The RPG-2 (Russian: РПГ-2, Ручной противотанковый гранатомёт, Ruchnoy Protivotankovy Granatomyot; English: "hand-held antitank grenade launcher") is a man-portable, shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon that was designed in the Soviet Union. It was the first successful anti-tank weapon of its type, being a successor to the earlier and unsuccessful RPG-1.
The RPG-2 offered better range and armor penetration, making it useful against late and post-World War II tanks, in contrast to the RPG-1 that had only marginal utility. The basic design and layout was further upgraded to produce the ubiquitous RPG-7.
Studying German and US anti-tank rocket designs, in 1944 the Soviets began development of the RPG-1 with the goal of combining the best features of the German Panzerfaust with the US Bazooka. Propelled by a 30 mm cartridge, the 70 millimetres (2.8 in) HEAT round could penetrate about 150 millimetres (5.9 in) of homogeneous armour.
Early testing displayed a number of minor problems, but, by the time these were being solved, the 150 mm of penetration was no longer considered effective against modern tanks, even late-war designs like the Panther. The warhead was already straining the capabilities of the cartridge and its range was already considered too low. Modifications to improve this began, but in 1947 the RPG-2 program started as a parallel project. Development of the RPG-2 was carried out by the GSKB-30 design bureau, originally part of the Commissariat for Munitions, but in the post-war period handed to the Ministry of Agriculture to help design farm equipment.
The main difference in performance between the two were due to size. The RPG-2 used a custom designed 40 millimetres (1.6 in) cartridge to provide much greater power, and the warhead enlarged to 80 millimetres (3.1 in). This improved penetration to 180 millimetres (7.1 in), which allowed it to penetrate the frontal armor of all but the very heaviest tanks, and the side and rear armor of any tank. The larger cartridge gave the PG-2 warhead slightly better practical range as well, about 150 metres (490 ft) against stationary targets.
The design of the PG-2 differed considerably from that of the PG-1 of the RPG-1. The rear section of the PG-1 consisted of a central tube holding the propelling charge, and a second tube around this carrying the fins. When the round was inserted into the launcher, the second tube was outside the launcher tube, requiring the front of the launcher to be free of any fittings. The PG-2 replaced the fins with small metal leaves attached to the inner tube, and eliminated the outer tube found on the PG-1. This allowed the entire propellant section to be inserted into the launcher, which in turn allowed the sights and trigger assembly to be mounted right at the front of the launcher. This slightly reduced the length compared to the RPG-1, made the entire assembly more robust, and allowed the use of conventional fore-and-aft sights.
The new design was such an improvement on the earlier design that development of the RPG-1 ended in 1948. The first production versions of the RPG-2 entered service with the Soviet Army's infantry squads in 1954. Although the RPG-2 could be operated by one man, standard military practice called for a two-man crew: a grenadier carrying the launcher and a purpose-built backpack containing three grenades and an assistant armed with a rifle and carrying another three-grenade backpack.
In 1957, the launcher was adapted to be able to mount the NSP-2 infrared (IR) night-sight system, which consisted of an IR spotlight and a detector, together weighing (with batteries) 6 kilograms (13 lb). The NSP-2 was usable to 150 to 200 metres (490–660 ft) under good conditions. When fitted with the NSP-2, the launcher became known as the RPG-2N.
Widely distributed to allies of the Soviet Union, it was also produced under license by China, North Vietnam and North Korea. Used against the U.S. military in the Vietnam War, its Vietnamese variants were called the B40 (Ba Do Ka (Bazooka) 40mm) and B50. B50 was B40 using Chinese Type 50 HEAT warhead (Chinese version of PG-2).
This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2020)
The RPG-2 anti tank grenade launcher is a simple 40 millimeter steel tube into which the PG-2 grenade is fitted. The tailboom of the grenade inserts into the launcher. The diameter of the PG-2 warhead is 80mm. The center section of the tube has a thin wooden covering to protect the user from the heat generated by the grenade launch. The wooden covering also makes using the weapon in extreme cold conditions easier.
Only one type of grenade, the PG-2 HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank), was used in the RPG-2. The propellant, consisting of granulated powder was in a rolled cardboard case treated with wax that had to be attached to the grenade before loading. Once attached to the propellant charge, the grenade was inserted into the smooth-bore launcher from the front. A tab on the body of the grenade indexes in a notch cut in the tube so that the primer in the propelling charge aligns with the firing pin and hammer mechanism.
To fire the RPG-2, the grenadier cocked an external hammer with his thumb, aimed, and pulled the trigger to fire. Upon launch, six stabilizer fins unfolded from the grenade.
The weapon was accurate, depending on the soldier's experience, against stationary targets up to 150 meters and against moving targets at ranges of less than 100 meters. It had a muzzle velocity of 84 meters per second and could penetrate armor up to 180 millimeters (7.17 inches) thick.
- RPG-2N - First introduced in 1957, it's equipped with a NSP-2 night sight, connected to a battery man pack via cable.
- B40 - North Vietnamese clone of the RPG-2. Rear barrel guard is 50mm shorter than the RPG-2/Type 56.
- B50 - Enlarged version of the B40.
- Type 56 - Chinese clone of the RPG-2.
- P-27 - Czech version of the RPG-2.
- RPG-2 clones made by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2010)
- North Korea: Locally produced from 1958-1959
- Vietnam Designated as the B-40 in Vietnamese service.
- Thailand: Used in small numbers, mainly by Thahan Phran.
- Biafra: Used Type 56s in small numbers.
- China: Adopted and produce by the People's Liberation Army (PLA) as the Type 56 RPG; replaced by the newer Type 69 RPG.
- East Germany
- Egypt
- Grenada
- Laos
- Libya
- North Macedonia
- Mongolia
- Mozambique: Type 56s were supplied by China during Independence War
- Myanmar
- Poland
- Romania
- Soviet Union
- Ukraine - Several units in storage as of 2008.
- Yugoslavia
- Abu Sayyaf (Used RPG-2/B40s)
- Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda
- Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front
- Moro Islamic Liberation Front (RPG-2 clones)
- Moro National Liberation Front
- Mozambique Liberation Front
- New People's Army
- Ta'ang National Liberation Army
- Viet Cong
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