RT (TV network)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

RT
Russia-today-logo.svg
TypeState media,[1]
news channel,
propaganda[2]
CountryRussia
Broadcast areaWorldwide
HeadquartersMoscow
Programming
Language(s)News channel:
English, French, Arabic & Spanish
Documentary channel:
English, French, Russian
Online platforms:
German[3]
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
(downscaled to 16:9 480i/576i for the SDTV feed)
Ownership
OwnerANO "TV-Novosti"[4]
Sister channels
History
Launched10 December 2005; 16 years ago (2005-12-10) (registered on 6 April 2005)[8]
Former namesRussia Today (2005–2009)
Links
Websitewww.rt.com
RT's first logo from 2005 to 2009

RT (formerly Russia Today or Rossiya Segodnya (Russian: Россия Сегодня))[9] is a Russian state-controlled[1] international television network funded by the Russian government.[16][17] It operates pay television or free-to-air channels directed to audiences outside of Russia, as well as providing Internet content in Russian, English, Spanish, French, German and Arabic.

RT is a brand of TV-Novosti, an autonomous non-profit organization founded by the Russian state-owned news agency RIA Novosti in April 2005.[8][18] During the economic crisis in December 2008, the Russian government, headed by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, included ANO "TV-Novosti" on its list of core organizations of strategic importance to Russia.[19][20][21] RT operates as a multilingual service with channels in five languages: the original English-language channel was launched in 2005, the Arabic-language channel in 2007, Spanish in 2009, German in 2014 and French in 2017. RT America (2010–2022),[22][23] RT UK (2014–2022) and other regional channels also produce local content. RT is the parent company of the Ruptly video agency,[5] which owns the Redfish video channel and the Maffick digital media company.[6][7]

RT has regularly been described as a major propaganda outlet for the Russian government and its foreign policy.[2] Academics, fact-checkers, and news reporters (including some current and former RT reporters) have identified RT as a purveyor of disinformation[58] and conspiracy theories.[64] UK media regulator Ofcom has repeatedly found RT to have breached its rules on impartiality, including multiple instances in which RT broadcast "materially misleading" content.[71]

In 2012, RT's editor-in-chief Margarita Simonyan compared the channel to the Russian Ministry of Defence.[72] Referring to the Russo-Georgian War, she stated that it was "waging an information war, and with the entire Western world".[17][73] In September 2017, RT America was ordered to register as a foreign agent with the United States Department of Justice under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.[74]

RT was banned in Ukraine in 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea;[75] Latvia and Lithuania implemented similar bans in 2020.[76][77] Germany banned RT DE in February 2022.[78] After the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Poland and then the entire European Union announced they were formally banning RT as well, while independent service providers in over 10 countries suspended broadcasts of RT.[79][80] Social media websites followed by blocking external links to RT's website and restricting access to RT's content.[81][82] Microsoft removed RT from their app store and de-ranked their search results on Bing,[83][84] while Apple removed the RT app from all countries except for Russia.[85]

History[edit]

Foundation[edit]

RT's formation was part of a public relations effort by the Russian Government in 2005 to improve Russia's image abroad.[86] RT was conceived by former media minister Mikhail Lesin[87] and Aleksei Gromov.[88] At the time of RT's founding, RIA Novosti director Svetlana Mironyuk stated: "Unfortunately, at the level of mass consciousness in the West, Russia is associated with three words: communism, snow and poverty", and added "we would like to present a more complete picture of life in our country".[87] RT is funded by the Federal Agency for Press and Mass Media, part of the government of Russia.[89][90]

In 2005, RIA Novosti founded ANO TV-Novosti (or "Autonomous Non-profit Organization TV-News") to serve as the parent organization for RT. ANO TV-Novosti was registered on 6 April 2005[8] and Sergey Frolov (Сергей Фролов) was appointed its CEO.[91]

Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev visits RT offices with Editor-in-Chief Margarita Simonyan

The channel was launched as Russia Today on 10 December 2005. At its launch, the channel employed 300 journalists, including approximately 70 from outside Russia.[86] Russia Today appointed Margarita Simonyan as its editor-in-chief; she recruited foreign journalists as presenters and consultants.[87]

Simonyan, aged 25 years old when she was appointed, was a former Kremlin pool reporter who had worked in journalism since she was 18. She told The New York Times that after the fall of the Soviet Union, many new young journalists were hired, resulting in a much younger pool of staffers than other news organizations.[92] Journalist Danny Schechter (who has appeared as a guest on RT)[93] stated that, having been part of the launch staff at CNN, he saw RT as another "channel of young people who are inexperienced, but very enthusiastic about what they are doing".[94] Shortly after the channel was launched, James Painter wrote that RT and similar news channels such as France 24 and TeleSUR saw themselves as "counter-hegemonic", offering a differing vision and news content from that of Western media like CNN and the BBC.[95]

Development and expansion[edit]

Dmitry Medvedev took part in the launch of RT Documentary
Vladimir Putin during a visit to the new RT broadcasting centre

RT launched several new channels in ensuing years: the Arabic language channel Rusiya Al-Yaum in 2007, the Spanish language channel RT Actualidad in 2009, RT America – which focuses on the United States – in 2010, and the RT Documentary channel in 2011.[22]

In August 2007, Russia Today became the first television channel to report live from the North Pole (with the report lasting five minutes and 41 seconds). An RT crew participated in the Arktika 2007 Russian polar expedition, led by Artur Chilingarov on the Akademik Fyodorov icebreaker.[96][97] On 31 December 2007, RT's broadcasts of New Year's Eve celebrations in Moscow and Saint Petersburg were broadcast in the hours prior to the New Year's Eve event at New York City's Times Square.[97]

Russia Today drew particular attention worldwide for its coverage of the 2008 South Ossetia war.[97][98][99] RT named Georgia as the aggressor[99] against the separatist governments of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, which were protected by Russian troops.[100] RT saw this as the incident that showcased its newsgathering abilities to the world.[43] Margarita Simonyan stated: "we were the only ones among the English-language media who were giving the other side of the story – the South Ossetian side of the story".[98]

In 2009, Russia Today was rebranded to "RT", which George Washington University academics Jack Nassetta and Kimberly Gross described as an "[attempt] to shed state affiliation".[15] Simonyan said the company had not changed names but the company's corporate logo was changed to attract more viewers: "who is interested in watching news from Russia all day long?"[22] Julia Ioffe also describes 2009, when the Barack Obama administration came to office "promising a different approach toward Russia", as a time when RT became "more international and less anti-American", and "built a state-of-the-art studio and newsroom" in the U.S. capital[43]

In early 2010, RT unveiled an advertising campaign created by Ketchum, GPlus, and London's Portland PR.[45] One of the advertisements featured as part of the campaign showed U.S. President Barack Obama morphing into Iranian leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and asked: "Who poses the greatest nuclear threat?" The ad was banned in American airports. Another showed a Western soldier "merging" with a Taliban fighter and asked: "Is terror only inflicted by terrorists?"[101] One of RT's 2010 billboard advertisements won the British Awards for National Newspaper Advertising "Ad of the Month".[102]

In 2010, Walter Isaacson, Chairman of the U.S. Government's Broadcasting Board of Governors, which runs Voice of America, Radio Free Europe and Radio Free Asia, called for more money to invest in the programs because "We can't allow ourselves to be out-communicated by our enemies", specifically mentioning Russia Today, Iran's Press TV and China's China Central Television (CCTV) in the following sentence. He later explained that he actually was referring to "enemies" in Afghanistan, not the countries he mentioned.[103] In 2011, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated that the U.S. was "losing the information war" abroad to foreign channels like RT, Al Jazeera and China Central Television[104] and that they were supplanting the Voice of America.[105][106]

2012–2021[edit]

In early 2012, shortly after his appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Russia, Michael McFaul challenged Margarita Simonyan[107] on Twitter about allegations from RT[108] that he had sent Russian opposition figure Alexei Navalny to study at Yale University.[107][108] According to RT, McFaul was referring to a comment in an article by political scientist Igor Panarin, which RT had specified were the views of the author.[109][110] McFaul then accepted an interview by Sophie Shevardnadze on RT on this and other issues and reasserted that the Obama administration wanted a "reset" in relations with Russia.[111][112]

On 17 April 2012, RT debuted World Tomorrow, a news interview programme hosted by WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange. The first guest on the program was Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah.[113][114][115] The interview made global headlines as Nasrallah rarely gives interviews to Western media.[116] Commentators described this as a "coup".[117][118] WikiLeaks described the show as "a series of in-depth conversations with key political players, thinkers and revolutionaries from around the world".[119] It stated that the show is "independently produced and Assange has control"; WikiLeaks offers a "Broadcasters license, only".[120]

Assange said that RT allowed his guests to discuss things that they "could not say on a mainstream TV network".[121] Assange's production company made the show and Assange had full editorial control. Assange said that, if Wikileaks had published large amounts of compromising data on Russia, his relationship with RT might not have been so comfortable.[116] In August of that year, RT suffered a denial of service attack. Some people linked the attack to RT's connection with Assange, and others to an impending court verdict related to Pussy Riot.[122]

On 23 October 2012, RT, along with Al Jazeera and C-SPAN, broadcast the Free and Equal Elections Foundation third-party debate among four third-party candidates for President of the United States.[123][124] On 5 November, RT broadcast the two candidates that were voted winners of that debate, Libertarian Party candidate Governor Gary Johnson and Green Party candidate Jill Stein, from RT's Washington, D.C. studio.[125][126][127]

In May 2013, RT announced that former CNN host Larry King would host a new talk show on RT. King said in an advertisement on RT: "I would rather ask questions to people in positions of power, instead of speaking on their behalf."[128][129] As part of the deal, King would also bring his Hulu series Larry King Now to RT. On 13 June 2013, RT aired a preview telecast of King's new Thursday evening program Politicking, with the episode discussing Edward Snowden's leaking of the PRISM surveillance program.[130]

Russian President Vladimir Putin 2013 visit to RT's new broadcasting centre and interview with RT correspondents

Vladimir Putin visited the new RT broadcasting centre in June 2013 and stated:

"When we designed this project back in 2005 we intended introducing another strong player on the international scene, a player that wouldn't just provide an unbiased coverage of the events in Russia but also try, let me stress, I mean – try to break the Anglo-Saxon monopoly on the global information streams. ... We wanted to bring an absolutely independent news channel to the news arena. Certainly the channel is funded by the government, so it cannot help but reflect the Russian government's official position on the events in our country and in the rest of the world one way or another. But I’d like to underline again that we never intended this channel, RT, as any kind of apologetics for the Russian political line, whether domestic or foreign."[131][16]

In early October 2014, RT announced the launch of a dedicated news channel, RT UK, aimed at British audiences. The new channel began operating on 30 October 2014.[132]

In October 2016, the NatWest bank stated that they will no longer provide banking services to RT in the UK without providing any reasons. This decision was criticised by Margarita Simonyan, the editor-in-chief of RT, and the Russia Government. Simonyan sarcastically tweeted that: "Long live freedom of speech!"[133] However, NatWest reversed its decision in January 2017, said it had reached a resolution with RT. Simonyan said the decision showed that "common sense has prevailed".[134]

In 2018, some of the RT staff started a new media project, Redfish.media, that positioned itself as "grassroots journalism".[135][6] The website was criticized by activist Musa Okwonga for deceptively interviewing him and then distributing it across RT channels while hiding its real affiliation.[136] Another similar RT project is In the NOW, started in 2018.[137] On 15 February 2019, Facebook temporarily blocked the In the NOW page, saying that even though it does not require pages to disclose who funds them, it had suspended the page so viewers would not "be misled about who’s behind them". Anissa Naouai, CEO of Maffick, which published the page, described the blocking as "unprecedented discrimination", and said that Facebook did not ask other channels to declare their parent company and financial affiliations. As of February 2019, a majority of Maffick stock was controlled by Ruptly, an RT subsidiary, with Naouai owning the remaining 49%. Facebook unblocked the page on 25 February 2019; Naouai said the company had agreed to do so once the page was updated to feature information on In the NOW's funding and management. She added that this requirement has been applied to no other Facebook page. In the NOW also has an active channel on YouTube and regularly posts videos from Soapbox, a Maffick-owned channel.[138][139][7][140]

In February 2021, Matt Field from the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists reported that RT had created an account on Gab, a social network known for its far-right userbase, right before the start of former U.S. President Donald Trump's second impeachment trial.[141] Field commented that RT had posted several articles on its Gab account, including one criticizing The Lincoln Project, an organization run by anti-Trump Republicans.[141]

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine[edit]

On 27 February, the president of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen announced the European Union would ban RT and Sputnik (plus their subsidiaries) from operating in its 27 member countries.[142] The ban resulted in RT being blocked on downstream television networks located outside EU, such as the United Kingdom and Singapore as they were dependent on European companies for the signal feed to RT.[143][144] On 27 February, Canadian telecom companies Shaw, Rogers, Bell and Telus announced they would no longer offer RT in their channel lineups.[145] This move was praised by Canada's Minister of Canadian Heritage Pablo Rodriguez who called the network the "propaganda arm" of Vladimir Putin.[146] On 28 February, Ofcom announced they had opened 15 expedited investigations into RT.[147] These investigations will be focused on the 15 news editions broadcast on 27 February between 05:00 and 19:00 and will check if the coverage broke impartiality requirements in the broadcast code.[148] On 2 March, the regulation was published which meant the ban was in force.[149]

Facebook, Instagram, and TikTok made RT's and Sputnik's social media content unavailable to users in the European Union on 28 February.[150][151] Microsoft removed RT and Sputnik from MSN, the Microsoft Store, and the Microsoft Advertising network on the same day.[152] YouTube, on 1 March, banned access to all RT and Sputnik channels on its platform in Europe (including Britain).[a][81][153] Apple followed by removing RT and Sputnik from its App Store in all countries except Russia.[154] Roku dropped the RT app from its channel store,[155] while DirecTV pulled RT America from its channel lineup.[156] New Zealand satellite television provider Sky also removed RT, citing complaints from customers and consultation with the Broadcasting Standards Authority.[157] Reddit blocked new outgoing links to RT and Sputnik on 3 March.[158] On 11 March, YouTube blocked RT and Sputnik worldwide.[159]

Between 22 and 26 February 2022, a couple of days before and after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, "posts on Facebook from RT and Sputnik got more than 5 million likes, shares and comments". On YouTube, videos of "false stories, claiming that Ukrainians had attacked Russians or describing a 'genocide' against Russian-speaking Ukrainians in the separatist Donbas region," were watched "73 million times."[160] During the invasion, hacktivist collective Anonymous launched a distributed denial of service attack that temporarily disabled the websites of RT and other Russian government-controlled organizations.[161][162] In March 2022, RT America closed and most of its staff ceased to work for the outlet.[23] RT began selling merchandise emblazoned with the "Z" military symbol – a pro-Kremlin and pro-war emblem – a few days after the start of the invasion.[163]

In March 2022, Vice News reported that RT had established a channel on Gab's video sharing platform Gab TV, which describes itself as a "free speech broadcasting platform." Vice News observed that Gab CEO Andrew Torba had given his support for Russia's invasion of Ukraine and Torba publicly supported RT, claiming that they are being subject to the same censorship as American conservatives "by Big Tech and the globalist regime". Torba also falsely claimed that Gab is "the one place on the internet where you can find RT News" when RT also has a presence on video sharing platform Rumble.[164]

Not all branches of RT have suffered declines since the war started. Interactions with the Arabic-language Facebook page "RT Online" grew 161.2% from Feb. 28 to mid-March, "RT Play in Español" went up a 22.5%.[160]

Organization[edit]

State-owned RIA Novosti news agency, which founded RT in 2005, is one of the largest in Russia. Its former chairperson was Svetlana Mironyuk, who modernised the agency after being appointed in 2003.[165][166][167]

In 2007, RT established offices in the same building as RIA Novosti, after the Russian Union of Journalists was forced to vacate them.[168] In 2012, Anna Kachkayeva, Dean of Media Communications at Moscow's Higher School of Economics, stated that the two organizations "share the same roof" because they are located in the same building, but in "funding, editorial policy, management and staff, they are two independent organisations whose daily operations are not interconnected in any way".[169] In 2008, Simonyan noted that more than 50 young RT journalists had gone on to take positions in large Western media outlets.[97] By 2010, RT's staff had grown to 2,000.[22]

RT studios building in Moscow in 2013

In December 2012, RT moved its production studios and headquarters to a new facility in Moscow. The move coincided with RT's upgrade of all of its English-language news programming to high-definition.[170][171][172]

In 2013, a presidential decree issued by Vladimir Putin dissolved RIA Novosti, replacing it with a new information agency called Rossiya Segodnya (directly translated as Russia Today).[173] On 31 December 2013, Margarita Simonyan, editor-in-chief of the RT news channel, was also appointed editor-in-chief of the new news agency while maintaining her duties for the television network.[174]

From 18 August 2020 to 18 August 2021, ANO TV Novosti was owned by the federal state unitary enterprise RAMI RIA Novosti (Russian: ФГУП "РАМИ "РИА Новости") and the Association for the Development of International Journalism (ADIJ; Russian: Ассоциация развития международной журналистики (АРМЖ)), which was founded by Margarita Simonyan and few other RT associates. On 18 August 2021, RAMI RIA Novosti was liquidated and the ownership of ANO TV Novosti was transferred to ADIJ.[175][176][177]

Budget[edit]

When it was established in 2005, ANO TV-Novosti invested $30 million in start-up costs to establish RT,[178] with a budget of $30 million for its first year of operation. Half of the network's budget came from the Russian government; the other half came from pro-Kremlin commercial banks at the government's request.[95] Its annual budget increased from approximately $80 million in 2007 to $380 million in 2011, but was reduced to $300 million in 2012.[179][1][180] President Putin prohibited the reduction of funding for RT on 30 October 2012.[181]

About 80 percent of RT's costs are incurred outside Russia, paying partner networks around $260 million for the distribution of its channels in 2014.[40][182] In 2014, RT received 11.87 billion rubles ($310 million) in government funding and was expected to receive 15.38 billion rubles ($400 million) in 2015.[183] (For comparison, the bigger BBC World Service Group had a $376 million budget in 2014–15.)[184] At the start of 2015, as the ruble's value plummeted and a ten percent reduction in media subsidies was imposed, it was thought that RT's budget for the year would fall to about $236 million.[40][182] Instead, government funding was increased to 20.8 billion rubles (around $300 million) in September.[185] In 2015, RT was expected to receive 19 billion rubles ($307 million) from the Russian government the following year.[186] As of 2022, RT is the leader in terms of state funding among all Russian media. Between 2022 and 2024, RT will receive 82 billion rubles.[187][188]

Network[edit]

According to RT as of March 2022, the network's feed is carried by 22 satellites and over 230 operators, providing a distribution reach to about 700 million households in more than 100 countries.[189] RT also stated that RT America was available to 85 million households throughout the United States, as of 2012.[190]

In addition to its main English language channel RT International, RT UK and RT America, RT also runs Arabic-language channel Rusiya Al-Yaum, Spanish language channel Actualidad RT, as well as the RTDoc documentary channel. RT maintains 21 bureaus in 16 countries, including those in Washington, D.C., New York City; London, England; Paris, France; Delhi, India; Cairo, Egypt and Baghdad, Iraq.[3]

Channel Description Language Launched
RT International The flagship news channel of the RT network, it covers international and regional news from a Russian perspective. It also includes commentary and documentary programs. Based in Moscow with a presence in Washington, New York, London, Paris, Delhi, Cairo and Baghdad and other cities.[3] English 2005
RT Arabic Based in Moscow and broadcast 24/7. Programmes include news, feature programming and documentaries.[191] Arabic 2007
RT Spanish Based in Moscow with bureaus in Miami, Los Angeles, Havana and Buenos Aires. Covers headline news, politics, sports and broadcast specials.[192] Spanish 2009
RT America RT America was based in RT's Washington, D.C. bureau, it included programs hosted by American journalists. The channel maintained a separate schedule of programs each weekday from 4:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. Eastern Time, and simulcasted RT International at all other times. RT America was compelled to register as a foreign agent with the United States Department of Justice National Security Division under the Foreign Agents Registration Act.[193] English 2010
(closed 3 March 2022)
RT UK RT UK was based in RT's London bureau at Millbank Tower. Includes programs hosted by British journalists. The channel offered five hours of programming per day, Monday to Thursday UK News at 6 pm, 7pm, 8pm, 9pm and 10 pm and simulcasted RT International at all other times. On Fridays there were no 10 pm UK News bulletin.[194] English 2014

(closed 2 March 2022)

RT Documentary A 24-hour documentary channel. The bulk of its programming consists of RT-produced documentaries related to Russia.[195] English, Russian 2011

The sharp decline in the ruble at the end of 2014 forced RT to postpone German- and French-language channels.[184]

In addition to news agency Ruptly, RT also operates the following websites: RT на русском (in Russian),[196] RT en français (French),[197] RT DE (German).[198]

In 2015, RT's YouTube news channels were: RT (the main channel), RT America, RT Arabic, RT en Español, RT Deutsch, RT French, RT UK, RT на русском and the newly launched RT Chinese.[40]

The German service (RT DE) was removed from YouTube in September 2021 for breaking the websites rules on COVID misinformation.[199] As noted by Russian journalists, Russian RT edition "aggressively" promoted COVID-19 vaccination in Russia, resorting to calling anti-vaccination activists "imbeciles", while at the same time foreign RT channels are promoting the same anti-vaccination misinformation that it criticizes in Russia.[200][201]

In September 2012, RT signed a contract with Israeli-based RRSat to distribute high-definition feeds of the channel in the United States, Latin America and Asia.[202] In October 2012, RT's Rusiya Al-Yaum and RT joined the high-definition network Al Yah Satellite Communications ("YahLive").[203] On 12 July 2014, during his visit to Argentina, Putin announced that Actualidad RT would broadcast free-to-air in the country, the first foreign television channel to do so there.[204][205] According to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Argentina's State Media Authorities decided to suspend RT on 11 June 2016, along with Venezuelan television channel TeleSur, which had both been authorized by the previous left-leaning government of Cristina Kirchner. Officially, Argentina wanted to devote RT's frequency to domestic broadcasts.[206] RT was made available on the dominant Australian subscription television platform Foxtel on 17 February 2015.[207]

Ratings/impact[edit]

Audience ratings

The RT website (as of March 2022), maintains that "since June 2012", RT has "consistently and significantly outperforms other foreign channels including Euronews and Fox News. RT’s quarterly audience in the UK is 2.5 million viewers".[208] However, according to The Daily Beast, citing leaked documents from "from Vasily Gatov, a former RIA Novosti employee" (as of 2015) RT “hugely exaggerates its viewership,”;[209] and its most-watched segments were on apolitical subjects.[210] Between 2013 and 2015, over 80% of RT's viewership was for videos of accidents, crime, disasters, and natural phenomena, such as the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor event, with less than 1% of viewership for political videos.[211] In late 2015, all of the 20 most-watched videos on its main channel, totaling 300 million views, were described as "disaster/novelty". Of the top 100, only a small number could be categorized as political, with only one covering Ukraine.[185] The most popular video of Russian president Putin shows him singing "Blueberry Hill" at a 2010 St. Petersburg charity event.[211] In 2017, The Washington Post analysed RT's popularity and concluded that "it’s not very good at its job" as "Moscow’s propaganda arm" due to its relative unpopularity.[212] RT has disputed both The Daily Beast and The Washington Post assessments, saying their analyses used outdated viewership data.[213][214]

A study by Professor Robert Orttung at George Washington University stated that RT uses human interest stories without ideological content to attract viewers to its channels. Between January and May 2015, the Russian-language channel had the most viewers, with approximately double the number of the main channel, despite only having around one-third the number of subscribers.[40]

According to data compiled by Oxford's Rasmus Kleis Nielsen prior to the invasion of Ukraine, RT's "online reach in the U.K., France, and Germany" was "not great on the web, but surprisingly strong on social media, at least in spots".[209] For example, in Germany, RT was "the No. 1 news source in terms of engagements on Facebook" December 2021-January 2022, (according to this CrowdTangle data).[209]

Reliable figures for RT's worldwide audience were not available as of 2015.[185] In the United States, RT typically pays cable and satellite services to carry its channel in subscriber packages.[211] In 2011, RT was the second most-watched foreign news channel in the United States (after BBC World News),[215] and the number one foreign network in five major U.S. urban areas in 2012.[216] It also rated well among younger Americans under 35 and in inner city areas.[216]

In the UK, the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board (BARB) has included RT in the viewer data it publishes since 2012.[185] According to their data, approximately 2.5 million Britons watched RT during the third quarter of 2012, making it the third most-watched rolling news channel in Britain, behind BBC News and Sky News (not including Sky Sports News).[170][217][218] RT was soon overtaken by Al Jazeera English,[219] and viewing figures dropped to about 2.1 million by the end of 2013.[220] For comparison, it had marginally fewer viewers than S4C, the state-funded Welsh language broadcaster,[221] or minor channels such as Zing, Viva and Rishtey.[222] According to internal documents submitted for Kremlin review, RT's viewership amounted to less than 0.1 percent of Europe's television audience, except in Britain, where 2013 viewership was estimated at 120,000 persons per day.[211] According to the leaked documents, RT was ranked 175th out of 278 channels in Great Britain in May 2013, or fifth out of eight cable news channels.[211] In August 2015, RT's average weekly viewing figure had fallen to around 450,000 (0.8 percent of the total UK audience), 100,000 fewer than in June 2012 and less than half that of Al Jazeera English.[185][223] In March 2016, the monthly viewing was figure 0.04%.[224]

Latin America is the second most significant area of influence for internet RT (rt.com). In 2013, RT ascended to the ranks of the 100 most watched websites in seven Latin American countries.[225]

A Pew Research survey of the most popular news videos on YouTube in 2011–12 found RT to be the top source with 8.5 percent of posts, 68 percent of which consisted of first-person video accounts of dramatic worldwide events, likely acquired by the network rather than created by it.[226][227] In 2013, RT became the first television news channel to reach 1 billion views on YouTube.[44] In 2014, its main (English) channel was reported have 1.4 million subscribers.[228]

In March 2022, Alexa ranked it as Russia's 32nd most popular website.[229]

Followers[edit]

In 2013, RT became "the first news network to surpass 1 billion views on YouTube".[160] As of shortly after the invasion of Ukraine and blocking of RT by tech companies, RT's "main Facebook channel has more than 7 million followers" (some of which are located in Europe where the channel is blocked). RT's YouTube account had "roughly 4.65 million followers in English and 5.94 million in Spanish".[160]

Impact[edit]

RT has some effect on viewers' political opinions, according to a 2021 study in the journal Security Studies. Viewers exposed to RT became more likely "to support the withdrawal of the United States "from its role as a cooperative global leader" than those who did not watch RT by 10–20%. "This effect is robust across measures, obtains across party lines, and persists even when we disclose that RT is financed by the Russian government." However, exposure to RT had no measurable "effect on Americans' views of domestic politics or the Russian government."[230]

According to author Peter Pomerantsev, a large audience rating is not RT's principal goal. Their campaigns are "for financial, political and media influence.”[231] RT (and Sputnik) "create the fodder" used by "thousands of fake news propagators" and provide an outlet for material hacked from targets it wishes to harm in the service of Russian (government) interests. RT also serves to make friends with people "useful" to the Russian state, such as Michael Flynn (retired United States Army lieutenant general and dismissed director of the Defense Intelligence Agency and U.S. National Security Advisor[232] in the early days of the Trump administration) who was paid "a reported $40,000 to come to RT’s anniversary celebration in Moscow and sit near Mr. Putin."[231]

Programming[edit]

In 2008, Heidi Brown wrote in Forbes that "the Kremlin is using charm, good photography and a healthy dose of sex appeal to appeal to a diverse, skeptical audience. The result is entertaining – and ineffably Russian." She added that Russia Today has managed to "get foreigners to at least consider the Russian viewpoint – however eccentric it may be..."[233] Matt Field in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists described RT as "applying high-quality graphics and production values to its stories", often focusing "on polarizing issues that aren’t necessarily top-of-mind for viewers" and sometimes "strikingly at odds with Russian President Vladimir Putin’s own views".[234]

According to Tim Dowling, writing in The Guardian, "Fringe opinion takes center stage" on RT. "Reporting is routinely bolstered by testimony from experts you have never heard of, representing institutions you have never heard of."[235]

The Alyona Show[edit]

The Alyona Show, hosted by Alyona Minkovski, ran from 2009 to 2012 (when Minkovski left RT to join The Huffington Post). Daily Beast writer Tracy Quan described The Alyona Show as "one of RT's most popular vehicles".[236] The New Republic columnist Jesse Zwick wrote that one journalist told him that Minkovski is "probably the best interviewer on cable news".[237] Benjamin R. Freed wrote in the avant-garde culture magazine SOMA that "The Alyona Show does political talk with razor-sharp wit."[238] David Weigel called the show "an in-house attempt at a newsy cult hit" and noted that "her meatiest segments were about government spying, and the Federal Reserve, and America's undeclared wars".[99] Minkovski had complained about being characterized as if she was "Putin's girl in Washington" or as being "anti-American".[238] After Minkovski argued that Glenn Beck was "not on the side of America. And the fact that my channel is more honest with the American people is something you should be ashamed of", Columbia Journalism Review writer Julia Ioffe asked: "since when does Russia Today defend the policies of any American president? Or the informational needs of the American public, for that matter?"[43]

Adam vs. the Man[edit]

From April to August 2011, RT ran a half-hour primetime show Adam vs. the Man,[239][240][241] hosted by former Iraq War Marine veteran and high-profile anti-war activist Adam Kokesh. David Weigel writes that Kokesh defended RT's "propaganda" function, saying "We're putting out the truth that no one else wants to say. I mean, if you want to put it in the worst possible abstract, it's the Russian government, which is a competing protection racket against the other governments of the world, going against the United States and calling them on their bullshit."[99]

World Tomorrow[edit]

Reviewing the first episode of Julian Assange's show World Tomorrow, The Independent noted that Assange, who was under house arrest, was "largely deferential" in asking some questions of Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, who himself was in hiding. However, he also asked tough questions such as why Nasrallah had not supported Arab revolts against Syrian leaders, when he had supported them in Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, and other countries.[116] The New York Times journalist Allesandra Stanley wrote that "practically speaking, Mr. Assange is in bed with the Kremlin, but on Tuesday's show he didn't put out" and that he "behaved surprisingly like a standard network interviewer".[113] Douglas Lucas in Salon wrote that the RT deal "may just be a profitable way for him to get a gigantic retweet".[120] Glenn Greenwald, who has been a guest on RT,[242] wrote that RT presenting the Julian Assange show led to "a predictable wave of snide, smug attacks from American media figures".[243]

"Breaking the Set" (2012–2015) presenter and correspondent Abby Martin

Other shows[edit]

Marcin Maczka writes that RT's ample financing has allowed RT to attract experienced journalists and use the latest technology.[179] RT anchors and correspondents tend to concentrate on controversial world issues such as the financial and banking scandals, corporate impact on the global economy, and western demonstrations. It has also aired views by various conspiracy theorists, including neo-Nazis, white supremacists, and Holocaust deniers (presented as "human rights activists").[244] News from Russia is of secondary importance and such reports emphasize Russian modernisation and economic achievements, as well as Russian culture and natural landscapes, while downplaying Russia's social problems or corruption.[92][179]

#1917LIVE[edit]

Russian Telegraph logo

In 2017, RT ran a mock live tweeting program under the hashtag "#1917LIVE" to mark the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution.[245]

The #1917Live project had multimedia social plug-ins, such as Periscope live streaming, as well as virtual reality panoramic videos.[246]

Programs[edit]

RT's feature programs include (with presenters parenthesised):[247][248]

Current[edit]

Former[edit]

RT's former on-air staff included 25 people from RT America.[252]

On-air staff[edit]

RT's current on-air staff includes 25 people from RT News, and 8 from RT UK.[252] Notable members of RT's current and former staff include:

Guests[edit]

Russian President Vladimir Putin RT interview, 6 September 2012

According to Jesse Zwick, RT persuades "legitimate experts and journalists" to appear as guests by allowing them to speak at length on issues ignored by larger news outlets. It frequently interviews progressive and libertarian academics, intellectuals and writers from organisations like The Nation, Reason, Human Events, Center for American Progress[237] and the Cato Institute[99] who are critical of United States foreign and civil liberties policies.[237] Julian Assange of WikiLeaks and Noam Chomsky, the leftist critic of Western policies are "favorites".[231] RT also features little-known commentators including anarchists, anti-globalists and left-wing activists.[179] Journalist Danny Schechter holds that a primary reason for RT's success in the United States is that RT is "a force for diversity" which gives voice to people "who rarely get heard in current mainstream US media".[94] Examples of this include "a twelve-minute interview" in March 2010 "with Hank Albarelli, a self-described American 'historian' who claims that the CIA is testing dangerous drugs on unwitting civilians", and RT's asking for commentary on the 2010 Haiti earthquake from "Carl Dix, a representative of the American Revolutionary Communist Party".[43]

The Economist magazine observed that RT's programming, while sometimes interesting and unobjectionable, and sometimes "hard-edged", also presents "wild conspiracy theories" that can be regarded as "kooky".[253] In 2010, journalist and blogger Julia Ioffe described RT as being "provocative just for the sake of being provocative" in its choice of guests and issue topics, featuring a Russian historian who predicted that the United States would soon be dissolved, showing speeches by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, reporting on homelessness in America, and interviewing the chairman of the New Black Panther Party. She wrote that in attempting to offer "an alternate point of view, it is forced to talk to marginal, offensive, and often irrelevant figures".[43][253] A 2010 Southern Poverty Law Center report stated that RT extensively covered the "birther" and the "New World Order" conspiracy theories and interviewed militia organizer Jim Stachowiak and white nationalist Jared Taylor.[244] An Al Jazeera English article stated that RT has a penchant "for off-beat stories and conspiracy theories".[254] RT Editor-in-Chief Margarita Simonyan told Nikolaus von Twickel of The Moscow Times that RT started to grow once it became provocative and that controversy was vital to the channel. She said that RT's task was not to polish Moscow's reputation.[22] The news channel has also been criticized for its lack of objectivity in its coverage of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[255] Miko Peled, the Israeli peace activist who has called the peace process "a process of apartheid & colonization" is a frequent guest on RT.

Worlds Apart with host Oksana Boyko, with Filipino Foreign Affairs Secretary Cayetano.

Notable guests have included think tank intellectuals like Jared Bernstein,[99] John Feffer and Lawrence Korb; journalists and writers Jacob Sullum, Pepe Escobar,[237] and Brian Doherty,[256] and heads of state, including Ecuador's Rafael Correa,[256] and Syria's Bashar al-Assad.[257] Nigel Farage, the leader of UK Independence Party from 2010 to 2016, appeared on RT eighteen times from 2010 to 2014.[221][258] Steve Bannon has stated that he has appeared on RT "probably 100 times or more".[259] Manuel Ochsenreiter, a neo-Nazi, has repeatedly appeared on RT to represent the German point of view.[260] RT News has also frequently hosted Richard B. Spencer, an American white supremacist airing his opinions in support of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad,[261] and has hosted Holocaust denier Ryan Dawson, presenting him as a human rights activist.[262] Such figures as Alex Jones, Jim Marrs, David Ray Griffin, and Webster Tarpley have appeared on RT to advance conspiracy theories about topics such as the September 11 attacks, the Bilderberg group, and the "New World Order".[59]: 308[61]

Content[edit]

ODNI Statement on Declassified Intelligence Community Assessment of Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections

RT has presented itself as a global network "like the BBC or France 24", differing from them in offering “alternative views” ignored by the "Western-dominated news media". Many Western countries, in contrast, regard RT not just as a propaganda organ, but as "the slickly produced heart of a broad, often covert disinformation campaign designed to sow doubt about democratic institutions and destabilize the West".[231] According to Steven Erlanger, RT provides "hard news and top-notch graphics" and a "mix with interviews from all sorts of people: well known and obscure, left and right. ... if there is any unifying character to RT, it is a deep skepticism of Western and American narratives of the world and a fundamental defensiveness about Russia and Mr. Putin."[231]

Propaganda and related issues[edit]

RT's editor-in-chief, Margarita Simonyan, has described RT as giving Russia "soft power", and being the same kind of "tool" for Russia that the "BBC or CNN" are "for the UK and USA". In 2012, she stated that RT waged "an information war ... with the entire Western world" during the Russo-Georgian War.[73][72][17]

Observers have criticized the state-supported/controlled nature of RT as an instrument of propaganda. In 2005, Pascal Bonnamour, the head of the European department of Reporters Without Borders, called the newly announced network "another step of the state to control information".[263] In a 2005 interview with U.S. government-owned external broadcaster Voice of America, Russian-Israeli blogger Anton Nosik said the creation of RT "smacks of Soviet-style propaganda campaigns".[264] In 2009, Luke Harding (then Moscow correspondent for The Guardian) described RT's advertising campaign in the United Kingdom as an "ambitious attempt to create a new post-Soviet global propaganda empire".[45] In Russia, Andrey Illarionov, former advisor to Vladimir Putin, has called the channel "the best Russian propaganda machine targeted at the outside world".[92][179] Chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov, speaking after the launch of RT America, said: "Russia Today is an extension of the methods and approach of the state-controlled media inside Russia, applied in a bid to influence the American cable audience".[46]

Others have commended its promotion and discussion of issues ignored or just not given enough time by the mainstream news media. In E-International Relations, researcher Precious N Chatterje-Doody stated that RT viewers tend to recognize RT's state-controlled status, and that they choose to watch RT for its "non-mainstream" story selection and its use of technology. She asserted that if RT broadcast only "blatant propaganda", it would not retain its audience.[265] According to Adam Johnson in The Nation magazine, "while Russia Today toes the Kremlin’s line on foreign policy, it also provides an outlet to marginalized issues and voices stateside. RT, for example, has covered the recent prison strikes—the largest in American history—twice. So far CNN, MSNBC, NPR, and Rutenberg’s employer, The New York Times, haven’t covered them at all. RT aggressively covered Occupy Wall Street early on while the rest of corporate US media were marginalizing from afar (for this effort, RT was nominated for an Emmy Award)."[266] John Feffer, co-director of Foreign Policy in Focus says he appears on RT as well as the U.S.-funded Voice of America and Radio Free Asia, commented "I’ve been given the opportunity to talk about military expenditures in a way I haven’t been given in U.S. outlets". On the fairness issue, he said: "You're going to find blind spots in the coverage for any news organization".[237]

Among the complaints of RT are the quality of its journalism and general production of "propaganda and disinformation". Graduate students at Columbia School of Journalism monitored RT's (US) output for much of 2015, and found "RT ignores the inherent traits of journalism—checking sources, relaying facts, attempting honest reportage" and "you’ll find 'experts' lacking in expertise, conspiracy theories without backing, and, from time to time, outright fabrication for the sake of pushing a pro-Kremlin line", according to Casey Michel, who worked on the project.[267][268] The results were compiled in a Tumblr blog.[269] Media analyst Vasily Gatov wrote in a 2014 Moscow Times article that sharp ethical and reporting skills are not required for Russian media employees, including RT.[270] RT has been deprecated by the Wikipedia community as an unreliable source of information, with consensus being that it is "a mouthpiece of the Russian government that engages in propaganda and disinformation."[271]

RT has been accused of different approaches to disinformation:

  • Focusing on "presenting a negative picture of the United States and 'the West'", rather than extolling "Russia's virtues directly", publishing conspiracy theories about the West, criticizing U.S. influence abroad, and presenting Russia as "a 'global underdog'" to U.S. hegemony. (Michael Dukalskis in his 2021 book on tactics used by authoritarian regimes to construct a positive image of their regimes).[62]
  • Normally giving reporters and presenters considerable latitude, and saving straight-up pro-Russian government "message control" (propaganda), for "highly sensitive issues", such as the Russo-Georgian War or the trial of Mikhail Khodorkovsky, (Julia Ioffe).[43]
  • Functioning in some circumstances, (like the 2016 U.S. presidential election), as a part of a larger Russian disinformation apparatus with the goal of undermining "public faith in the U.S. democratic process,” and damaging enemies (like Hillary Clinton). RT and other state-funded Russian media, publicize "real information, some open and some hacked" (i.e. stolen), along with "false reports" they've created. These are "amplified on social media, sometimes by computer bots that send out thousands of Facebook and Twitter messages." (Steven Erlanger, quoting U.S. agencies).[231]
  • Only rarely taking a "single, anti-Western media line on any given story", which would be "too obvious". Instead, presenting "gaggles of competing and contradicting narratives which together create the impression that the truth is indecipherable". (Lithuania's STRATCOM Colonel).[272] RT's "main message is that you cannot trust the western media". It seems "dedicated to the proposition that after the notion of objectivity has evaporated, all stories are equally true." (Peter Pomerantsev, writing in The Guardian in 2015)[273] Using a strategy of distributing fake stories in "high-volume and multichannel, rapid, continuous, and repetitive" manner, with no regard to consistency. This "firehose of falsehood" makes propaganda difficult to counter. (Christopher Paul, Miriam Matthews of RAND Corporation).[274] Though viewers may still oppose Russian policy and dislike Putin, RT's goal is for “a bit" of disinformation mud to "stick” to viewers and their doubts about Western institutions to grow. (Robert Pszczel, who ran NATO's information office in Moscow and watches Russia and the western Balkans for NATO.)[231]
  • Pushing different themes in different countries, which are often contradictory but all serve the Russian government's interests:
    • presenting itself as a liberal alternative in the United States, but as the flagship of resurgent nationalist parties in Europe. (Patrick Hilsman)[275]
    • warning domestic Russian audiences of the dangers of COVID-19 and the need for preventive measures, while saturating English, German, French, Spanish, and Arabic-language platforms with COVID-19 misinformation and conspiracy theories.[200][201][276]
    • RT (and other Russian propaganda media) may broadcast different "themes or messages", different accounts of "contested events", and may change their account (their "falsehood or misrepresentation") if it is "exposed or ... not well received", moving "on to a new (though not necessarily more plausible) explanation".[277] An example being Russian media explanations for killing of 283 passengers and 15 crew from the downing of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 on 17 July 2014 while the plane was flying over pro-Russian separatist-controlled territory in Ukraine. The Dutch Safety Board (DSB) and the Dutch-led joint investigation team (JIT), concluded that the airliner was downed by a Russian Buk surface-to-air missile launched from the separatist-controlled territory,[278][279] and American, German, Dutch and Australia investigations held Russia responsible. Russian media (LifeNews) first reported separatists had shot down a "Ukrainian Air Force An-26 transport plane" with a missile, calling it "a new victory for the Donetsk militia".[280][281][282] Later, after it was clear the plane was civilian, offering a variety of theories of how the Ukrainian military was responsible.[283] One theory offered and later discarded by RT was that the airliner may have been shot down by Ukraine in a failed attempt to assassinate Vladimir Putin, in a plot which was organised by Ukraine's "Western backers". (However Putin's flight route was hundreds of kilometres north of Ukraine.)[284][285]

Treatment of Putin and Medvedev[edit]

A 2007 article in The Christian Science Monitor stated that RT reported on the good job Putin was doing in the world and next to nothing on things like the conflict in Chechnya or the murder of government critics.[286] According to a 2010 report by The Independent, RT journalists have said that coverage of sensitive issues in Russia is allowed, but direct criticism of Vladimir Putin or President Dmitry Medvedev was not.[94] Masha Karp wrote in Standpoint magazine that contemporary Russian issues "such as the suppression of free speech and peaceful demonstrations, or the economic inefficiency and corrupt judiciary, are either ignored or their significance played down".[287] In 2008, Stephen Heyman wrote in The New York Times that in RT's Russia, "corruption is not quite a scourge but a symptom of a developing economy".[92]

Anti-Americanism and anti-Westernism[edit]

RT reporter covering the George Floyd protests in Iran in June 2020

The New Republic writer James Kirchick accused the network of "often virulent anti-Americanism, worshipful portrayal of Russian leaders".[288] Edward Lucas wrote in The Economist (quoted in Al Jazeera English) that the core of RT was "anti-Westernism".[254] Julia Ioffe wrote: "Often, it seemed that Russia Today was just a way to stick it to the U.S. from behind the façade of legitimate newsgathering."[43] Shaun Walker wrote in The Independent that RT "has made a name for itself as a strident critic of US policy".[289] Allesandra Stanley wrote in The New York Times that RT is "like the Voice of America, only with more money and a zesty anti-American slant".[113] David Weigel writes that RT goes further than merely creating distrust of the United States government, to saying, in effect: "You can trust the Russians more than you can trust those bastards."[99]

Russian studies professor Stephen F. Cohen stated in 2012 that RT does a lot of stories that "reflect badly" on the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and much of Western Europe and that they are "particularly aggrieved by American sermonizing abroad". Citing that RT compares stories about Russia allowing mass protests of the 2011–2012 Russian election protests with those of U.S. authorities nationwide arresting members of the Occupy movement. Cohen states that despite the pro-Kremlin slant, "any intelligent viewer can sort this out. I doubt that many idiots find their way to RT".[237]

RT America has described journalists as "Russiagate conspiracy theorists" for covering Special Counsel Robert Mueller's report on Russian interference in the 2016 election.[290]

Russian journalist, former press secretary of the head of the UN Mission in South Africa, Yuri Sigov, wrote that when covering Canada, Russia Today presents information selectively. This is almost always negative information aimed at fulfilling political orders.[291]

Airing conspiracy theories[edit]

A 2013 article in Der Spiegel said that RT "uses a chaotic mixture of conspiracy theories and crude propaganda", pointing to a program that "mutated" the Boston Marathon bombing into a U.S. government conspiracy.[44]

The launch of RT UK was the subject of much comment in the British press in late 2014. In The Observer, Nick Cohen accused the channel of consciously spreading conspiracy theories and of being a "prostitution of journalism". London Times columnist, Oliver Kamm called on British broadcasting regulator Ofcom to act against this "den of deceivers".[292][293][294]

Journalists at The Daily Beast and The Washington Post have observed that RT employs Tony Gosling, an exponent of long-discredited theories concerning the alleged control of the world by Illuminati and the Czarist antisemitic forgery The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[295][296]

RT has broadcast stories about microchips being implanted into office workers in the EU to make them more "submissive"; about the "majority" of Europeans supporting Russian annexation of Crimea; the EU preparing "a form of genocide" against Russians; in Germany it falsely reported about a kidnapping of a Russian girl; that "NATO planned to store nuclear weapons in Eastern Europe"; that Hillary Clinton fell ill; it has also on many occasions misrepresented or invented statements from European leaders.[297][298][299][300]

In response to accusations of spreading fake news, RT started its own fact-checking project, FakeCheck.[49][301] The Poynter Institute conducted a content analysis of FakeCheck and concluded it "mixes some legitimate debunks with other scantily sourced or dubiously framed 'fact checks.'"[301]

Israeli–Palestinian conflict[edit]

RT, particularly the former RT presenter Abby Martin, has been accused of being anti-Israel and pro-Palestinian by The Algemeiner and Israel National News.[302][303] Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Lieberman made a complaint[clarification needed] to Putin at their official meeting in 2012.[304]

Climate change denial[edit]

In November 2021, a study by the Center for Countering Digital Hate described RT as being among "ten fringe publishers" that together were responsible for nearly 70 percent of Facebook user interactions with content that denied climate change. Facebook disputed the study's methodology.[305][306][307]

COVID-19 misinformation[edit]

Compared to RT's coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic for its viewers in Russia, RT's coverage of the pandemic for its international viewers was saturated with COVID-19 misinformation and conspiracy theories. RT urged domestic Russian audiences to vaccinate and wear masks to prevent COVID-19, while advocating against virus-prevention measures on its English, German, French, Spanish, and Arabic-language platforms.[200][201][276][308]

Responses[edit]

States[edit]

 European Union – Sanctions against Dmitry Kiselyov, the head of Russia's state-controlled Rossiya Segodnya and RT television presenter, have been in place since the 2014 invasion and annexation of Ukraine's Crimea. The EU Council cites Kiselyov to be a "central figure of the government propaganda supporting the deployment of Russian forces in Ukraine". Initially, Russian state-owned media outlets were not banned and continued to be available in the EU, with the exception of Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland.[309][310][311] The European Parliament Special Committee on Foreign Interference in all Democratic Processes in the European Union, including Disinformation (INGE) described RT as "actively engaging in disinformation activities" and highlighted that RT and Sputnik are pushing local broadcasters in Europe off from the market thanks to massive funding from Russian Federation.[312] Editor-in-chief Margarita Simonyan was sanctioned by the European Union on 23 February 2022 when Russia recognized the Donetsk and Luhansk breakaway states.[313] On 27 February 2022, the EU banned RT and Sputnik from broadcasting in its member countries, following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[142]

 AustraliaMinister for Communications Paul Fletcher requested the partially Australian government funded public service broadcaster SBS suspend broadcast of RT and NTV Moscow news bulletins. The minister stated "Given the current actions of the Russian government [2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine], and the lack of genuinely independent Russian media, this is a responsible decision". Following the request SBS suspended broadcast of NTV Moscow and RT news bulletins on 25 February 2022.[314] The RT channel was removed on 26 February 2022 from broadcast by Australian Pay TV provider Foxtel due to concerns about the situation in Ukraine.[315][316]

 Canada – On 16 March 2022, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission banned RT and RT France from broadcasting in Canada.[317]

 Germany – After failing to obtain a broadcast license compliant with the State Media Treaty [de], RT DE was banned in Germany by the Commission for Licensing and Supervision [de] (ZAK) on 2 February 2022.[318] The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded with "retaliatory measures" to remove German broadcaster Deutsche Welle from Russia.[319]

 Gibraltar – Chief Minister Fabian Picardo requested a nationwide ban of RT on 25 February 2022 in response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, describing RT as "a dangerous source of disinformation that Gibraltar cannot accept on its networks". Television providers in Gibraltar agreed to suspend broadcasts of RT.[320]

 Latvia – At the end of June 2020, after new amendments to the Law on Electronic Media were made, seven RT channels were banned in Latvia for being under the control of Dmitry Kiselyov who had been sanctioned by the European Union since 2014. Chairperson of the National Electronic Mass Media Council Ivars Āboliņš said they will be asking all EU state regulators to follow their example and restrict RT in their territory.[321][76] Kiselyov called the decision "an indicator of the level of stupidity and ignorance of the Latvian authorities, blinded by Russophobia".[322]

 LithuaniaLinas Antanas Linkevičius, Lithuania's Minister of Foreign Affairs, posted on Twitter on 9 March 2014 amid the Crimean crisis, "Russia Today propaganda machine is no less destructive than military marching in Crimea".[323][324] It was banned by the Radio and Television Commission of Lithuania on 8 July 2020.[77] The decision of both Latvian and Lithuanian authorities was criticised by Reporters Without Borders as "misuse of the EU sanctions policy".[325]

 Poland – The National Broadcasting Council banned RT in Poland on 24 February 2022 in response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[326][327]

 Ukraine – RT has been banned in Ukraine by the Ministry of Internal Affairs since August 2014, following the invasion and annexation of Ukrainian territory.[75]

 United Kingdom - On 18 March 2022, ANO TV Novosti's broadcasting license was revoked, effectively banning RT from being broadcast. This was taken in the wake of RT UK being funded by the Russian government, which, when combined with their promotion of Russian state narratives about the invasion of the Ukraine and sanctions, was deemed a violation of neutrality standards. [328] This came after an investigation was launched on 2 March 2022 in these matters, also involving the invasion. [329]

 United States – In September 2017, the US Department of Justice compelled RT to file paperwork under the Foreign Agents Registration Act in the United States.[330] Previously, the United States Secretary of State John Kerry had referred to RT as a state-sponsored "propaganda bullhorn" and he continued by saying, "Russia Today [sic] network has deployed to promote president Putin's fantasy about what is playing out on the ground. They almost spend full-time devoted to this effort, to propagandize, and to distort what is happening or not happening in Ukraine."[331] RT responded that they wanted "an official response from the U.S. Department of State substantiating Mr. Kerry's claims".[332] Richard Stengel from the U.S. Department of State responded.[333] Stengel stated in his response, "RT is a distortion machine, not a news organization", concluding that "the network and its editors should not pretend that RT is anything other than another player in Russia's global disinformation campaign against the people of Ukraine and their supporters". However, Stengel supports RT's right to broadcast in the United States.[334]

Political involvement[edit]

In April 2017, during his successful run for President of France, Emmanuel Macron's campaign team banned both RT and the Sputnik news agency from campaign events. A Macron spokesperson said the two outlets showed a "systematic desire to issue fake news and false information".[335] Macron later said during a press conference that RT and Sputnik were "agencies of influence and propaganda, lying propaganda—no more, no less".[336] RT editor-in-chief Margarita Simonyan characterized Macron's remarks on RT as an attack on freedom of speech.[337]

In October 2017, Twitter banned both RT and Sputnik from advertising on their social networking service amid accusations of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, sparking an angry response from the Russian foreign ministry.[338][339] Twitter in August 2020 began to identify RT, along with other Russian and Chinese media outlets, as "state-affiliated media" in a prominent place at the top of their accounts on the social media platform.[340][341]

In November 2017, Alphabet chairman Eric Schmidt announced that Google will be "deranking" stories from RT and Sputnik in response to allegations about election meddling by President Putin's government, provoking an accusation of censorship from both outlets.[342]

In March 2018, John McDonnell, the Shadow Chancellor of the British Labour Party, advised fellow Labour MPs to boycott RT and said he would no longer appear on the channel. He said: "We tried to be fair with them and as long as they abide by journalistic standards that are objective that's fine but it looks as if they have gone beyond that line". A party representative said: "We are keeping the issue under review".[343]

In July 2019, the UK Foreign Office banned both RT and Sputnik from attending the Global Conference for Media Freedom in London for "their active role in spreading disinformation". The Russian Embassy called the decision "direct politically motivated discrimination", while RT responded in a statement: "It takes a particular brand of hypocrisy to advocate for freedom of press while banning inconvenient voices and slandering alternative media."[344]

Other responses[edit]

2008–2012[edit]

During the 2008 South Ossetia War, RT correspondent William Dunbar resigned after the network refused to let him report on Russian airstrikes of civilian targets, stating, "any issue where there is a Kremlin line, RT is sure to toe it".[345] According to Variety, sources at RT confirmed that Dunbar had resigned, saying that it was not over bias. One senior RT journalist told the magazine, "the Russian coverage I have seen has been much better than much of the Western coverage... Russian news coverage is largely pro-Russia, but that is to be expected."[346]

Shaun Walker, the Moscow correspondent for The Independent, said that RT had "instructed reporters not to report from Georgian villages within South Ossetia that had been ethnically cleansed".[101] Julia Ioffe wrote that an RT journalist whose reporting deviated from "the Kremlin line that Georgians were slaughtering unarmed Ossetians" was reprimanded.[43] Human Rights Watch said that RT's claim of 2,000 South Ossetian casualties was exaggerated.[347][348]

RT team covering protests in Bolotnaya Square in Moscow on 10 December 2011

In 2012, Jesse Zwick of The New Republic criticized RT, stating it held that "civilian casualties in Syria are minimal, foreign intervention would be disastrous, and any humanitarian appeals from Western nations are a thin veil for a NATO-backed move to isolate Iran, China, and Russia". He wrote that RT wants to "make the United States look out of line for lecturing Russia".[237] Zwick also wrote that RT provided a "disproportionate amount of time" to covering libertarian Republican Ron Paul during his 2012 presidential campaign. Writing after her 2014 on-air resignation, Liz Wahl suggested the reason for this "wasn't his message of freedom and liberty but his non-interventionist stance and consistent criticism of U.S. foreign policy. His message fit RT's narrative that the United States is a huge bully."[349] In a June 2011 broadcast of Adam vs. the Man, host Adam Kokesh endorsed fundraising for Paul, leading to a complaint to the Federal Election Commission charging a political contribution had been made by a foreign corporation. Kokesh said his cancellation in August was related to Paul's aide Jesse Benton rather than the complaint.[241]

In September 2012, UK broadcast regulator Ofcom found that two Libyan dispatches broadcast by RT's Lizzie Phelan in a year earlier were in breach of its code on accuracy and impartiality. The following November, RT was again found in breach of impartiality rules in relation to its coverage of the Syrian conflict.[350] An August 2013 story concerning unverified reports of the killing of 450 Kurdish civilians near the Turkey-Syria border was also found to have breached Ofcom's rules.[351] That December, Ofcom found RT in breach of its standards in relation to the impartiality of a documentary entitled "Syrian Diary" broadcast the previous March.[352] Speaking in 2014 former RT reporter Sara Firth said that there had previously been examples of senior editorial interference, and that she had been pulled out of Syria after some "very heated discussions" about the channel's coverage.[56]

2014[edit]

On 4 March 2014, Breaking The Set host Abby Martin, speaking directly to her viewing audience during the show's closing statement, said that even though she works for RT, she is against Russia's intervention in Ukraine. She said that "what Russia did is wrong", as she is against intervention by any nation into other countries' affairs.[353] Later, Martin asserted that RT still supports her despite her differences of opinion with the Russian government.[354] RTs press office suggested that Martin would be sent to Crimea and responded to accusations of propaganda, stating "the charges of propaganda tend to pop up every time a news outlet, particularly RT, dares to show the side of events that does not fit the mainstream narrative, regardless of the realities on the ground. This happened in Georgia, this is happening in Ukraine".[355] Glenn Greenwald said that American media elites love to mock Russian media, especially RT, as being a source of shameless pro-Putin propaganda, where free expression is strictly barred. Agreeing the "network has a strong pro-Russian bias", he suggested that Martin's action "remarkably demonstrated what 'journalistic independence' means".[356]

On 5 March 2014, RT Washington, D.C. bureau anchor Liz Wahl resigned on air, blaming RT for propaganda. Wahl stated that what "broke" her was that RT censored a question from her interview with Ron Paul about "Russia's intervention in Ukraine". In response, RT released a statement: "When a journalist disagrees with the editorial position of his or her organization, the usual course of action is to address those grievances with the editor, and, if they cannot be resolved, to quit like a professional. But when someone makes a big public show of a personal decision, it is nothing more than a self-promotional stunt. We wish Liz the best of luck on her chosen path".[357] In a March 2014 Politico article, Wahl stated: "For about two and a half years. I’d looked the other way as the network smeared America for the sake of making the Kremlin look better by comparison, while it sugarcoated atrocities by one brutal dictator after another."[349]

RT America broadcast with former anchor Liz Wahl

When asked about a clip of her interviewing a guest on RT by Brian Stelter, host of CNN's Reliable Sources, Wahl responded,

They get these extreme voices on that have this kind of hostile toward the West viewpoints towards the world, very extremist. These are the people that they have on. And when I was on the anchor desk, they would instruct you to egg on these guests and try to get them, you know, rallied up, to really fire off their anti-American talking points. Listen, I'm all about exposing government corruption. I'm all about being critical of the government. But this is different. This is promoting the foreign policy of somebody that has just invaded a country, has invaded the country and is then lying about it, is using the media as a tool to fulfill his foreign policy interests. And RT is part of Putin's propaganda network and it's very, very troubling in the wake of what is going on in Ukraine today.[57]

The New York Times op-ed columnist Nicholas Kristof commented on CNN's Piers Morgan Live about Wahl's and Martin's initial actions, saying that he "admire[s] their outspokenness but, you know, at the end of the day, RT is a Russian propaganda arm, and I don't think it's going to matter very much to the geopolitical consequences here".[358]

Former RT Moscow anchor Staci Bivens, and other former RT journalists speaking under anonymity according to BuzzFeed, said they regretted working for the network, citing their dislike of the network's use of propaganda. Bivens, for example, was explicitly asked to go to Germany and procure a story proving that "Germany is a failed state". When she refused, other reporters were sent instead.[359]

Steve Bloomfield, the foreign editor of Monocle wrote that RT's "coverage of Ukraine could not have been kinder to Moscow if Vladimir Putin had chosen the running order himself. While Putin kept up the pretence that there were no Russian troops in Crimea, so too did RT. The storming of government buildings across eastern Ukraine has been portrayed as the understandable actions of peace-loving protesters who fear "chaos" in Kiev".[360]

After the July 2014 crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, RT rushed to blame others for the plane's shoot-down in Ukraine amid accusations by Ukrainian fighters of Russian involvement in the crash.[361] Speaking of RT's coverage, Sarah Oates, professor of journalism at the University of Maryland said: "But if you’re going to engage in propaganda, you have to do it well. They have completely embarrassed themselves."[362]

Sara Firth, a London-based correspondent with RT resigned in protest over the network's coverage of the MH17 disaster. Shortly before resigning, she tweeted, "RT style guide Rule 1: It is ALWAYS * Ukraine's fault (* add name as applicable)". She told The Guardian: "I walked into the newsroom and there was an eyewitness account making allegations [against Ukraine] and analysis, if you can call it, from our correspondent in the studio. It was just appalling, in a situation like that where there are families waiting to be informed and a devastating loss of life." She also noted that "There is bias against Russia but you don’t counter wrong by doing even more wrong" and stated "I have always said it's better to have RT than to not have that perspective, but actually with a story like this and the way they misreport it, it's quite dangerous, I don’t want to be party to it."[56] In follow-up interview she said: "In Ukraine, you’re taking a very small part of a much wider story, totally omitted the context of the story, and so what you wind up with on air is outright misinformation." Calling RT "mass information manipulation", Firth said: "they have a very clear idea in their mind of what they’re trying to prove". She also stated that "The worst-kept secret is that RT is blatant propaganda. I’m one in a very long line of people who have left for the same reason."[362]

The following November, RT was again found in breach of Ofcom's impartiality rules, this time in relation to its coverage of the Ukraine crisis, specifically events leading up to the annexation by Russia of Crimea.[363] For repeated breaches of its due impartially rules, Ofcom put RT management "on notice that any future breaches of the due impartiality rules may result in further regulatory action, including consideration of a statutory sanction".[67]

2015–2016[edit]

In January 2015, Ofcom found RT (and the BBC) not in breach of rules on generally accepted standards following a complaint about the use of graphic imagery of bodies at the MH17 crash site.[364][365]

President Putin with Margarita Simonyan in front of RT's "Question more" slogan (2015)

Following the March 2015 European Council summit which concluded that action was needed to "challenge Russia's ongoing disinformation campaigns", the European External Action Service was tasked to respond.[366] European Parliament briefing notes on the situation called RT "Russia's main international media weapon".[367] The counter-propaganda strategy subsequently developed by the EastStratCom Task Force, a small group of eight officials, included launching the EU vs Disinformation website with a headline of "don't be deceived, question even more".[366][368][369]

In September 2015, Ofcom found RT in breach of the impartiality rules in its coverage of the events in Ukraine and Syria. It also upheld the complaint by the BBC that allegations made in an episode of The Truthseeker that a BBC Panorama film, Saving Syria's Children, had faked a parts of a report on a chemical weapon attack in Syria were "materially misleading".[66][370][371]

In an episode of The Truthseeker, named Genocide of Eastern Ukraine, they stated that the Ukrainian government was deliberately bombing civilians and had murdered and tortured journalists, as well as crucifying babies. Ukrainian army forces were accused of "ethnic cleansing" and were compared to the Nazis in World War Two. The only response to the allegations in the broadcast was in the form of a caption saying "Kiev claims it is not committing genocide, denies casualty reports", which appeared on screen for six seconds. According to Ofcom the broadcast had "little or no counterbalance or objectivity".[66]

A spokesperson for the media regulator said: "Ofcom found that RT broadcast content that was either materially misleading or not duly impartial. These are significant failings and we are therefore requiring RT to broadcast two clear statements on our decision which correct these failures."[372]

In October 2015, David J. Kramer, senior director for human rights and democracy at the McCain Institute for International Leadership, suggested that Western countries freeze RT's assets "not because of the odious things it spews" but as part of the Yukos shareholder case.[373]

A report released by the US think-tank the RAND Corporation in 2016 called RT part of "a wider Russian propaganda operation" named the "Firehose of Falsehood". The paper called "Russian faux-news propaganda channels, such as RT" insidious and that "they look like news programs, and the persons appearing on them are represented as journalists and experts, making audience members much more likely to ascribe credibility to the misinformation these sources are disseminating".[277]

In July 2016, Ofcom again found RT in breach of its impartiality rules, this time over coverage of the Turkish government's treatment of Kurdish people. Two episodes of Going Underground originally broadcast in March, included claims of attacks, atrocities and genocide against the Kurds, and that "Turkey supports ISIS" without offering adequate counterbalance. RT's representatives stated the network "finds it especially difficult to obtain pro-Turkey views for its programming" because of "political tensions between Russia and Turkey following the downing of a Russian military aircraft by Turkish warplanes in November 2015".[374][375]

In November 2016, after the US presidential election, The Washington Post reported that RT and Sputnik were "state-funded Russian information services that mimic the style and tone of independent news organizations yet sometimes include false and misleading stories in their reports" and also that "RT, Sputnik and other Russian sites used social-media accounts to amplify misleading stories already circulating online".[376] The Post was criticized by The Intercept and Fortune for relying in part on an analysis by PropOrNot.[377][378]

In December 2016, Ofcom found RT in breach of its impartiality rules for the 10th time since the English-language channel launched. A Crosstalk episode broadcast the previous July, contained a debate about the NATO 2016 Warsaw summit in which all members of the panel expressed critical views. RT's representatives again stated that they couldn't find anybody with alternative opinions willing to take part, and that captions with pro-NATO comments should have been added before broadcast, but the wrong text was accidentally used.[379][380]

2017–2018[edit]

On 12 January 2017, RT was accidentally broadcast for around 10 minutes on a web stream of U.S. public affairs service C-SPAN. RT stated that while it was testing its systems in preparation for the inauguration of Donald Trump, its signal was "mistakenly routed onto the primary encoder feeding C-SPAN1's signal to the internet, rather than to an unused backup".[381]

On 19 January 2017, RT stated that it had been temporarily restricted from posting media on its Facebook page until 21 January, after the service said that RT had infringed on the copyrights of Radio Liberty's Current Now TV when broadcasting a live stream of Barack Obama's final press conference as president of the United States. Current Time TV said that it had not sent any specific complaints to Facebook, and both RT and Current Now TV stated that they had obtained their feed from the Associated Press. The restriction was removed after about 20 hours, and Facebook did not say officially if this was because of a technical error or a policy issue.[382][381]

In September 2017, the U.S. Department of Justice informed RT America that it must register as a foreign agent of the Russian government. Margarita Simonyan, RT's editor-in-chief, condemned the action as an assault on freedom of speech. A spokesperson for the Russian foreign ministry threatened retaliatory measures against American journalists.[383][384]

On 13 November 2017, RT America officially registered as a "foreign agent" in the United States with the Department of Justice under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Under the act, RT will be required to disclose financial information.[193] This move was criticized by the committee to Protect Journalists: "We're uncomfortable with governments deciding what constitutes journalism or propaganda"[385]

In December 2018, the British media regulator Ofcom ruled that seven programmes broadcast by RT between 17 March and 26 April of that year, in the wake of the Salisbury nerve agent attacks, had breached the UK's impartiality rules; the BBC reported that RT was "extremely disappointed by Ofcom's conclusions".[386][387] RT was fined £200,000 but kept its licence to broadcast in the UK.[388] RT described Ofcom's actions against it as "inappropriate and disproportionate per Ofcom’s own track record".[389]

2021[edit]

German journalist Daniel Lange employed by RT DE left the station in protest against its operation to spy on Alexey Navalny while he was undergoing treatment in a hospital in Germany after being poisoned by FSB. According to Lange, the assignment had nothing to do with journalism as he was instructed in the first place to test the security of the hospital, describe number of internal checkpoints and his RT leadership clearly indicated collected information will not be used for publication. Lange also described reporting bias in the RT where he was instructed by the editor to specifically select footage showing "all the dirt in the Germany".[390]

Russia threatened to ban YouTube in September for deleting the RT channels, RT DE and Der Fehlende Part, The platform had banned the RT channels for breaking its policies on spreading COVID-19 misinformation and for using the second channel to circumvent an initial week-long suspension.[391]

2022[edit]

In January, the State Department's Global Engagement Center (GEC) published a report titled "Kremlin-Funded Media: RT and Sputnik's Role in Russia's Disinformation and Propaganda Ecosystem." Its case studies included one on "false narratives" published by RT concerning the Russian military buildup on the Ukrainian border.[392]

Employees and associates of RT and its subsidiary Ruptly in multiple countries, including the UK and Germany, resigned in response to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, with some attributing their departures to the Russian government's prohibition of using the word "invasion" to describe the military offensive.[393][394][395][396] Frédéric Taddeï quit his role as host of the RT France talk show Interdit d'interdire on 23 February when Russia recognized the Donetsk and Luhansk breakaway states immediately preceding the invasion.[251] Former First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond suspended his RT talk show, The Alex Salmond Show, on 24 February after receiving public criticism following the invasion.[249] A number of British journalists based both in RT's offices in Moscow and at RT UK's offices in London resigned from the network in response to its coverage of the invasion;[397] according to The Times, four have "publicly announced their resignation, while others are said to have quietly left RT's London bureau".[153]

On 25 February, hacking group Anonymous claimed a distributed denial of service attack on the network's website, in support of Ukraine in its fight against Russia.[398] The following day, Alphabet Inc., the owners of Google, temporarily barred RT from receiving any financial return from their ads on their YouTube platform.[399]

Awards[edit]

Martyn Andrews reporting from Siberia in 2007

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

1.^ Writing in The New York Times, Stephen Heyman estimated that more than $100 million had been spent on the station as of May 2008.[92]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although videos and channels may appear in search results, the videos are unwatchable, with UK users given the message: "This channel is not available in your country".[153]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b [10]: 2070[11][12]: 4[13]: 2[14][15]: Implications
  2. ^ a b [34][35][36][37][38][39][40]: 2[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49]
  3. ^ a b c "About RT (formerly corporate profile)". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  4. ^ "Contact info". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]
  6. ^ a b c Moore, Matthew (10 February 2018). "Company behind Grenfell YouTube film has links to Kremlin". The Times. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  7. ^ a b c O'Sullivan, Donie; Griffin, Drew; Devine, Curt; Shubert, Atika (18 February 2019). "Russia is backing a viral video company aimed at American millennials". CNN. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  8. ^ a b c File:ANO TV-Novosti (Federal Tax Service of Russia, Unified State Register of Legal Entities).pdf
  9. ^ Pisnia, Natalka (15 November 2017). "Why has RT registered as a foreign agent with the US?". BBC News. Washington. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  10. ^ a b Haigh, Maria; Haigh, Thomas; Kozak, Nadine I. (26 October 2018). "Stopping Fake News". Journalism Studies. Routledge. 19 (14): 2062–2087. doi:10.1080/1461670X.2017.1316681. ISSN 1461-670X. S2CID 152142122. Retrieved 1 March 2022 – via Taylor & Francis.
  11. ^ a b Golovchenko, Yevgeniy; Hartmann, Mareike; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca (1 September 2018). "State, media and civil society in the information warfare over Ukraine: citizen curators of digital disinformation". International Affairs. Oxford University Press. 94 (5): 975–994. doi:10.1093/ia/iiy148. ISSN 0020-5850. Retrieved 20 March 2021. Particularly in the wake of the crisis in Ukraine that erupted in 2013–2014, the Kremlin has been accused of orchestrating disinformation campaigns against the Ukrainian government and western countries by using online trolls and state-controlled online outlets such as RT (formerly known as Russia Today), Sputnik and Life News.
  12. ^ a b Hellman, Maria; Wagnsson, Charlotte (3 April 2017). "How can European states respond to Russian information warfare? An analytical framework" (PDF). European Security. Taylor & Francis. 26 (2): 153–170. doi:10.1080/09662839.2017.1294162. S2CID 157635419. Retrieved 20 March 2021 – via Charles University.
  13. ^ a b Al-Rawi, Ahmed (12 February 2021). "How did Russian and Iranian trolls' disinformation toward Canadian issues diverge and converge?". Digital War. Palgrave Macmillan. 2 (1–3): 21–34. doi:10.1057/s42984-020-00029-4. ISSN 2662-1983.
  14. ^ Denton, Allison (16 April 2019). "Fake News: The Legality of the Russian 2016 Facebook Influence Campaign" (PDF). Boston University International Law Journal. Boston University School of Law. 37: 209. Additionally, the U.S. is not the only country that has been targeted by Russian influence campaigns. Russia has been accused of conducting another influence campaign prior to the 2017 French election between Marine Le Pen (Russia’s pick) and Emmanuel Macron. Before the election, Kremlin-controlled news sources Russia Today (RT) and Sputnik reported that Macron was secretly gay, and that he was backed by a “very rich gay lobby.”
  15. ^ a b c Nassetta, Jack; Gross, Kimberly (30 October 2020). "State media warning labels can counteract the effects of foreign misinformation". Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review. Harvard University: Harvard Kennedy School. doi:10.37016/mr-2020-45. Retrieved 21 March 2021. However, when it comes to disinformation from state-controlled media sources platforms’ options are more limited. Most often channels like Russia's RT and Iran's PressTV do not technically violate a platform's terms of service and so cannot be removed. However, they still play a vital role in the disinformation ecosystem. Not only do they put out disinformation through their websites and social media channels, they are key nodes in coordinated campaigns, as well. For instance, the content originally posted on RT will be reposted down a chain of websites until it appears to be an organic article on an American outlet (Nimmo, 2017).
  16. ^ a b Fisher, Max (13 June 2013). "In case you weren't clear on Russia Today's relationship to Moscow, Putin clears it up". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  17. ^ a b c Nimmo, Ben (8 January 2018). "Question That: RT's Military Mission". Atlantic Council-Digital Forensic Research Lab. medium.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  18. ^ "Журнал Стандарт / №09(80) сентябрь 2009Вести с эфирного фронта | ComNews". www.comnews.ru. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  19. ^ "Archive of the official site of the 2008–2012 Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin". Government of Russia.
  20. ^ Перечень системообразующих организаций, утвержденный Правительственной комиссией по повышению устойчивости развития российской экономики [List of systemically important institutions approved by the Government Commission on Sustainable Development of the Russian Economy] (in Russian). government.ru. Archived from the original (DOC) on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  21. ^ Правительство РФ приняло перечень системообразующих организаций [The Russian government has adopted a list of backbone organizations]. RBK Group (in Russian). Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  22. ^ a b c d e von Twickel, Nikolaus (23 March 2010). "Russia Today courts viewers with controversy". Russia Beyond. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  23. ^ a b Darcy, Oliver (4 March 2022). "RT America ceases productions and lays off most of its staff". CNN Business. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  24. ^ Sloss, David L. (12 April 2022). Tyrants on Twitter: Protecting Democracies from Information Warfare. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1-5036-3115-1. Retrieved 3 March 2022 – via Google Books. Ruptly, a subsidiary of RT that specializes in video, has 230,000 likes on Facebook, 52,000 Twitter followers, and 304,000 YouTube subscribers in the UK.
  25. ^ Chobanyan, Karina (2020). Vartanova, Elena; Gladkova, Anna (eds.). "Up for a challenge? Digital practices of 24-hour news channels" (PDF). World of Media. Moscow State University (3): 50. ISSN 2686-8016. Retrieved 3 March 2022. RT, which owns Ruptly news agency, likes to post its raw footage of world events.
  26. ^ Cohen, Howard (May 2018). "Tech Tock...: Time is Running Out to Find Solutions to Mis- and Disinformation and Privacy Problems". Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. Harvard University: Harvard Kennedy School: 17–18. Retrieved 3 March 2022. Ruptly is a news agency created by Russian funded news channel RT in 2013 to rival Reuters and AP. [...] Finally, it is very transparent about following the same agenda as RT: "Ruptly builds on and extends the core strengths and values of our parent company RT."
  27. ^ "Russia Uses State Television to Sway Opinion at Home and Abroad". Der Spiegel. 30 May 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2021. Moscow is looking beyond the short-term, seeking to influence opinion in the long-run to create "an alternative discourse in Western countries as well," says Margarita Simonyan, editor in chief of Kremlin foreign broadcaster RT, formerly known as Russia Today, which owns Ruptly.
  28. ^ "В Минске задержаны двое стрингеров видеоагентства Ruptly" [Two stringers of video agency Ruptly detained in Minsk]. Interfax (in Russian). 9 August 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2021. Двух стрингеров видеоагентства Ruptly задержали в Минске, сообщил владелец сервиса, телеканал RT. [Two stringers of the Ruptly video agency were detained in Minsk, the owner of the service, RT TV channel, said.]
  29. ^ Zara, Christopher (11 April 2019). "What is Ruptly? Julian Assange arrest video footage raises eyebrows about RT-owned outlet". Fast Company. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  30. ^ "RT's video agency Ruptly beats UK media to Julian Assange footage". Press Gazette. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2020. The footage captured by Ruptly showed Assange for the first time in about a year, now sporting a long white beard. He could be heard shouting "the UK has no sovereignty" and "the UK must resist this attempt by the Trump administration…" as he was dragged out by five police officers and put into a van.
  31. ^ Aro, Jessikka (6 March 2021). "Emilia Seikkanen Worked in a Trendy Video Start-Up in Berlin – Tells All about the Kremlin's Global Information Operation". Yle. Retrieved 2 March 2022. The company left out the essential information in its job vacancy advertisements: Ruptly is the subsidiary of the Russian state-funded media company RT, formerly Russia Today. It's located in the same office as RT's German media branch, named RT Deutsch.
  32. ^ Harris, Shane; Nakashima, Ellen (21 August 2020). "With a mix of covert disinformation and blatant propaganda, foreign adversaries bear down on final phase of presidential campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  33. ^ Birnbaum, Emily (25 February 2019). "Facebook restores previously suspended Russia-linked pages". The Hill. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  34. ^ Langdon, Kate C.; Tismaneanu, Vladimir (9 July 2019). "Russian Foreign Policy: Freedom for Whom, to Do What?". Putin's Totalitarian Democracy: Ideology, Myth, and Violence in the Twenty-First Century. Springer International. pp. 189–224. ISBN 978-3-030-20579-9. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Google Books. Soviet-born British journalist Peter Pomerantsev documented the typical newsroom antics in one of Russia's largest propaganda outlets, RT News (formerly known as Russia Today). When his acquaintance composed a piece that referenced the Soviet Union’s occupation of Estonia in 1945, the writer was chewed out by his boss, who maintained the belief that Russians saved Estonia. Any other descriptions of the events of 1945 were unacceptable assaults on Russia's integrity, apparently, so the boss demanded that he amend his text.
  35. ^ Reire, Gunda (2015). "Euro-Atlantic values and Russia's propaganda in the Euro-Atlantic space" (PDF). Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej. 13 (4). Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Center for International Studies. Nowadays, Russia attacks the Western value of rationality and uses the argument of "the second opinion" or plurality of opinions. The phrase "the second opinion" has even become the slogan of RT. For instance, this propaganda channel used the public opinion's contention as to the nature of the Iraq war, to sell itself as an impartial, objective media outlet in the USA. Overall, Russian propaganda involves a clash of political systems, which is more dangerous than the old-school Soviet propaganda.
  36. ^ Benkler, Yochai; Faris, Rob; Roberts, Hal (October 2018). "Epistemic Crisis". Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation and Radicalization in American Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 358. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-092362-4. OCLC 1045162158. Retrieved 21 March 2021. The emphasis on disorientation appears in the literature on modern Russian propaganda, both in inward-focused applications and in its international propaganda outlets, Sputnik and RT (formerly, Russia Today). Here, the purpose is not to convince the audience of any particular truth but instead to make it impossible for people in the society subject to the propagandist’s intervention to tell truth from non-truth.
  37. ^ Karlsen, Geir Hågen (5 August 2016). "Tools of Russian Influence: Information and Propaganda". In Matláry, Janne Haaland; Heier, Tormod (eds.). Ukraine and Beyond: Russia's Strategic Security Challenge to Europe. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 199. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-32530-9_9. ISBN 978-3-319-32530-9. Retrieved 28 February 2022 – via Google Books. The propaganda apparatus proper consists of four means: media, social media, political communication and diplomacy, and covert active measures, all tied together in a coordinated manner. The main international media channel is the RT broadcaster and website, formerly known as Russia Today. It is complemented by Sputnik radio and website, news and video agencies, and the Russia Beyond the Headlines news supplement, making up a news conglomerate operating in almost 40 languages.
  38. ^ Ižak, Štefan (January 2019). "(Ab)using the topic of migration by pro-Kremlin propaganda: Case study of Slovakia" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Politics. University of Economics in Bratislava / University of Ljubljana / Alma Mater Europaea. 12 (1): 58. ISSN 1338-1385. Retrieved 28 February 2022. Almost all important media in Russia are state controlled and used to feed Russian audience with Kremlin propaganda. For international propaganda Kremlin uses agencies like RT and Sputnik. Both are available in many language variations and in many countries (Hansen 2017). Aim of this propaganda is to exploit weak spots and controversial topics (in our case migration to the EU) and use them to harm integrity of the West (Pomerantsev and Weiss 2014).
  39. ^ Oates, Sarah; Steiner, Sean (17 December 2018). "Projecting Power: Understanding Russian Strategic Narrative". Russia's Public Foreign Policy Narratives (PDF). Russian Analytical Digest. 229. Vol. 17. University of Bremen: Research Centre for East European Studies. pp. 2–5. doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000311091. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via ETH Zurich. The analysis of Russian strategic narrative allows us to understand more clearly the logic in Russian propaganda found on English-language outlets such as RT and more effectively deter Russian information aggression.
  40. ^ a b c d e Orttung, Robert; Nelson, Elizabeth; Livshen, Anthony (8 December 2015). "Measuring RT's impact on YouTube". Information Warfare (PDF). Russian Analytical Digest. Vol. 177. University of Bremen: Research Centre for East European Studies. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via ETH Zurich.
  41. ^ Ajir, Media; Vailliant, Bethany (Fall 2018). "Russian Information Warfare: Implications for Deterrence Theory". Strategic Studies Quarterly. 12 (3): 70–89. ISSN 1936-1815. JSTOR 26481910. Retrieved 21 March 2021. The real-world repercussions of these objectives are identified through several forms of attack. The first is through disseminating official Russian state propaganda abroad via foreign language news channels as well as Western media. Most notable is the creation of the very successful government-financed international TV news channel, Russia Today (RT).
  42. ^ Bicknell, Bob (11 December 2005). "Russian News, English Accent". CBS News. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Julia Ioffe (September–October 2010). "What Is Russia Today?". Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  44. ^ a b c Benjamin Bidder (13 August 2013). "Putin's Weapon in the War of Images". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  45. ^ a b c Harding, Luke (18 December 2009). "Russia Today launches first UK ad blitz". The Guardian. Moscow.
  46. ^ a b Kramer, Andrew E (22 August 2010). "Russian Cable Station Plays to U.S." The New York Times.
  47. ^ "Ukraine hits back at Russian TV onslaught". BBC. 2014.
  48. ^ a b MacFarquhar, Neil (28 August 2016). "A Powerful Russian Weapon: The Spread of False Stories". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
  49. ^ a b c Oremus, Will (16 March 2017). "Irony Dies Again as Russia Today Launches Fake-News Debunker". Slate. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  50. ^ Golovchenko, Yevgeniy (11 December 2020). "Measuring the scope of pro-Kremlin disinformation on Twitter". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. Springer Nature. 7 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1057/s41599-020-00659-9. ISSN 2662-9992. The impact of Russian state-controlled news outlets—which are frequent sources of pro-Kremlin disinformation—is concentrated in one, highly popular news outlet, RT. [...] When it comes to overt reach, the Russian government openly funds English-speaking outlets, such as Sputnik News and RT. These outlets serve as a frequent source of pro-Kremlin disinformation both according to scholars, fact-checkers and Western authorities (BBC, 2019; Elliot, 2019; Thornton, 2015).
  51. ^ Walker, Christopher (2016). "The Hijacking of "Soft Power"" (PDF). Journal of Democracy. Johns Hopkins University Press. 27 (1): 49–63. doi:10.1353/jod.2016.0007. S2CID 31802016. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via National Endowment for Democracy. State or state-friendly media in Russia—Life News, NTV, Channel One Russia, and Russia 24—disseminate not just the Kremlin's narratives but also outright fakery to domestic audiences and those in the Russian-speaking space. These outlets spread the same stories via social media as well. RT, meanwhile, pushes this manipulated content out to international audiences.
  52. ^ Fletcher, Richard; Cornia, Alessio; Graves, Lucas; Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis (1 January 2018). "Measuring the reach of "fake news" and online disinformation in Europe" (PDF). Australasian Policing. 10 (2). Retrieved 25 February 2022 – via Mediterraneo Cronaca. For comparative purposes, we also included two prominent Russian news sites which have featured in European policy discussions around disinformation, namely Russia Today (RT) and Sputnik. These Russian state-backed organisations are clearly different from sites that engage in for-profit fabrication of false news, but both independent fact-checkers and the EU’s European External Action Service East Stratcom Task Force have identified multiple instances where these sites have published disinformation.
  53. ^ Borges, Priscila Monteiro; Gambarato, Renira Rampazzo (29 January 2019). "The Role of Beliefs and Behavior on Facebook: A Semiotic Approach to Algorithms, Fake News, and Transmedia Journalism". International Journal of Communication. USC Annenberg Press. 13: 603–618. ISSN 1932-8036. Retrieved 26 February 2022. Notorious examples of fake news masquerading as news can be found in reports broadcast on the U.S. cable news channel Fox News (Schram & Fording, 2018) and the Russian international television network RT (Russia Today; Dowling, 2017). Thus, there are also a number of fake news reports published by traditional media outlets (White, 2017), generating a consequent increase in distrust for traditional journalism (Siddique, 2018).
  54. ^ LoGiurato, Brett (30 April 2014). "Russia's Propaganda Channel Just Got A Journalism Lesson From The US State Department". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  55. ^ Crowley, Michael (1 May 2014). "Tit-for-Tat: Putin's Maddening Propaganda Trick". Time. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  56. ^ a b c Plunkett, John (18 July 2014). "Russia Today reporter resigns in protest at MH17 coverage". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  57. ^ a b Brian Stelter (24 March 2014). "Putin TV in Chaos". CNN.
  58. ^ [10]: 2077[11][12]: 4[13]: 11[15][48][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57]
  59. ^ a b Yablokov, Ilya (November 2015). "Conspiracy Theories as a Russian Public Diplomacy Tool: The Case of Russia Today (RT)" (PDF). Politics. SAGE. 35 (3–4): 301–315. doi:10.1111/1467-9256.12097. S2CID 142728966. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via University of Montenegro. Among the conspiratorial ideas that feature in RT's broadcasts, two types are of particular interest: the first includes genuinely American conspiracy theories; and the second includes ideas of conspiracy in relations between the US and Russia. The analysis of these two types of conspiracy theories offers an opportunity to explore how they are employed to undermine US domestic and foreign policies.
  60. ^ Elswah, Mona; Howard, Philip N (1 October 2020). ""Anything that Causes Chaos": The Organizational Behavior of Russia Today (RT)". Journal of Communication. Oxford University Press. 70 (5): 623–645. doi:10.1093/joc/jqaa027. Retrieved 21 March 2021. Across our interviews, our respondents agreed that the goals of the channel since 2008 have been and still are as follows. First, to push the idea that Western countries have as many problems as Russia. Second, to encourage conspiracy theories about media institutions in the West in order to discredit and delegitimize them. This is clearly adherent to the channel's "Questions More" slogan. Third, to create controversy and to make people criticize the channel, because it suggests that the channel is important, an approach that would particularly help RT managers get more funding from the government.
  61. ^ a b Byford, Jovan (2011). "Introduction". Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 9–10. doi:10.1057/9780230349216. ISBN 978-1-349-32350-0. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Google Books. The channel has provided the likes of Alex Jones, Webster Tarpley, David Ray Griffin and Jim Marrs with the opportunity to promote, to an international audience, their ideas about the New World Order, 9/11, the Bilderberg group or the climate change conspiracy, all while being treated with absolute deference by the channel's journalists. Embedded video clips of appearances on Russia Today have become a regular feature on the websites of American conspiracy theorists, where they are brandished as a sign of credibility and mainstream recognition.
  62. ^ a b Dukalskis, Alexander (2021). Making the World Safe for Dictatorship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-752014-7.
  63. ^ Gray, Rosie (13 March 2014). "How The Truth Is Made At Russia Today". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  64. ^ [49][59][60][61][62][63]
  65. ^ William Turvill (15 November 2012). "Ofcom rules against Russia Today over Syria conflict report". Press Gazette. Progressive Media International. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  66. ^ a b c "UK regulator Ofcom backs BBC in Russian TV case". BBC News. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  67. ^ a b John Plunkett (10 November 2014). "Russia Today threatened with Ofcom sanctions due to bias". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  68. ^ Alevtina Kuzmenkova (18 October 2016). "British Bank Closes Russian Broadcaster RT Accounts". Transitions Online. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. OFCOM, the British broadcast regulator, has repeatedly singled out RT for its lack of impartiality
  69. ^ Waterson, Jim (16 July 2018). "Alex Salmond's RT show breached Ofcom broadcasting rules". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  70. ^ Pomerantsev, Peter (4 January 2015). "Inside Putin's Information War". Politico. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  71. ^ [65][66][67][68][69][70]
  72. ^ a b "Chief Editor: RT is Like "a Defence Ministry"". East StratCom Task Force. 15 January 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  73. ^ a b ""Нет никакой объективности"" [There is no objectivity]. Kommersant (in Russian). 7 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2021. Сейчас ни с кем не воюем. А вот в 2008 году воевали. Министерство обороны воевало с Грузией, а информационную войну вели мы, причем со всем западным миром. Ну невозможно только начинать делать оружие, когда война уже началась! Поэтому Министерство обороны сейчас ни с кем не воюет, но готово к обороне. Так и мы. [Currently we are not at war with anyone. But in 2008 - we were. The Ministry of Defence was at war with Georgia, and we were waging an information war, and with the entire Western world. Well, it's impossible just to start making weapons when the war has already begun! Therefore, the Ministry of Defence is now not at war with anyone, but is ready for defense. So are we.]
  74. ^ Chappell, Bill (14 November 2017). "TV Company Linked To Russia's RT America Registers As Foreign Agent In U.S." NPR. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  75. ^ a b Zinets, Natalia; Prentice, Alessandra (19 August 2014). Balmforth, Richard (ed.). "Ukraine bans Russian TV channels for airing war 'propaganda'". Reuters. Robin Pomeroy (ed.). Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  76. ^ a b Anstrate, Vita (30 June 2020). "Kremlin propaganda channel "RT" banned in Latvia". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  77. ^ a b "Radijo ir televizijos komisija uždraudė Lietuvoje retransliuoti RT programas". lrt.lt (in Lithuanian). 8 July 2020. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  78. ^ "Russia's RT channel blocked by German regulators". Deutsche Welle. 2 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  79. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn (1 March 2022). "Roku is removing RT from the Roku Channel Store in Europe - source". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  80. ^ "Russian-backed RT channel to lose Sky TV slot in UK within 24 hours". the Guardian. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  81. ^ a b "YouTube to block channels linked to Russia's RT and Sputnik across Europe". Reuters. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  82. ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Zakrzewski, Cat; De Vynck, Gerrit (1 March 2022). "Major social media platforms ban Russian state media in Europe". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  83. ^ Newman, Jared (1 March 2022). "Here's which tech companies have—and haven't—banned Russia's state-sponsored RT media app". Fast Company. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  84. ^ Reuters (28 February 2022). "Microsoft to remove RT apps, ban Russian state-owned media ads". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  85. ^ Emerson, Sarah. "Apple Halted Product Sales In Russia And Disabled Apple Maps Features In Ukraine". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  86. ^ a b Julian Evans, Spinning Russia, Foreign Policy, 1 December 2005.limited access
  87. ^ a b c Andrew Osborn, Russia's 'CNN' wants to tell it like it is, The Age, 16 August 2005. limited access
  88. ^ Parsons, Robert (9 December 2005). "Russia: New International Channel Ready To Begin Broadcasting". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  89. ^ Mettler, Katie (8 June 2017). "Jesse Ventura's new Russian state TV show: 'I am working for the enemy of mainstream media now'". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  90. ^ Ruddick, Graham (17 November 2017). "'Be ashamed, Alex': Salmond courts controversy with RT". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  91. ^ "Фролов Сергей" [Frolov Sergey]. interatr.org (in Russian). Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  92. ^ a b c d e Stephen Heyman, A Voice of Mother Russia, in English, The New York Times, 18 May 2008.
  93. ^ Danny Schechter interview on RT website. (via YouTube)
  94. ^ a b c Shaun Walker, Russia Today, Tomorrow the World, The Independent, 20 September 2010.
  95. ^ a b James Painter (2007). "The boom in counter-hegemonic news channels: a case study of TeleSUR" (PDF). Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at Oxford University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2007.
  96. ^ "Russia's landmark events of 2007". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  97. ^ a b c d Zagorodnov, Artem (25 September 2008). "Today's woman who needs to be heard". Russia Beyond. Rossiyskaya Gazeta.
  98. ^ a b Rowland, Kara (27 October 2008). "Russia Today: Youth served". The Washington Times.
  99. ^ a b c d e f g David Weigel, Pravda Will Set You Free; Russia's answer to Fox News and MSNBC., Slate, 27 June 2011.
  100. ^ Charles King, Clarity in the Caucasus?, Foreign Affairs, 11 October 2009.
  101. ^ a b Ian Burrell, From Russia with news, The Independent, 15 January 2010.
  102. ^ RT's Advertising Declared Ad of the Month in UK, RT (TV network), 5 March 2010.
  103. ^ Josh Rogin, New BBG chief wants more money to combat "enemies" such as China and Russia, Foreign Policy, 5 October 2010.
  104. ^ Kirit Radia (2 March 2011). "Sec. of State Hillary Clinton: Al Jazeera is 'Real News', U.S. Losing 'Information War'". Political Punch. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011.
  105. ^ Andy McSmith, Village People, The Independent, 5 March 2011
  106. ^ Ishaan Tharoor, Clinton Applauds Al Jazeera, Rolls Eyes at U.S. Media, Time, 3 March 2011.
  107. ^ a b Hirst, Tomas (3 January 2012). "Putin's Perverse Fear of Soft Power". HuffPost.
  108. ^ a b Toohey, Nathan (8 February 2012). "RT and McFaul argue over Navalny's US education". The Moscow News. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  109. ^ "McFaul and the Moscow opposition rallies". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  110. ^ New US Ambassador to Russia starts with lies, Pravda, 2 February 2012.
  111. ^ "US ambassador says seeks reset, not revolution in Russia". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  112. ^ 'US not funding Putin's presidential campaign', RT interview with Ambassador Michael McFaul.
  113. ^ a b c Alessandra Stanley, The Prisoner as Talk Show Host; Julian Assange Starts Talk Show on Russian TV, The New York Times, 17 April 2012.
  114. ^ "The World Tomorrow". WikiLeaks. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  115. ^ "Assange show premiere: Time to watch 'The World Tomorrow'". Russia: RT. 13 April 2012. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
  116. ^ a b c Taylor, Jerome (17 April 2012). "Julian Assange launches talk show on Kremlin-backed broadcaster Russia". The Independent. Retrieved 14 April 2021. Heading off criticism for his choice of partner he added: “There's Julian Assange, enemy combatant, a traitor, getting in to bed with the Kremlin and interviewing terrible radicals from around the world. I think that's a pretty trivial kind of attack. If they actually look at how the show is made: we make it, we have complete editorial control, we believe that all media organisations have an angle, all media organisations have an issue.
  117. ^ Raphael Satter, Assange interviews Hezbollah leader in TV premiere, Associated Press via Denver Post, 17 April 2012.
  118. ^ Assange chats with terrorist, Agence France-Presse, 18 April 2012.
  119. ^ "New Assange TV Series". wikileaks.org. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  120. ^ a b Douglas Lucas, Julian Assange prepares his next move, Salon, 23 February 2012.
  121. ^ Raphael Satter (17 April 2012). "Assange interviews Hezbollah leader in TV premiere". The Denver Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013.
  122. ^ David Meyer, Russia Today hit by DDoS as anti-Wikileaks group claims responsibility, ZDNet, 17 August 2012.
  123. ^ Michael Calderone, Third-Party Debate To Be Broadcast By Al Jazeera English, RT America, But Not Major Cable News Networks, HuffPost, Posted: 19 October 2012, Updated: 23 October 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012
  124. ^ "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate". PBS NewsHour. 25 October 2012. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  125. ^ RT to host final US presidential third-party debate, Published: 27 October 2012; Edited: 3 November 2012; note that the debate was postponed from 30 October because of Hurricane Sandy.
  126. ^ Paul Singer, Nader's third-party debate raises alternate issues, USA Today, 5 November 2012.
  127. ^ RT hosts third party debate #2: Tackling the issues the mainstream ignores, RT.com story and video of debate, 6 November 2012.
  128. ^ Dylan Byers, Larry King joins Russian channel RT, Politico, 29 May 2013.
  129. ^ RT America to broadcast Larry King's new political show, RT Press release, 29 May 2013.
  130. ^ "Politicking: Larry King talks NSA scandal fallout". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  131. ^ Visit to Russia Today television channel, Kremlin.ru website, 11 June 2013
  132. ^ RT unveils dedicated news channel for UK, Rapid TV News, 30 October 2014.
  133. ^ karl-mcdonald (17 October 2016). "Russia Today's UK bank accounts shut by NatWest". inews.co.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  134. ^ "NatWest reverses decision to close RT's bank accounts in UK". The Guardian. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  135. ^ Davis, Charles (1 February 2018). "This 'Grassroots' Media Startup Is Supported by the Kremlin". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  136. ^ "OKWONGA.COM » My new post, on Redfish and Russia Today". okwonga.com. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  137. ^ "This Quirky New Viral Video Channel Is Funded By The Russian Government". BuzzFeed. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  138. ^ Ma, Alexandra (18 February 2019). "Russia's RT attacks Facebook for suspending 4 viral news channels that broadcast Kremlin talking points to millennials". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  139. ^ "Facebook Blocks 'Wildly Popular' RT-Run Page". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Based on reporting by Interfax, TASS, AFP, and CNN. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  140. ^ Birnbaum, Emily (25 February 2019). "Facebook restores previously suspended Russia-linked pages". TheHill. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  141. ^ a b Field, Matt (9 February 2021). "As Trump's impeachment trial begins, the Russian network that helped him in 2016 taps his supporters on Gab.com". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  142. ^ a b "EU closes airspace to Russian planes, bans Russian media outlets and pledges arms to Ukraine". CBS. 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  143. ^ "RT: Russian-backed TV news channel disappears from UK screens". BBC News. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  144. ^ "Russian news channel RT unavailable on StarHub, Singtel due to transmission disruption 'at source'". CNA. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  145. ^ Posadzki, Alexandra; Chase, Steven; Robertson, Susan Krashinsky (27 February 2022). "Russia's RT to be removed from Canadian lineup by Bell, Rogers, Shaw". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  146. ^ "Rogers, Bell to pull Russian state-controlled channel RT over invasion of Ukraine". CBC News. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  147. ^ "Ofcom opens 15 investigations into Russia Today". POLITICO. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  148. ^ "Ofcom launches 15 investigations into RT". Ofcom. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  149. ^ "European Union Publishes Regulation Banning Russia Today and Sputnik". Tech Policy Press.
  150. ^ Peters, Jay (28 February 2022). "Facebook blocks RT and Sputnik pages in the EU". The Verge. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  151. ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Zakrzewski, Cat (28 February 2022). "Facebook and TikTok ban Russian state media in Europe". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  152. ^ Fingas, J. (28 February 2022). "Microsoft is the latest to ban Russian state media from its platforms". Engadget. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  153. ^ a b c Kanter, Jake (1 March 2022). "YouTube blocks RT channels in Britain and Europe". The Times. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  154. ^ Mayo, Benjamin (1 March 2022). "Apple shares statement on Russian invasion of Ukraine, company pauses all product sales and pulls RT News and Sputnik News apps from App Store". 9to5Mac. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  155. ^ Keck, Catie (1 March 2022). "Roku, DirecTV drop Russian-backed RT channel". The Verge. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  156. ^ Weprin, Alex (1 March 2022). "DirecTV Drops Russia-Backed RT Channel "Effective Immediately"". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  157. ^ Pullar-Strecker, Tom (27 February 2022). "Sky TV stops broadcasting Russia Today in light of war on Ukraine". Stuff. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  158. ^ Spangler, Todd (3 March 2022). "Reddit Bans Links to Russian State Media Across Entire Site". Variety. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  159. ^ "YouTube blocks Russian state-funded media, including RT and Sputnik, around the world". France 24. 12 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  160. ^ a b c d Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Merrill, Jeremy B.; De Vynck, Gerrit. "Social platforms' bans muffle Russian state media propaganda". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  161. ^ "Anonymous targets RT portal in 'cyber war' against Russia". Newslaundry. 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  162. ^ Purtill, James (25 February 2022). "Anonymous takes down Kremlin, Russian-controlled media site in cyber attacks". ABC News. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  163. ^ Sauer, Pjotr (7 March 2022). "Why has the letter Z become the symbol of war for Russia?". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  164. ^ Gilbert, David (15 March 2022). "Russian State TV Has Found a New Home on Gab". Vice News. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  165. ^ Russia: Another Media-Management Change", IPR Strategic Business Information Database, 4 February 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  166. ^ Russia Profile. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  167. ^ Peter Finn, Russia Pumps Tens of Millions Into Burnishing Image Abroad The Washington Post, 6 March 2008.
  168. ^ New Concerns on Russia Media Freedom, Associated Press, via Highbeam, 19 May 2007.
  169. ^ RIA Novosti Does Not Control RT Television – Russian Media Experts, RIA Novosti, 6 February 2012.
  170. ^ a b Oliver Bullough "Inside Russia Today: counterweight to the mainstream media, or Putin's mouthpiece?", New Statesman, 10 May 2013.
  171. ^ "RT BEGINS BROADCASTING IN HD WORLDWIDE FROM NEW, STATE OF THE ART STUDIO". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  172. ^ "History". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  173. ^ "Putin orders overhaul of top state news agency". RT. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  174. ^ "RT editor Simonyan to head Kremlin-backed news agency". BBC News. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  175. ^ Kolesnikov, Aleksandr (28 August 2020). "Маргарита Симоньян приватизирует Russia Today" [Margarita Simonyan privatizes Russia Today]. octagon.media (in Russian). Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  176. ^ "РАМИ "РИА Новости", ФГУП, ИНН 7704005030" [RAMI "RIA Novosti", Federal State Unitary Enterprise, TIN 7704005030]. sbis.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  177. ^ "GEC Special Report. Kremlin-Funded Media: RT and Sputnik's role in Russia's Disinformation and Propaganda Ecosystem" (PDF). United States Department of State. 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  178. ^ Beth Knobel "Russian News, English Accent: New Kremlin Show Spins Russia Westward", CBS News, 12 December 2005
  179. ^ a b c d e Marcin Maczka, The Propaganda Machine Archived 7 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine, New Eastern Europe website, 9 July 2012, originally published in New Eastern Europe: New Europe, Old Problems No. 3 (IV), 2012.
  180. ^ Lenizadt estimates the 2012 Russian Federal Budget at 11 billion rubles to RT's parent company ANO TV-Novosti. Darya Fazletdinova, Anatomy of Non-Resistance, Lenizdat, 2 July 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012, Translation from the Russian
  181. ^ "Putin forbids funding cuts to state-run media outlets — Gazeta. Ru – English news blog". Gazeta.Ru. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012.
  182. ^ a b Chris Dziadul (8 April 2015). "RT tightens its belt". Broadband TV News. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  183. ^ Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle (23 September 2014). "Looking West, Russia Beefs Up Spending on Global Media Giants". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  184. ^ a b Shuster, Simon (16 March 2015). "Inside Putin's on-air machine". Time. pp. 44–51. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  185. ^ a b c d e Stephen Ennis (16 September 2015). "Russia in 'information war' with West to win hearts and minds". BBC. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  186. ^ "Russia Cuts State Spending on RT News Network". The Moscow Times. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  187. ^ "Госфинансирование RT и МИА «Россия сегодня» будет увеличено на 1,4 и 1,7 млрд рублей в 2022 году" [State funding of RT and MIA Rossiya Segodnya will be increased by 1.4 and 1.7 billion rubles in 2022]. RTVI (in Russian). 22 December 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  188. ^ "RT остался лидером по объемам госфинансирования среди СМИ. В 2022 году канал получит почти 29 миллиардов рублей" [RT remained the leader in terms of state funding among the media. In 2022, the channel will receive almost 29 billion rubles]. Meduza (in Russian). 23 December 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  189. ^ "Distribution". RT International. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  190. ^ Fred Weir, Russia gives WikiLeaks' Julian Assange a TV platform, The Christian Science Monitor, 25 January 2012.
  191. ^ برامج القناة. RT Arabic (in Arabic). Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  192. ^ "Quiénes somos". RT en Español (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  193. ^ a b Stubbs, Jack; Gibson, Ginger (13 November 2017). McCool, Grant (ed.). "Russia's RT America registers as 'foreign agent' in U.S." Reuters. Lisa Shumaker (ed.). Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  194. ^ "RT launches dedicated UK news channel – RT UK". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  195. ^ "RTД – your guide to the depths of Russia". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  196. ^ "RT на русском последние новости онлайн в России и в Мире". RT на русском.
  197. ^ "RT en Français". RT en Français.
  198. ^ "Fakecheck - RT". fakecheck-rt.de.
  199. ^ "YouTube deletes RT's German channels over Covid misinformation". The Guardian. 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  200. ^ a b c @DFRLab (24 November 2021). "How RT DE spread COVID misinformation on YouTube". DFRLab. Retrieved 7 December 2021.
  201. ^ a b c Kovalev, Alexey; Vachedin, Dmitry; Zelenin, Sasha (11 November 2021). "The two faces of RT's coronavirus propaganda When it comes to Russia Today and the pandemic, coverage at home and abroad is worlds apart". Meduza. Translated by Kevin Rothrock.
  202. ^ "RRsat Signs Contract With Russia Today For Global Distribution Of RT HD Channels". PR Newswire. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  203. ^ Russia Today and Rusiya Al-yaum join Yahlive's high definition bouquet, Al Yah Satellite Communications, AMEinfo.com.
  204. ^ "Putin: RT en español emitirá su señal en abierto en Argentina 24 al día" (in Spanish). Actualidad RT. 12 July 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  205. ^ Bosoer, Fabián; Finchelstein, Federico (21 October 2014). "Russia Today, Argentina Tomorrow". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  206. ^ "Argentina Announces Suspension Of Russia's RT TV Broadcasts". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  207. ^ Knox, David (16 February 2015). "Foxtel adds Russia Today channel". TV Tonight. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  208. ^ "RT. About Us. Distribution". RT. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  209. ^ a b c BENTON, JOSHUA (2 March 2022). "How many people really watch or read RT, anyway? It's hard to tell, but some of their social numbers are eye-popping". Niemanlab. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  210. ^ Zavadski, Katie (17 September 2015). "Putin's Propaganda TV Lies About Its Popularity". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  211. ^ a b c d e Zavaski, Katie (17 September 2015). "Putin's Propaganda TV Lies About its Popularity". Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  212. ^ "If Russia Today is Moscow's propaganda arm, it's not very good at its job". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  213. ^ "Exposing Daily Beast propaganda: 10 RT political virals the YouTube MSM can only dream of". RT International. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  214. ^ "Fact check for dummies: Teaching Washington Post & Co how to do journalism one last time". RT International. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  215. ^ Foreign News Channels Drawing U.S. Viewers – IPS. Ipsnews.net. Retrieved 7 December 2011.
  216. ^ a b 'Russia Today' Doubles its U.S. Audience, Russia Briefing News, 7 June 2012.
  217. ^ BARB Q3 2012 viewing figures "BARB Quarterly Reach Report- Quarter 3 2012", BARB. Retrieved 6 June 2014
  218. ^ Laughlin, Andrew, 14 January 2013 "RT Russian news channel goes HD on Sky", Digital Spy. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  219. ^ BARB Q4 2012 viewing figures "BARB Quarterly Reach Report- Quarter 4 2012", BARB. Retrieved 6 June 2014
  220. ^ BARB Q4 2013 viewing figures "BARB Quarterly Reach Report- Quarter 4 2013", BARB. Retrieved 9 April 2014
  221. ^ a b Smith, Patrick (17 November 2014). "Everything You Need To Know About Russia Today UK". BuzzFeed.
  222. ^ Ennis, Stephen (4 November 2014). "Kremlin's UK TV fails to match ambitions". BBC News.
  223. ^ BARB Q3 2015 viewing figures "BARB Quarterly Reach Report- Quarter 3 2015", BARB. Retrieved 23 January 2016
  224. ^ "Monthly viewing summary". barb.co.uk. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  225. ^ http://www.cervantes.es/imagenes/el_espa%C3%B1ol_federaci%C3%B3n_rusa.pdf Sagarra Ángel, Josep María de; Soler Herreros, Chimo "El español en la Federación de Rusia: factor determinante en las relaciones con los países hispanohablantes". En: Iberoamérica, trimestral desde Moscú, n. 2 (2014)
  226. ^ "YouTube Video Creation–A Shared Process". journalism.org. Pew Research Center. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  227. ^ Jennifer Martinez, Pew: Russia Today, The Hill, 16 July 2012
  228. ^ O'Sullivan, John (6 December 2014). "The difference between real journalism and Russia Today". The Spectator. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  229. ^ Alexa. Accessed 14 March 2022.
  230. ^ Carter, Erin Baggott; Carter, Brett L. (2021). "Questioning More: RT, Outward-Facing Propaganda, and the Post-West World Order". Security Studies. 30: 49–78. doi:10.1080/09636412.2021.1885730. ISSN 0963-6412. S2CID 232411445.
  231. ^ a b c d e f g Erlanger, Steven (8 March 2017). "Russia's RT Network: Is It More BBC or K.G.B.?". New York Times. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  232. ^ Tikkanen, Amy (10 September 2019). "List of national security advisors of the United States". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  233. ^ Heidi Brown, Springtime (For Putin) In Russia, Forbes, 27 February 2008.
  234. ^ Field, Matt (15 May 2019). "The Russian government-funded TV network's hyperbolic campaign against US 5G". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  235. ^ Dowling, Tim (29 November 2017). "24-hour Putin people: my week watching Kremlin 'propaganda channel' RT". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  236. ^ Tracy Quan (3 July 2012). "I Love the Julian Assange Show!". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  237. ^ a b c d e f g Zwick, Jesse (14 March 2012). "Pravda Lite". The New Republic. Retrieved 14 February 2017..
  238. ^ a b Freed, Benjamin R. "Alyona Minkovski: She's Got It!". SOMA Magazine. 25 (4). Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  239. ^ RT America Launches New Show, Hosted by Former US Marine, Adam Kokesh, press release on Adam vs The Man web site, 4 April 2011.
  240. ^ "FINAL EPISODE: East Coast Quake, Libya Rebellion, You The Viewer, Teachers & Social Media, Net Neutrality, Media Blackout on Ron Paul?". RT. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011.
  241. ^ a b "Ron Paul booster's show cancelled after FEC complaint". Politico. 25 August 2011.
  242. ^ Glenn Greenwald interview on RT website.
  243. ^ Glenn Greenwald, Attacks on RT and Assange reveal much about the critics, Salon, 18 April 2012.
  244. ^ a b Sonia Scherr (1 August 2010). "Russian TV Channel Pushes 'Patriot' Conspiracy Theories". Intelligence Report, Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  245. ^ Crilley, Rhys; Gillespie, Marie; Willis, Alistair (5 October 2019). "Tweeting the Russian revolution: RT's #1917LIVE and social media re-enactments as public diplomacy". European Journal of Cultural Studies. 23 (3): 354–373. doi:10.1177/1367549419871353. S2CID 210586923.
  246. ^ Chatterje-Doody, Precious N; Tolz, Vera (14 October 2019). "Regime legitimation, not nation-building: Media commemoration of the 1917 revolutions in Russia's neo-authoritarian state" (PDF). European Journal of Cultural Studies. 23 (3): 335–353. doi:10.1177/1367549419871346. ISSN 1367-5494. S2CID 201330166.
  247. ^ "Shows — RT". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  248. ^ "History". RT. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  249. ^ a b "Alex Salmond suspends RT show over Ukraine invasion". BBC News. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  250. ^ "Worlds Apart with Oksana Boyko". Sky.com. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  251. ^ a b Goy, Héloïse; Patri, Alexis (23 February 2022). "Frédéric Taddeï quitte son émission sur RT France "par loyauté envers la France"" [Frédéric Taddeï leaves his show on RT France "out of loyalty to France"]. Europe 1 (in French). Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  252. ^ a b "On-Air Talent — RT". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  253. ^ a b Airwaves wobbly, The Economist, 6 July 2010
  254. ^ a b Sousa, Ann De (26 January 2012). "News channel or propaganda tool?". Al Jazeera.
  255. ^ "Russia Today Continues its Anti-Israel Propaganda, Going Even Further Than Arab TV". the algemeiner. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  256. ^ a b Tracy Quan (3 July 2012). "I Love the Julian Assange Show!". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  257. ^ Syria's Assad denies civil war, blames the West, Los Angeles Times, 9 November 2012.
  258. ^ "Nigel Farage: I admire Vladimir Putin". The Guardian. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  259. ^ Stone, Peter; Gordon, Greg (20 March 2017). "FBI's Russian-influence probe includes a look at Breitbart, InfoWars news sites". McClatchy DC Bureau. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  260. ^ Mezzofiore, Gianluca (24 March 2014). "RT Host Manuel Ochsenreiter Exposed as Neo-Nazi Editor". International Business Times. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  261. ^ Tom Porter (16 August 2017). "Charlottesville's Alt-Right Leaders Have a Passion for Vladimir Putin". Newsweek.
  262. ^ Van Herpen, Marcel H. (1 October 2015). Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 73. ISBN 978-1442253612.
  263. ^ Prokunin, Nikita; Kozenko, Andrey (21 October 2005). "Reporters Without Borders Don't Fancy Russia Today". Kommersant. Archived from the original on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  264. ^ "New Global TV Venture to Promote Russia". Voice of America. 6 July 2005. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  265. ^ Chatterje-Doody, Precious N; Sanchez-Salas, Patricia. "How RT Navigates 'Us' and 'Them'". E-International Relations. E-International Relations. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  266. ^ Johnson, Adam H. (23 September 2016). "Who's Afraid of 'Russia Today'?". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  267. ^ Michel, Casey (25 August 2015). "Putin's Magnificent Messaging Machine". Politico. Archived from the original on 28 October 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  268. ^ Schreck, Carl (25 February 2015). "'Propaganda Bullhorn' Or 'Alternative Perspective'? U.S. Students Put Kremlin-Funded RT Under Microscope". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  269. ^ "RT Watch Blog". 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  270. ^ Gatov, Vasily (30 June 2014). "Russian Journalism is Crippled by Its Cynicism". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  271. ^ Harrison, Stephen (1 March 2022). "How the Russian Invasion of Ukraine Is Playing Out on English, Ukrainian, and Russian Wikipedia". Slate. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  272. ^ "Meet the Colonel in Charge of Countering Russian Propaganda in Lithuania". Vice News. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
  273. ^ Pomerantsev, Peter (9 April 2015). "Inside the Kremlin's hall of mirrors". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  274. ^ "Russia's "Firehose of Falsehood" Propaganda Model". Paul, Christopher, Matthews, Miriam. 2016. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  275. ^ Hilsman, Patrick (6 May 2015). "Have you been watching Russian government propaganda?". The Seattle Globalist. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  276. ^ a b Current Time (27 October 2021). "The Two Faces Of RT: Russia's Competing COVID Narratives". RFE/RT. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  277. ^ a b Paul, Christopher; Matthews, Mirriam (2016), The Russian 'Firehose of Falsehood' Propaganda Model, The RAND Corporation
  278. ^ Crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 Hrabove, Ukraine, 17 July 2014 (PDF) (Report). Dutch Safety Board. 13 October 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 October 2015.
  279. ^ Weaver, Matthew (13 October 2015). "MH17 crash report: Dutch investigators confirm Buk missile hit plane – live updates". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  280. ^ Bugorkova, Olga (28 September 2016). "Катастрофа MH17: как менялись версии российских СМИ" [Disaster of MH17: how the versions of the Russian media changed]. BBC Russian Service (in Russian). Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  281. ^ Schreck, Carl (15 July 2019). "'Birdie' Down: The First, Damning Hours After MH17 Was Shot Out Of The Sky". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  282. ^ Ополченцы сообщили о сбитом Ан-26 на востоке Украины. LifeNews (in Russian). 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014. On July 17 near the village of Rassypnoye over the Torez city in Donetsk region an An-26 transport plane of Ukrainian Air Force was taken down, said the militia. According to them, the plane crashed somewhere near the "Progress" mine, away from residential areas. According to one of the militias, at about 17:30 local time an An-26 flew over the city. It was hit by a rocket, there was an explosion and the plane went to the ground, leaving a black smoke. Debris fell from the sky
  283. ^ Rietjens, Sebastiaan (2 September 2019). "Unraveling Disinformation: The Case of Malaysia Airlines Flight MH17". The International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs. 21 (3): 203. doi:10.1080/23800992.2019.1695666. ISSN 2380-0992. S2CID 214368984 – via Taylor & Francis.
  284. ^ Radziwinowicz, Wacław (18 July 2014). "'Zamach na Putina', 'Ile odszkodowań zapłacą Ukraińcy' i zmiany w Wikipedii. Ofensywa propagandowa Moskwy" ["The attempt on Putin", "How much compensation will pay Ukrainians" and changes in Wikipedia. Moscow's propaganda offensive]. Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  285. ^ Szoldra, Paul (18 July 2014). "Here's The Ridiculous Way Russia's Propaganda Channel Is Covering The Malaysia Airlines Crash". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 20 July 2014.
  286. ^ Weir, Fred (8 March 2007). "Russian bid to counter Western criticism". The Christian Science Monitor. Moscow.
  287. ^ Masha Karp "Counterpoints: KGB TV" Archived 25 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Standpoint, March 2010
  288. ^ Kirchick, James (18 February 2009). "Pravda on the Potomac (page 2)". The New Republic.
  289. ^ Walker, Shaun (26 January 2012). "Assange takes chat-show job with state-funded Russian TV". The Independent.
  290. ^ "YouTube recommended a Russian media site thousands of times for analysis of Mueller's report, a watchdog group says". The Washington Post. 2019.
  291. ^ Sigov, Yuri (2020). "Канада в Российских Сми: Мифы и Реалии" [Canada in the Russian Media: Myths and Realities]. Россия и Канада: Возможности для сотрудничества (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Economics: 110 – via eLibrary.Ru.
  292. ^ Ennis, Stephen (16 November 2014). "Russia's global media operation under the spotlight". BBC News.
  293. ^ Cohen, Nick (8 November 2014). "Russia Today: why western cynics lap up Putin's TV poison". The Observer. Retrieved 10 August 2021. Russia Today’s second mission is to spread conspiracy theories that help Russian power and provide sensational audience-grabbing stories – in every sense of the word.
  294. ^ Kamm, Oliver (31 October 2014). "We cannot allow Russia Today to get away with its lies". The Times. Retrieved 10 August 2021. Ofcom should rigorously apply its own code to this den of deceivers. (subscription required)
  295. ^ Holland, Adam (8 July 2015). "Russia Today Has an Illuminati Correspondent. Really". Daily Beast. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  296. ^ Drezner, Daniel W. (13 March 2015). "Confessions of an American Illuminati". The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  297. ^ "Inside RT's world of alternative news". EU vs DISINFORMATION. 13 April 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  298. ^ "Everyone Against Russia: Conspiracy Theories on the Rise In Russian Media". EU vs DISINFORMATION. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  299. ^ "A Powerful Russian Weapon: The Spread of False Stories". The New York Times. 28 August 2016. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  300. ^ Timberg, Craig (24 November 2016). "Russian propaganda effort helped spread 'fake news' during election, experts say". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 24 May 2018. Some of these stories originated with RT and Sputnik, state-funded Russian information services that mimic the style and tone of independent news organizations yet sometimes include false and misleading stories in their reports, the researchers say. On other occasions, RT, Sputnik and other Russian sites used social-media accounts to amplify misleading stories already circulating online, causing news algorithms to identify them as “trending” topics that sometimes prompted coverage from mainstream American news organizations.
  301. ^ a b "Is Russia Today a legitimate fact-checker? We did the math". Poynter. 27 July 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  302. ^ Rachel Hirshfeld (4 February 2013). "Russia Today Accuses Israel of Using 'Hitler Methods'". Israel National News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  303. ^ Lakkana Nanayakkara (22 November 2012). "Russia Today Continues its Anti-Israel Propaganda, Going Even Further Than Arab TV". The Algemeiner. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  304. ^ Barak Ravid (31 July 2012). "Lieberman complained to Putin over Russian TV's 'anti-Israel' reporting". Haaretz. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  305. ^ Porterfield, Carlie (2 November 2021). "Breitbart Leads Climate Change Misinformation On Facebook, Study Says". Forbes. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  306. ^ Zakrzewski, Cat (2 November 2021). "Breitbart has outsize influence over climate change denial on Facebook, report says". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  307. ^ "The Toxic Ten: How ten fringe publishers fuel 69% of digital climate change denial". Center for Countering Digital Hate. 2 November 2021. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  308. ^ Bush, Daniel (9 June 2020). "Virality Project (Russia): Penguins and Protests". Stanford Internet Observatory. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  309. ^ Hille, Kathrin (21 March 2014). "Dmitry Kiselyov: Russian TV presenter draws EU sanctions wrath". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 18 September 2019.
  310. ^ "Concerning restrictive measures in respect of actions undermining or threatening the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Ukraine". Official Journal of the European Union. 21 March 2014 – via EUR-Lex.
  311. ^ "EU restrictive measures in response to the crisis in Ukraine". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  312. ^ "INGE Consolidated Draft Report | Highlights | Home | INGE | Committees | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  313. ^ Stevis-Gridneff, Matina (23 February 2022). "European Sanctions Target Putin's Inner Circle". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  314. ^ "SBS suspends Russian state media outlets". The Canberra Times. 25 February 2022.
  315. ^ "Foxtel strips Russia Today from its platforms over concern of its content on the Ukraine invasion". The Australian. 26 February 2022.
  316. ^ "Foxtel pulls Russia Today channel off air". TV Tonight. 26 February 2022.
  317. ^ Zimonjic, Peter (16 March 2022). "CRTC bans Russian state-controlled TV channels RT, RT France from Canadian airwaves". CBC News. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  318. ^ "Russia to target German media in response to German ban on RT TV". Reuters. 2 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  319. ^ Roth, Andrew (3 February 2022). "Russia to expel German broadcaster after RT blocked in Germany". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  320. ^ "RT broadcasts suspended on Rock as Govt tightens visa rules for Russians". Gibraltar Chronicle. 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  321. ^ "NEPLP restricts most influential Kremlin's propaganda channel in Latvia". The National Electronic Mass Media Council. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  322. ^ Gelzis, Gederts; Marrow, Alexander; Devitt, Polina (30 June 2020). Fulton, Colm (ed.). "Latvia bans Russian broadcaster RT over ties to Kremlin media mogul". Reuters. Alexandra Hudson (ed.). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  323. ^ "Linas Linkevicius on Twitter" – via Twitter.
  324. ^ Veebel, Viljar. "Estonia Confronts Propaganda: Russia Manipulates Media in Pursuit of Psychological Warfare". Per Concordiam. 7: 35. ISSN 2166-322X – via Estonian Research Information System.
  325. ^ "Baltic countries: Misusing EU sanctions to ban Russian TV channels is not a legitimate tool for promoting reliable information". Reporters Without Borders. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  326. ^ "Rosyjskie programy wykreślone z rejestru programów rozprowadzanych" [Russian programs removed from the distributed program registry] (in Polish). National Broadcasting Council.
  327. ^ Kayali, Laura; Goujard, Clothilde (24 February 2022). "Europe increases pressure on Kremlin-backed broadcaster RT". Politico Europe. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  328. ^ "Ofcom revokes RT's broadcast licence". Ofcom. 18 March 2022. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  329. ^ "Ofcom launches further investigations into RT". Ofcom. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  330. ^ Balluck, Kyle (12 September 2017). "Russian network RT must register as foreign agent in US". The Hill. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  331. ^ "Secretary Kerry on Ukraine" (Press release). CSPAN. 24 April 2014.
  332. ^ Logiurato, Brett (26 April 2014), "RT Is Very Upset With John Kerry For Blasting Them As Putin's 'Propaganda Bullhorn'", Business Insider
  333. ^ Logiurato (29 April 2014), "Russia's Propaganda Channel Just Got A Journalism Lesson From The US State Department", Business Insider
  334. ^ Stengel, Richard (29 April 2014), Russia Today's Disinformation Campaign, U.S. Department of State
  335. ^ "Emmanuel Macron's campaign team bans Russian news outlets from events". The Guardian. Reuters. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  336. ^ Bodner, Matthew; Kupfer, Matthew; Jardine, Bradley (1 June 2017). "Welcome to The Machine: Inside the Secretive World of RT". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  337. ^ Osborn, Andrew; Balmforth, Richard (27 April 2017). "Macron camp bars Russian news outlets, angers Moscow". Reuters. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  338. ^ "Twitter bans RT and Sputnik ads amid election interference fears", BBC News, 26 October 2017, retrieved 4 November 2017
  339. ^ Confessore, Nicholas (26 October 2017). "Twitter Bans Two Kremlin-Backed News Outlets From Advertising". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  340. ^ Culliford, Elizabeth; Nichols, Michelle (6 August 2020). Zieminski, Nick (ed.). "Twitter labels state media, government officials' accounts". Reuters. Dan Grebler (ed.). Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  341. ^ "Twitter Labels State Media, Government Officials' Accounts". The New York Times. Reuters. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  342. ^ "Google to 'derank' Russia Today and Sputnik", BBC News, 21 November 2017, retrieved 22 November 2017
  343. ^ "John McDonnell urges Labour MPs to stop appearing on Russia Today". BBC News. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  344. ^ "Russia's RT banned from UK media freedom conference", BBC News, 9 July 2019, retrieved 26 August 2019
  345. ^ William Dunbar (20 September 2010). "They forced me out for telling the truth about Georgia". The Independent.
  346. ^ Nick Holdsworth (12 August 2008). "Russia claims media bias; Foreign minister blasts coverage of conflict". Variety.
  347. ^ "Death toll in South Ossetia reaches 2,000". Russia: RT. 10 August 2008. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009.
  348. ^ Tom Parfitt (13 August 2008). "Russia exaggerating South Ossetian death toll, says human rights group". The Guardian.
  349. ^ a b Wahl, Elizabeth. "I Was Putin's Pawn". Politico. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  350. ^ Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin – Syrian news coverage, 5 November 2012, pp 15–27.
  351. ^ Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin – Graphic footage, 4 November 2013, pp 14–17.
  352. ^ Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin – Syrian Diary, 16 December 2013, pp 6–25.
  353. ^ Greg Botelho, CNN (5 March 2014). "State-funded news anchor Abby Martin: 'What Russia did is wrong' – CNN". CNN.
  354. ^ "Ukraine conflict perspectives and Washington's shadow lobbyists". RT International. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  355. ^ Graves, Lucia (4 March 2014) RT Defends Host Abby Martin, Responds to Accusations of Pro-Putin Propaganda, National Journal retrieved 11 April 2014
  356. ^ Greenwald, Glenn (4 March 2014) RT Host Abby Martin Condemns Russian Incursion Into Crimea – On RT The Intercept retrieved 21 March 2014
  357. ^ Eversley, Melanie (6 March 2014). "Russia-funded station decries on-air resignation". USA Today. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  358. ^ Piers Morgan (5 March 2014). New Cold War?. CNN.
  359. ^ Gray, Rosie (13 March 2014). "How the Truth is Made at Russia Today". BuzzFeed.
  360. ^ Bloomfield, Steve (24 April 2014). "Ofcom should be looking again at Putin's TV news channel". The Guardian.
  361. ^ Szoldra (19 July 2014), Here's The Ridiculous Way Russia's Propaganda Channel Is Covering The Downed Malaysia Airliner
  362. ^ a b Alex Altman (21 July 2014). "Russian Television Under Spotlight After Malaysia Airlines Crash in Ukraine". Time. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  363. ^ Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin – Ukraine news coverage, 10 November 2014, pp 5–44
  364. ^ Kemp, Stuart (5 January 2015). "BBC News and RT cleared over coverage of shooting down of flight MH17". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  365. ^ Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin – MH17, 5 January 2015, p 48
  366. ^ a b David, Maxine (23 September 2016), War of words: how Europe is fighting back against Russian disinformation, The Conversation, retrieved 3 March 2017
  367. ^ Bentzen, Naja; Russell, Martin (2015), Russia's manipulation of information on Ukraine and the EU's response (PDF), Members' Research Service – European Parliamentary Research Service
  368. ^ Gotev, Georgi (28 August 2015), Tiny EU task force set up to counter Russian propaganda, Fondation Euractiv, retrieved 3 March 2017
  369. ^ "EU vs Disinformation website". Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  370. ^ "Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin" (PDF). No. 288. Ofcom. 21 September 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  371. ^ Burrell, Ian (21 September 2015). "Broadcaster RT misled viewers and breached broadcasting rules, says Ofcom". The Independent. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  372. ^ Jackson, Jasper (21 September 2015). "RT sanctioned by Ofcom over series of misleading and biased articles". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  373. ^ Kramer, David J. (23 October 2015). "The West should take on the Putin P.R. machine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  374. ^ Plunkett, John (4 July 2016). "Russia-backed channel RT censured for lack of impartiality in Turkish coverage". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  375. ^ "Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin" (PDF). No. 308. Ofcom. 4 July 2016. pp. 5–30. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  376. ^ "Russian propaganda effort helped spread 'fake news' during election, experts say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  377. ^ Ben Norton; Glenn Greenwald (26 November 2016), "Washington Post Disgracefully Promotes a McCarthyite Blacklist From a New, Hidden, and Very Shady Group", The Intercept, retrieved 27 November 2016
  378. ^ Ingram, Matthew (25 November 2016), "No, Russian Agents Are Not Behind Every Piece of Fake News You See", Fortune, retrieved 27 November 2016
  379. ^ Williams, Christopher (7 February 2017). "Media watchdog calls in Kremlin-backed news channel RT over impartiality breach on Nato". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  380. ^ "Ofcom Broadcast Bulletin" (PDF). No. 319. Ofcom. 19 December 2016. pp. 18–26. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  381. ^ a b Spangler, Todd (19 January 2017). "Facebook Restores Kremlin-Funded RT Posting Privileges After Temporary Block". Variety. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  382. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (20 January 2017). "Russia threatens retaliation over Facebook 'censorship' of RT". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  383. ^ "Russia considering US media restrictions as retaliation". 8 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  384. ^ "Russian network RT must register as foreign agent in US". The Hill. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  385. ^ "Russia's RT network says it complied with US order to register as foreign agent". cpj.org. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  386. ^ "Russian news channel RT broke TV impartiality rules, Ofcom says". BBC News Online. 20 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  387. ^ "Ofcom Broadcast and On Demand Bulletin" (PDF). No. 369. Ofcom. 20 December 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  388. ^ Waterson, Jim (26 July 2019). "RT fined £200,000 for breaching impartiality rules". The Guardian.
  389. ^ "Ofcom fines Russian news service £200,000 over impartiality". BBC News. 26 July 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  390. ^ "Former RT Reporter Says He Was Asked To 'Spy' On Navalny In German Hospital". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  391. ^ "Russia threatens YouTube ban for deleting RT channels". BBC News. 29 September 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  392. ^ "Kremlin-Funded Media: RT and Sputnik's Role in Russia's Disinformation and Propaganda Ecosystem" (PDF). United States Department of State. 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022. . Despite RT's attempts to market its shows as debates or discussions in which 'all things are considered,' pro-Kremlin statements are rarely questioned... RT listed false reasons justifying Russia's military buildup, including an alleged promise by U.S. President Ronald Reagan to General Secretary Gorbachev to not expand NATO, which Gorbachev said never happened, and the incorrect claim that Ukraine had outlawed the Russian language.
  393. ^ Sauer, Pjotr (25 February 2022). "'Pure Orwell': how Russian state media spins invasion as liberation". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  394. ^ Kersley, Andrew (25 February 2022). "Reporters quit RT and website hacked amid Ukraine invasion coverage". Press Gazette. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  395. ^ Escritt, Thomas (28 February 2022). "Exclusive: Russian news agency in Berlin faces staff exodus over Ukraine invasion". Reuters. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  396. ^ Brodkin, Jon (1 March 2022). "YouTube blocks RT and Sputnik as Russia tells media not to say "invasion"". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  397. ^ Gilbody-Dickerson, Claire (27 February 2022). "Russia Today hit by resignation of several UK-based journalists within hours of Putin's invasion of Ukraine". i. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  398. ^ "Anonymous launches attacks against Russia to support Ukraine". The Independent. 25 February 2022.
  399. ^ Dave, Paresh (26 February 2022). "Google blocks RT, other Russian channels from earning ad dollars". Reuters. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  400. ^ News of the Okrug 11th "Save and Preserve" International Environmental Television Festival, 9 June 2007
  401. ^ AIB Media Excellence Awards 2007 Association for International Broadcasting, 8 October 2007
  402. ^ "А ТЭФИ здесь тихие" [And TEFI is quiet here]. Lenta.ru. 26 September 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  403. ^ "2009 Television Programming and Promotion Awards" (PDF). Retrieved 18 March 2015.
  404. ^ "2010 International Emmy® Awards News & Current Affairs Nominees Announced". International Emmy Awards. 11 August 2010. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  405. ^ "2012 International Emmy® Awards News & Current Affairs Nominees Announced". International Emmy Awards. 21 August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  406. ^ Nechepurenko, Ivan; Brennan, Christopher (5 May 2014). "Putin Awards Journalists for 'Objective' Crimea Coverage". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  407. ^ Saul, Heather (6 May 2014). "Ukraine crisis: Putin awards pro-Kremlin journalists medals for their 'objective coverage' of Crimea". The Independent. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  408. ^ "2014 INTERNATIONAL EMMY® AWARDS CURRENT AFFAIRS & NEWS NOMINEES ANNOUNCED". International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
  409. ^ "2016 INTERNATIONAL EMMY® AWARDS NOMINEES FOR NEWS & CURRENT AFFAIRS ANNOUNCED". International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017.

External links[edit]