RR Lyrae variable
RR Lyraes are pulsating horizontal branch stars of spectral class A (and sometimes F), with a mass of around half the Sun's. They are thought to have previously shed mass and consequently, they were once stars with similar or slightly less mass than the Sun, around 0.8 solar masses.
RR Lyrae stars pulse in a manner similar to Cepheid variables, so the mechanism for the pulsation is thought to be similar, but the nature and histories of these stars is thought to be rather different. In contrast to classical Cepheids, RR Lyraes are old, relatively low mass, metal-poor "Population II" stars. They are much more common than Cepheids, but also much less luminous. The average absolute magnitude of an RR Lyrae is about 0.75, only 40 or 50 times brighter than our Sun. Their period is shorter, typically less than one day, sometimes ranging down to seven hours. The RR Lyrae subtype RRab (see Subtypes section below) sometimes exhibit the Blazhko effect in which there is a conspicuous phase and amplitude modulation. The prototype RR Lyrae itself exhibits this behavior.
The period of pulsation and absolute magnitude of RR Lyraes makes them good standard candles for relatively nearby targets, especially within the Milky Way and Local Group. Beyond the Milky Way they are difficult to detect due to their low luminosity. They are extensively used in globular cluster studies, and also used to study chemical properties of older stars.
Abundances and distribution
RR Lyrae stars were formerly called "cluster variables" because of their strong (but not exclusive) association with globular clusters; conversely, about 90% of all variables known in globular clusters are RR Lyraes. RR Lyrae stars are found at all galactic latitudes, as opposed to classical Cepheids, which are strongly associated with the galactic plane.
Several times as many RR Lyraes are known as all Cepheids combined; in the 1980s, about 1900 were known in globular clusters. Some estimates have about 85000 in the Milky Way.
Discovery and recognition
In surveys of globular clusters, these "cluster-type" variables were being rapidly identified in the mid-1890s, especially by E. C. Pickering.
From 1915 to the 1930s, the RR Lyraes became increasingly accepted as a class of star distinct from the classical Cepheids, due to their shorter periods, differing locations within the galaxy, and chemical differences. RR Lyrae variables are metal-poor, Population II stars.
RR Lyraes have proven difficult to observe in external galaxies because of their intrinsic faintness. (In fact, Walter Baade's failure to find them in the Andromeda galaxy led him to suspect that the galaxy was much farther away than predicted, to reconsider the calibration of Cepheid variables, and to propose the concept of stellar populations.) Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the 1980s, Pritchet & van den Bergh found Lyraes in Andromeda's galactic halo and, more recently, in its globular clusters.
- RRab variables are the most common, making up 91% of all observed RR Lyrae, and display the steep rises in brightness typical of RR Lyrae
- RRc are less common, making up 9% of observed RR Lyrae, and have shorter periods and more sinusoidal variation
- RRd are rare, making up between <1% and 30% of RR Lyrae in a system, and are double-mode pulsators, unlike RRab and RRc
New and upcoming developments
Chief among the uncertainties tied to RR Lyrae variables as distance indicators are: the nature of the period-luminosity relation in various passbands, the impact of metallicity on both the zero-point and slope of those relations, and the effects of photometric contamination (blending). All these topics are actively debated in the literature. For example, the effect of blending can impact RR Lyrae variables sampled near the cores of globular clusters, which are so dense that in low-resolution observations multiple (unresolved) stars may appear as a single target. Thus the brightness measured for that seemingly single star (e.g., an RR Lyrae variable) is erroneously too bright, given those unresolved stars contributed to the brightness determined. Consequently, the computed distance is wrong, and certain researchers have argued that the blending effect can introduce a systematic uncertainty into the cosmic distance ladder, and may bias the estimated age of the Universe and the Hubble constant.
- Layden, A. C.; Hanson, Robert B.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Klemola, Arnold R.; Hanley, Christopher J. (August 1996). "The Absolute Magnitude and Kinematics of RR Lyrae Stars via Statistical Parallax". Astron. J. 112: 2110–2131. arXiv:astro-ph/9608108. Bibcode:1996AJ....112.2110L. doi:10.1086/118167.
- Smith, Horace A., RR Lyrae Stars, Cambridge (2004)
- Hajdu, G.; Catelan, M.; Jurcsik, J.; Dékány, I.; Drake, A.J.; Marquette, B. "New RR Lyrae variables in binary systems". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 449 (1): L113–L117. arXiv:1502.01318. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.449L.113H. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slv024.
- Pritchet, C. J., & van den Bergh, S., "Observations of RR Lyrae stars in the halo of M31", Astrophysical Journal, 316, 517 (1987)
- Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Balona, L. A.; Garrido, R.; Suárez, J.C. (Oct 20, 2012). "Stellar Pulsations: Impact of New Instrumentation and New Insights". Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. ISBN 9783642296307. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- G. Clementini, L. Federici, C. Corsi, C. Cacciari, M. Bellazzini, and H. A. Smith, "RR Lyrae Variables in the Globular Clusters of M31: A First Detection of Likely Candidates", The Astrophysical Journal, 559:L109-L112 (2001)
- Kinemuchi, K. (2011). "RR Lyrae Research with the Kepler Mission". arXiv:1107.0297 [astro-ph.SR].
- Bono, G (2002). "The Cepheid and RR Lyrae instability strip with GAIA". GAIA Spectroscopy: Science and Technology, ASP Conference Proceedings 298.
- Majaess et al. (2012). The Impact of Contaminated RR Lyrae/Globular Cluster Photometry on the Distance Scale, ApJL, 752, 1
- Lee et al. (2014). Toward a Better Understanding of the Distance Scale from RR Lyrae Variable Stars: A Case Study for the Inner Halo Globular Cluster NGC 6723, ApJS, 210, 1
- Neeley et al. (2015). On the Distance of the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121) Using RR Lyrae Stars. II. Mid-infrared Period-luminosity Relations., ApJ, 808, 1
- APOD M3: Inconstant Star Cluster four-frame animation of RR Lyrae variables in globular cluster M3
- Animation of RR Lyrae-Variables in globular cluster M15
- Animation with the variable stars RR Lyrae in the center area of the globular cluster M15
- RR Lyrae stars
- M3 variable stars 2 night animation RR Lyrae at the globular cluster M3, 10min intervals.
- OGLE Atlas of Variable Star Light Curves - RR Lyrae stars