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ROTOR was a huge and elaborate air defence radar system built by the British Government in the early 1950s to counter possible attack by Soviet bombers. In order to get it operational as quickly as possible, it was initially made up primarily of WWII-era systems, notably the original Chain Home radars for early warning role, and the AMES Type 7 for plotting and interception control. The system built a network of control stations, mostly built underground, and connected with an extensive telephone and telex network.
Work also began on a new microwave frequency radar to replace Chain Home, initially known as Green Garlic. When this was first deployed in 1953 it was found to have the accuracy needed to replace the Type 7 radars for plotting, and its greatly improved range over those systems meant that far fewer radars would be needed to provide coverage over the entire United Kingdom. Much of the ROTOR systems was ultimately redundant, and many of its separate bases were replaced by single Master Radar Stations run by the AMES Type 80 radars. These stations were, in turn, replaced by the Linesman/Mediator system in the 1960s, with only five AMES Type 84 radars.
UK radar operations were wound down late in the war, and by the time the war ended were already largely unused. It was assumed that another war was at least ten years away, and the need for any improvements in the cobbled-together system seemed remote.
Thinking changed dramatically in 1949 with the Soviet test of their first atom bomb. It was known that the Soviets had made exact copies of the B-29 Superfortress as the Tu-4 Bull, and these aircraft had the performance needed to reach the UK with a nuclear payload. Studying the problem, the 1949 Cherry Report suggested that the 170 existing Royal Air Force radar stations be reduced to 66 sites and the electronics extensively upgraded.
Most of the new network would be made up of 28 re-built Chain Home systems, while the rest were taken from the existing selection of Chain Home Low, Chain Home Extra Low and the various Ground-controlled interception (GCI) radars that had formerly served special purposes. This was, in part, a stop-gap measure anticipating the availability of the dramatically improved Type 80 Green Garlic radar which would replace the various early warning radars with a single system of much greater performance. Interception guidance would still be handled by existing systems in either case.
All of the radars were to be improved in terms of siting with the addition of hardened control bunkers to protect the operators from a conventional attack. On the east coast, the coast toward which a Soviet attack would be most likely, the bunkers were underground in the 'R' series (R1, R2, R3 and R4 etc.), while those on the western side of the UK were generally semi-sunken hardened structures ('R6') or above ground 'Secco' type huts (Hartland Point etc.). The R-series bunkers themselves were otherwise similar, featuring 10-foot-thick (3.0 m) concrete walls with all equipment, operations generators and air conditioning located inside.
Additionally, ROTOR re-arranged the existing RAF Fighter Command structure into six "Sector Operational Commands" (SOC) with their own command bunkers (three level 'R4' protected accommodation). Only four of these were built. Additional "Anti-Aircraft Operations Rooms" were built to coordinate the British Army's AA defences in the same overall system. The entire network of bunkers, radars, fighter control and command centres used up 350,000 tons of concrete, 20,000 tons of steel and thousands of miles of telephone and telex connections.
The work was mainly carried out by the Marconi Wireless and Telegraph Company in several phases, called ROTOR 1, ROTOR 2 and ROTOR 3.
As the anticipated Type 80 "Green Garlic" radar started testing shortly after ROTOR came online, it became clear that it could fill both early warning and interception guidance from a single site. This dramatically decreased the complexity of the ROTOR system, which otherwise required sightings from the early warning radars to be telephoned to the fighter control GCI stations for local plotting. By concentrating all of this complexity at a single site the total number of operators was greatly reduced.
As a result of the introduction of the Type 80 (Green Garlic), many of the existing ROTOR sites were rationalized into Master Radar Stations (MRS), while the rest were made redundant, some only two years after opening, and all of the AAOR sites were closed. A few of these were re-used for government department ('RSG's) and local authority wartime headquarters. In the mid-1960s the MRSs themselves were replaced with a new system called Linesman/Mediator.
Until the end of the Cold War many of the sites were retained by the government but now have been sold off to private buyers or converted into museums (for example 'RAF Hack Green') and some transferred to the National Air Traffic Control Centre.
List of ROTOR sites
|Site Name||Site Designator||Grid Reference||Site Purpose|
|Aird Uig||WIU||NB 047390||R10 CEW Type 80|
|Anstruther||FAT||NO 568808||R3 Type 80|
|Barnton Quarry||MHA||NT 203748||R4 SOC Caledonian Sector|
|Bawburgh||WRK||TG 165080||R4 SOC Eastern Sector|
|Bawdsey||PKD||TM 347388||R3 GCI(E)|
|Beachy Head||HEB||TV 590959||R1 CEW Type 80|
|Bempton||RMF||TA 192736||R1 CEW|
|Boulmer||EZS||NU 240125||R3 GCI Type 80|
|Box||XOB||ST 850690||SOC Southern Sector|
|Buchan||GBU||NK 113408||R3 GCI Type 80|
|Calvo||CAL||NY 144545||R8 GCI|
|Charmy Down||CHA||ST 768702||R8 GCI|
|Chenies||HAM||TQ 015997||R8 GCI|
|Cold Hesledon||IDW||NZ 417468||R1 CEW/CHEL|
|Comberton||COB||SO 968461||R8 GCI|
|Crosslaw||HCV||NT 880680||R2 CHEL|
|Danby Beacon||NZ 732097||CH|
|Douglas Wood||NO 488415||CH|
|Drone Hill||NT 845665||CH|
|Dunkirk||TDE||TR 076595||CH Type 80|
|Fairlight||GWB||TQ 862113||R2 CHEL(A)|
|Faraid Head||RAI||NC 389714||R10 CEW Type 80|
|Foreness||WJW||TR 385710||R2 CHEL|
|Gailes||FUL||NS 327361||R8 GCI Type 80|
|Goldsborough||JEX||NZ 830138||R2 CHEL(A)|
|Hack Green||HAK||SJ 647483||R6 GCI|
|Hartland Point||HAT||SS 237277||R8 GCI|
|Hayscastle Cross||CHX||SM 920256||CH Type 80|
|High Street||TM 411720||CH|
|Hill Head||NJ 947616||CH|
|Holmpton||VQJ||TA 367225||R3 GCI(B) Type 80|
|Hope Cove||HOP||SX 716374||R6 GCI|
|Hopton||TOH||TM 540990||R2 CHEL(B)|
|Inverbervie||LGZ||NO 841734||R1 CEW|
|Kelvedon Hatch||XSL||TQ 561995||R4 SOC Metropolitan Sector|
|Kilchiaran||ECK||NR 207616||R11 CHEL|
|Killard Point||IJ 605435||R8 GCI Type 80|
|Langtoft||LAT||TF 155129||R6 GCI Type 80|
|Longley Lane||LOA||SD 541365||SOC Western Sector|
|Murlough Bay||URB||ID 213407||R11 CHEL|
|Neatishead||BWP||TG 346184||R3 GCI|
|Portland||NIB||SY 696735||R1 CEW|
|Prestatyn||SYP||SJ 079819||R11 CHEL|
|Sandwich (Ash)||YTM||TR 303574||R3 GCI Type 80|
|Saxa Vord||AXA||HP 629165||R10 CEW Type 80|
|Scarinish||FLY||NM 032456||R8 GCI Type 80|
|School Hill||HSL||NO 908982||CH|
|Seaton Snook||DYR||NZ 519280||R3 GCI Type 80|
|Shipton||KFY||SE 542618||R4 SOC Northern Sector|
|Skendleby||UPI||TF 438709||R3 GCI|
|Snaefell||MOI||SC 397869||R11 CHEL|
|Sopley||AVO||SZ 163977||R3 GCI Type 80|
|St Annes||SAN||SD 348303||R8 GCI|
|St Margarets||AGC||TR 370451||R1 CEW|
|St Twynnells||TWY||SR 944976||R6 GCI Type 80|
|Staxton Wold||TA 023778||CH|
|Stoke Holy Cross||TG 257028||CH|
|Treleaver||TEL||SW 766174||R6 GCI(B) Type 80|
|Trewan Sands||TES||SH 322754||R8 GCI|
|Trimingham||QLE||TG 290385||R1 CEW Type 80 CHEL|
|Truleigh Hill||SNG||TQ 224109||R2 CHEL|
|Ventnor||OJC||SZ 565784||CH R1 CEW Type 80|
|Wartling||ZUN||TQ 662088||R3 GCI Type 80|
|West Beckham||TG 142389||CH|
|West Myne||ZEM||SS 928486||R11 CHEL|
|West Prawle||SX 771374||CH|
|Wick||IKA||ND 326537||R8 GCI|
ROTOR sites today
See here for modern aerial site photographs of both 'retained' Chain Home and ROTOR sites.
RAF Staxton Wold is the only Chain Home site still used as a military radar site but with no remains of the CH station on site after being rebuilt for Linesman/Mediator in 1964. Today it is the home of an RAF TPS 77 RRH (remote radar head).
In terms of current condition, the ROTOR sites vary from demolished to intact.
For example, West Myne in Somerset was the last ROTOR 3 CHEL site. It was completed in 1957 after the introduction of the type-80 radar and after many ROTOR stations had already closed. The site was within Exmoor National Park and its creation was strenuously opposed by the National Trust who lost no time in obliterating the site immediately after closure.
Many of the buildings have been re-purposed since being active as ROTOR sites. An example is the Bawburgh R4 SOC which was re-purposed as SRHQ4.1 and then RGHQ4.1 to suit the evolving needs of government. The building is intact, but it has been significantly reconfigured since its use as a ROTOR SOC, notably with the addition of an extra floor and the flooring-over of the original R4 operations well.
- "RAF Staxton Wold". RAF. Royal Air Force. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- Watching the Skies, Jack Gough, HMSO 1993, ISBN 0117727237
- Cold War: Building for Nuclear Confrontation 1946-89, Cocroft, Thomas and Barnwell, English Heritage 2003, ISBN 1873592817