producing tons of documentation and tutorials for the enormous capabilities that Willow Garage's engineers had developed over the preceding 3 years.
Following this, Willow Garage achieved one of its longest held goals: giving away 10 PR2 robots to worthy academic institutions. This had long been a goal of the founders, as they felt that the PR2 could kick-start robotics research around the world. They ended up awarding eleven PR2s to different institutions, including University of Freiburg (Germany), Bosch, Georgia Tech, KU Leuven (Belgium), MIT, Stanford, TU Munich (Germany), UC Berkeley, U Penn, USC, and University of Tokyo (Japan). This, combined with Willow Garage's highly successful internship program (run from 2008 to 2010 by Melonee Wise), helped to spread the word about ROS throughout the robotics world. The first official ROS distribution release: ROS Box Turtle, was released on March 2 of 2010, marking the first time that ROS was official distributed with a set of versioned packages for public use. These developments lead to the first drone running ROS, the first autonomous car running ROS, and the adaption of ROS for Lego Mindstorms. With the PR2 Beta program well underway, the PR2 robot was officially released for commercial purchase on September 9, 2010.
2011 was a banner year for ROS with the launch of ROS Answers, a Q/A forum for ROS users, on February 15; the introduction of the highly successful Turtlebot robot kit on April 18; and the total number of ROS repositories passing 100 on May 5. Willow Garage began 2012 by creating the Open Source Robotics Foundation (OSRF) in April. The OSRF was immediately awarded a software contract by DARPA. Later that year, the first ROSCon was held in St. Paul, MN, the first book on ROS, ROS By Example, was published, and the Baxter, first commercial robot to run ROS, was announced by Rethink Robotics. Soon after passing its fifth anniversary in November, ROS began running on every continent on December 3, 2012.
In February 2013, the OSRF became the primary software maintainers for ROS, foreshadowing the announcement in August that Willow Garage would be absorbed by its founders, Suitable Technologies. At this point, ROS had released seven major versions (up to ROS Groovy), and had users all over the globe. This chapter of ROS development would be finalized when Clearpath Robotics took over support responsibilities for the PR2 in early 2014.
OSRF and Open Robotics (2013-present)
In the years since OSRF took over primary development of ROS, a new version has been released every year, while interest in ROS continues to grow. ROSCons have occurred every year since 2012, co-located with either ICRA or IROS, two flagship robotics conferences. Meetups of ROS developers have been organized in a variety of countries, a number of ROS books have been published, and many educational programs initiated. On September 1, 2014, NASA announced the first robot to run ROS in space: Robotnaut 2, on the International Space Station. In 2017, the OSRF changed its name to Open Robotics. Tech giants Amazon and Microsoft began to take an interest in ROS during this time, with Microsoft porting core ROS to Windows in September 2018, followed by Amazon Web Services releasing RoboMaker in November.
Perhaps the most important development of the OSRF/Open Robotics years thus far (not to discount the explosion of robot platforms which began to support ROS or the enormous improvements in each ROS version) was the proposal of ROS2, a significant API change to ROS which is intended to support real time programming, a wider variety of computing environments, and utilize more modern technology. ROS2 was announced at ROSCon 2014, the first commits to the ros2 repository were made in February 2015, followed by alpha releases in August 2015. The first distribution release of ROS2, Ardent Apalone, was released on December 8, 2017, ushering in a new era of next-generation ROS development.
ROS was designed with open-source in mind, intending that users would be able to choose the configuration of tools and libraries which interacted with the core of ROS so that users could shift their software stacks to fit their robot and application area. As such, there is very little which is actually core to ROS, beyond the general structure within which programs must exist and communicate. In one sense, ROS is the underlying plumbing behind nodes and message passing. However, in reality, ROS is that plumbing, a rich and mature set of tools, a wide-ranging set of robot-agnostic capabilities provided by packages, and a greater ecosystem of additions to ROS.
Computation graph model
ROS processes are represented as nodes in a graph structure, connected by edges called topics. ROS nodes can pass messages to one another through topics, make service calls to other nodes, provide a service for other nodes, or set or retrieve shared data from a communal database called the parameter server. A process called the ROS Master makes all of this possible by registering nodes to itself, setting up node-to-node communication for topics, and controlling parameter server updates. Messages and service calls do not pass through the master, rather the master sets up peer-to-peer communication between all node processes after they register themselves with the master. This decentralized architecture lends itself well to robots, which often consist of a subset of networked computer hardware, and may communicate with off-board computers for heavy computation or commands.
A node represents a single process running the ROS graph. Every node has a name, which it registers with the ROS master before it can take any other actions. Multiple nodes with different names can exist under different namespaces, or a node can be defined as anonymous, in which case it will randomly generate an additional identifier to add to its given name. Nodes are at the center of ROS programming, as most ROS client code is in the form of a ROS node which takes actions based on information received from other nodes, sends information to other nodes, or sends and receives requests for actions to and from other nodes.
Topics are named buses over which nodes send and receive messages. Topic names must be unique within their namespace as well. To send messages to a topic, a node must publish to said topic, while to receive messages it must subscribe. The publish/subscribe model is anonymous: no node knows which nodes are sending or receiving on a topic, only that it is sending/receiving on that topic. The types of messages passed on a topic vary widely and can be user-defined. The content of these messages can be sensor data, motor control commands, state information, actuator commands, or anything else.
A node may also advertise services. A service represents an action that a node can take which will have a single result. As such, services are often used for actions which have a defined beginning and end, such as capturing a single-frame image, rather than processing velocity commands to a wheel motor or odometer data from a wheel encoder. Nodes advertise services and call services from one another.
The parameter server is a database shared between nodes which allows for communal access to static or semi-static information. Data which does not change frequently and as such will be infrequently accessed, such as the distance between two fixed points in the environment, or the weight of the robot, are good candidates for storage in the parameter server.
ROS's core functionality is augmented by a variety of tools which allow developers to visualize and record data, easily navigate the ROS package structures, and create scripts automating complex configuration and setup processes. The addition of these tools greatly increases the capabilities of systems using ROS by simplifying and providing solutions to a number of common robotics development problems. These tools are provided in packages like any other algorithm, but rather than providing implementations of hardware drivers or algorithms for various robotic tasks, these packages provide task and robot-agnostic tools which come with the core of most modern ROS installations.
rviz is a three-dimensional visualizer used to visualize robots, the environments they work in, and sensor data. It is a highly configurable tool, with many different types of visualizations and plugins.
rosbag is a command line tool used to record and playback ROS message data. rosbag uses a file format called bags, which log ROS messages by listening to topics and recording messages as they come in. Playing messages back from a bag is largely the same as having the original nodes which produced the data in the ROS computation graph, making bags a useful tool for recording data to be used in later development. While rosbag is a command line only tool, rqt_bag provides a GUI interface to rosbag.
The rosbash package provides a suite of tools which augment the functionality of the bash shell. These tools include rosls, roscd, and roscp, which replicate the functionalities of ls, cd, and cp respectively. The ROS versions of these tools allow users to use ros package names in place of the filepath where the package is located. The package also adds tab-completion to most ROS utilities, and includes rosed, which edits a given file with the chosen default text editor, as well rosrun, which runs executables in ROS packages. rosbash supports the same functionalities for zsh and tcsh, to a lesser extent.
roslaunch is a tool used to launch multiple ROS nodes both locally and remotely, as well as setting parameters on the ROS parameter server. roslaunch configuration files, which are written using XML can easily automate a complex startup and configuration process into a single command. roslaunch scripts can include other roslaunch scripts, launch nodes on specific machines, and even restart processes which die during execution.
Packages of note
ROS contains many open source implementations of common robotics functionality and algorithms. These open source implementations are organized into "packages". Many packages are included as part of ROS distributions, while others may be developed by individuals and distributed through code sharing sites such as github. Some packages of note include:
Systems and tools
- actionlib provides a standardized interface for interfacing with preemtable tasks.
- nodelet provides a way to run multiple algorithms in a single process.
- rosbridge provides a JSON API to ROS functionalities for non-ROS programs.
Mapping and localization
- slam toolbox provides full 2D SLAM and localization system.
- gmapping provides a wrapper for OpenSlam's Gmapping algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping.
- cartographer provides real time 2D and 3D SLAM algorithms developed at Google.
- amcl provides an implementation of adaptive Monte-Carlo localization.
- navigation provides the capability of navigating a mobile robot in a planar environment.
Coordinate frame representation
- tf provided a system for representing, tracking and transforming coordinate frames until ROS Hydro, when it was deprecated in favor of tf2.
- tf2 is the second generation of the tf library, and provides the same capabilities for ROS versions after Hydro.
- gazebo_ros_pkgs is a meta-package which provides packages for integrating ROS with the Gazebo simulator.
- stage provides an interface for the 2D Stage simulator.
Versions and releases
ROS releases may be incompatible with other releases and are often referred to by code name rather than version number. ROS currently releases a version every year in May, following the release of Ubuntu LTS versions. ROS2 currently releases a new version every six months (in December and July). These releases are supported for a single year.
|Distribution||Release date||Poster||EOL date|
(last ROS 1 release)
|May 23, 2020||Current stable version: May 2025|
|Melodic Morenia||May 23, 2018||Current stable version: 2023-05-30|
|Lunar Loggerhead||May 23, 2017||Old version, no longer maintained: 2019-05-30|
|Kinetic Kame||May 23, 2016||Current stable version: 2021-05-30|
|Jade Turtle||May 23, 2015||Old version, no longer maintained: 2017-05-30|
|Indigo Igloo||July 22, 2014||Old version, no longer maintained: 2019-04-30|
|Hydro Medusa||September 4, 2013||Old version, no longer maintained: 2014-05-31|
|Groovy Galapagos||December 31, 2012||Old version, no longer maintained: 2014-07-31|
|Fuerte Turtle||April 23, 2012||Old version, no longer maintained: --|
|Electric Emys||August 30, 2011||Old version, no longer maintained: --|
|Diamondback||March 2, 2011||Old version, no longer maintained: --|
|C Turtle||August 2, 2010||Old version, no longer maintained: --|
|Box Turtle||March 2, 2010||Old version, no longer maintained: --|
|Distribution||Release date||Poster||EOL date|
|(G-Turtle)||May, 2021 ?||t.b.d.||Future release: 3+ years?|
|Foxy Fitzroy||June 5, 2020||Current stable version: May 2023|
|Eloquent Elusor||Nov 22, 2019||Current stable version: Nov 2020|
|Dashing Diademata||May 31, 2019||Current stable version: May 2021|
|Crystal Clemmys||December 14, 2018||Old version, no longer maintained: December 2019|
|Bouncy Bolson||July 2, 2018||Old version, no longer maintained: July 2019|
|Ardent Apalone||December 8, 2017||Old version, no longer maintained: December 2018|
|beta3||September 13, 2017||N/A||Old version, no longer maintained: December 2017|
|beta2||July 5, 2017||N/A||Old version, no longer maintained: September 2017|
|beta1||December 19, 2016||N/A||Old version, no longer maintained: July 2017|
|alpha1-alpha8||August 31, 2015||N/A||Old version, no longer maintained: December 2016|
ROS-Industrial is an open-source project (BSD (legacy) / Apache 2.0 (preferred) license) that extends the advanced capabilities of ROS to manufacturing automation and robotics. The ROS-Industrial repository includes interfaces for common industrial manipulators, grippers, sensors, and device networks. It also provides software libraries for automatic 2D/3D sensor calibration, process path/motion planning, applications like Scan-N-Plan, developer tools like the Qt Creator ROS Plugin, and training curriculum that is specific to the needs of manufacturers. ROS-I is supported by an international Consortium of industry and research members. The project began as a collaborative endeavor between Yaskawa Motoman Robotics, Southwest Research Institute, and Willow Garage to support the use of ROS for manufacturing automation, with the GitHub repository being founded in January 2012 by Shaun Edwards (SwRI). Currently, the Consortium is divided into three groups; the ROS-Industrial Consortium Americas (led by SwRI and located in San Antonio, Texas), the ROS-Industrial Consortium Europe (led by Fraunhofer IPA and located in Stuttgart, Germany) and the ROS-Industrial Consortium Asia Pacific (led by Advanced Remanufacturing and Technology Centre (ARTC) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU) and located in Singapore).
The Consortia supports the global ROS-Industrial community by conducting ROS-I training, providing technical support and setting the future roadmap for ROS-I, as well as conducting pre-competitive joint industry projects to develop new ROS-I capabilities.
ROS Compatible Robots and Hardware
- ABB, Adept, Fanuc, Motoman, and Universal Robots are supported by ROS-Industrial
- Baxter at Rethink Robotics, Inc.
- CK-9: Robotics Development Kit by Centauri Robotics, supports ROS
- HERB developed at Carnegie Mellon University in Intel's personal robotics program
- Husky A200 robot developed (and integrated into ROS) by Clearpath Robotics
- PR1 personal robot developed in Ken Salisbury's lab at Stanford
- PR2 personal robot being developed at Willow Garage
- Raven II Surgical Robotic Research Platform
- Shadow Robot Hand – A fully dexterous humanoid hand.
- STAIR I and II robots developed in Andrew Ng's lab at Stanford
- SummitXL: Mobile robot developed by Robotnik, an engineering company specialized in mobile robots, robotic arms, and industrial solutions with ROS architecture.
- Nao humanoid: University of Freiburg's Humanoid Robots Lab developed a ROS integration for the Nao humanoid based on an initial port by Brown University
- UBR1 developed by Unbounded Robotics, a spin-off of Willow Garage.
- ROSbot: autonomous robot platform by Husarion
- Webots: robot simulator integrating a complete ROS programming interface.
SBCs and hardware
- BeagleBoard. The robotics lab of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium has ported ROS to the Beagleboard
- Sitara ARM Processors have support for the ROS package as part of the official Linux SDK.
- Raspberry Pi: image of ubuntu Mate with ROS by Ubiquity Robotics; installation guide for Raspbian
- Open hardware
- Robotics middleware
- Open source software
- List of free and open source software packages
- "ROS Noetic Ninjemys". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
- "ROS 2 Foxy Fitzroy". index.ros.org.
- ROS-Introduction http://wiki.ros.org/ROS/Introduction
- Kay, Jackie. "Proposal for Implementation of Real-time Systems in ROS 2". Retrieved 16 August 2016.
- Kay, Jackie. "Realtime Design Guidelines For ROS 2". design.ROS2.org. ROS2. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "ROS 2 For Realtime Applications". discourse.ROS.org. ROS. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
- "Browsing packages for melodic". ROS.org. ROS. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Package Summary". ROS.org. ROS. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Package SUmmary". ROS.org. ROS. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Package Summary". ROS.org. ROS. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "client libraries". ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "ROS/Installation – ROS Wiki". Wiki.ros.org. 29 September 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "rosjava – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "android – ROS Wiki". Wiki.ros.org. 12 April 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Robot Operating System (ROS) Support from MATLAB – Hardware Support". Mathworks.com. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "roslibjs – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Guizzo, Evan Ackerman and Erico (7 November 2017). "Wizards of ROS: Willow Garage and the Making of the Robot Operating System". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- Wyrobek, Keenan (31 October 2017). "The Origin Story of ROS, the Linux of Robotics". IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "J. Kenneth Salisbury, Ph.D. | Salisbury Robotics Lab". Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Stanford Personal Robotics Program". personalrobotics.stanford.edu. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Stanford's Robot Makers".
- Ng, Andrew; Gould, Stephen; Quigley, Morgan; Saxena, Ashutosh; Berger, Eric (2008). "STAIR: The STanford Artificial Intelligence Robot project". Snowbird Workshop.
- "STAIR". stair.Stanford.edu. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Quigley, Morgan; Berger, Eric; Ng, Andrew Y. (2007), STAIR: Hardware and Software Architecture (PDF), AAAI 2007 Robotics Workshop
- Keenan Wyrobek (3 July 2017). "Personal Robotics Program Fund Fundraising Deck from 2006". Cite journal requires
- "Repository: code". Sourceforge.net. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Repositories". ROS.org. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- Quigley, Morgan; Gerkey, Brian; Conley, Ken; Faust, Josh; Foote, Tully; Leibs, Jeremy; Berger, Eric; Wheeler, Rob; Ng, Andrew. "ROS: an open-source Robot Operating System" (PDF). Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- WillowGaragevideo (19 December 2008), Milestone 1, retrieved 29 April 2019
- "ROS 0.4 Release – ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- WillowGaragevideo (2 July 2009), Milestone 2 Explained, retrieved 29 April 2019
- "Welcome to ros.org – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "ROS Tutorials and Turtles – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "ROS 1.0 – ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "The Results Are In: PR2 Beta Program Recipients! | Willow Garage". www.willowgarage.com. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Interns and Visiting Scholars | Willow Garage". www.willowgarage.com. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Robots Using ROS: Penn Quadrotors – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Robots Using ROS: Marvin autonomous car (Austin Robot Technology/UT Austin) – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Robots Using ROS: Lego NXT – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "PR2 Robots Available for Purchase".
- "Announcing ROS Answers – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "ROS on the Move: TurtleBots available for preorder – Willow Garage". www.WillowGarage.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "100 Repositories – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Willow Garage Spins Out OSRF".
- "DARPA Awards Simulation Software Contract to Open Source Robotics Foundation".
- "Thanks for a great ROSCon 2012! - ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
- "New Book: ROS by Example – ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
- "Rethink ROS – ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
- "ROS: Five Years – ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
- "Osrf – Ros @ Osrf". Osrfoundation.org. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "employees join Suitable Technologies". Willow Garage. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "Distributions – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Clearpath Welcomes PR2 to the Family".
- ROS meetup in Korea
- "First Danish ROS Meetup".
- "First Ukrainian ROS Meetup".
- "Programming Robots with ROS: A Practical Introduction to the Robot Operating System". OReilly.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Report from first ROS Summer School in China – ROS robotics news". www.ros.org. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
- "ROS Robot Ignite Academy".
- "ROS running on ISS – ROS robotics news". www.ROS.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Summary". ros-win.visualstudio.com. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Announcing AWS RoboMaker". Amazon Web Services, Inc. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "Why ROS 2.0?". design.ros2.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "ROS2 Overview". index.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "ROS 2 Distributions". index.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "ROS/Tutorials/UnderstandingNodes – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "ROS/Tutorials/UnderstandingTopics – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "ROS/Tutorials/UnderstandingServicesParams – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "rviz – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "rosbag – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "Bags – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "rqt_bag – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "catkin – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "rosbuild – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "rosbash – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "roslaunch – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
- "actionlib – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "nodelet – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "rosbridge_suite – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "slam_toolbox – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
- "gmapping – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "cartographer – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "amcl – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "navigation – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "vision_opencv – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "tf – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "tf2 – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "gazebo_ros_pkgs – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "stage – ROS Wiki". wiki.ros.org. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
- "ROS Release Schedule Changes".
- "ROS Foxy Fitzroy Released". Retrieved 24 June 2020.
- "ROS-Industrial About". rosindustrial.org. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Brief History". ROS-Industrial. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- "Home". ROS-Industrial. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- Baxter http://www.rethinkrobotics.com/products/baxter-research-robot/baxter-research-robot-qa/
- "CMU Personal Robotics Lab". personalrobotics.Intel-Research.net. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Husky UGV – Outdoor Field Research Robot by Clearpath". ClearPathRobotics.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Stanford Personal Robotics Program". personalrobotics.Stanford.edu. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- B. Hannaford, J. Rosen, Diana CW Friedman, H. King, P. Roan, L. Cheng, D. Glozman, J. Ma, S.N. Kosari, L. White, 'Raven-II: AN Open Platform for Surgical Robotics Research,' IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 60, pp. 954-959, April 2013.
- "BioRobotics Laboratory | Biorobotics Laboratory - University of Washington". Brl.ee.washington.edu. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- STAIR I and II http://stair.stanford.edu/index.php
- "Summit XL – Robotnik". Robotnik.es. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- "nao – ROS Wiki". Ros.org. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Humanoid Robots Lab http://hrl.informatik.uni-freiburg.de/
- brown-robotics http://brown-robotics.org/
- G.T. Jay, Post to ros-users mailing list announcing ROS support for the Nao
- "Specification". Unbounded Robotics. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Ackerman, Evan (21 October 2013). "UBR-1 Robot From Unbounded Robotics Revolutionizes Affordable Mobile Manipulation – IEEE Spectrum". Spectrum.ieee.org. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
- Husarion ROSbot manual
- "Using ROS with Webots". Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- K U leuven http://people.mech.kuleuven.be/%7Eu0062536/embsensor.html
- "5.3.6. ROS and Radar — Processor SDK Linux Documentation". software-dl.ti.com. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Ubiquity Robotics Downloads". Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- "ROSberryPi/Installing ROS Kinetic on the Raspberry Pi". Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- RT middleware – Robot middleware standard/implementations. RT-component is discussed / defined by the Object Management Group.