# Ra (Indic)

Ra
Example glyphs
Bengali-Assamese
Tibetan
Tamil
Thai
Malayalam
Sinhala
Ashoka Brahmi
Devanagari
Cognates
Hebrewר
GreekΡ
LatinR
CyrillicР
Properties
Phonemic representation/ɾ/
IAST transliterationr R
ISCII code pointCF (207)

Ra is a consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, Ra is derived from the early "Ashoka" Brahmi letter after having gone through the Gupta letter . Most Indic scripts have differing forms of Ra when used in combination with other consonants, including subjoined and repha forms. Some of these are encoded in computer text as separate characters, while others are generated dynamically using conjunct shaping with a virama.

## Āryabhaṭa numeration

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of र are:[1]

• [ɾə] = 40 (४०)
• रि [ɾɪ] = 4,000 (४ ०००)
• रु [ɾʊ] = 400,000 (४ ०० ०००)
• रृ [ɾri] = 40,000,000 (४ ०० ०० ०००)
• रॢ [ɾlə] = 4×109 (४×१०)
• रे [ɾe] = 4×1011 (४×१०११)
• रै [ɾɛː] = 4×1013 (४×१०१३)
• रो [ɾoː] = 4×1015 (४×१०१५)
• रौ [ɾɔː] = 4×1017 (४×१०१७)

## Historic Ra

There are three different general early historic scripts - Brahmi and its variants, Kharoṣṭhī, and Tocharian, the so-called slanting Brahmi. Ra as found in standard Brahmi, , was a simple geometric shape, with variations toward more flowing forms by the Gupta . The Tocharian Ra had an alternate Fremdzeichen form, . The third form of ra, in Kharoshthi (), was probably derived from Aramaic separately from the Brahmi letter.

### Brahmi Ra

The Brahmi letter , Ra, is probably derived from the Aramaic Resh , and is thus related to the modern Latin R and Greek Rho.[2] Several identifiable styles of writing the Brahmi Ra can be found, most associated with a specific set of inscriptions from an artifact or diverse records from an historic period.[3] As the earliest and most geometric style of Brahmi, the letters found on the Edicts of Ashoka and other records from around that time are normally the reference form for Brahmi letters, with vowel marks not attested until later forms of Brahmi back-formed to match the geometric writing style.

Brahmi Ra historic forms
Ashoka
(3rd-1st c. BCE)
Girnar
(~150 BCE)
Kushana
(~150-250 CE)
Gujarat
(~250 CE)
Gupta
(~350 CE)

### Tocharian Ra

The Tocharian letter is derived from the Brahmi , and has an alternate Fremdzeichen form used in conjuncts and as an alternate representation of Rä. The use of repha forms in modern Indic scripts is similar to the Fremdzeichen Ra in Tocharian.

Tocharian Ra with vowel marks
Ra Ri Ru Rr Rr̄ Re Rai Ro Rau Fremdzeichen

### Kharoṣṭhī Ra

The Kharoṣṭhī letter is generally accepted as being derived from the Aramaic Resh , and is thus related to R and Rho, in addition to the Brahmi Ra.[2]

## Devanagari Ra

Ra () is a consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , after having gone through the Gupta letter . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter , and the Modi letter 𑘨. Ra, along with the Latin capital letter R, is the basis of the currency symbol ₹, which represents the Indian rupee.

### Devanagari-using languages

In all languages, र is pronounced as [ɾə] or [ɾ] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Devanagari uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Devanagari र with vowel marks
Ra Ri Ru Rr Rr̄ Rl Rl̄ Re Rai Ro Rau R
रा रि री रु रू रृ रॄ रॢ रॣ रे रै रो रौ र्

Several languages use the dotted form Rra for the [r] sound instead of र. ऱ combines with vowel marks identically to र.

### Conjuncts with र

Devanagari exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. In modern Devanagari texts, most conjuncts are formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". Some conjunct clusters are always represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters. Vertically stacked conjuncts are ubiquitous in older texts, while only a few are still used routinely in modern Devanagari texts. The use of ligatures and vertical conjuncts may vary across languages using the Devanagari, with Marathi in particular preferring the use of half forms where texts in other languages would show ligatures and vertical stacks.[4]

When in conjuncts with other letters, र takes on several different forms, the most important of which are Repha and Rakar. Repha is used to indicate that a conjunct begins with "R". It is crescent shape attached atop the headline of the rest of the conjunct at the right, immediately above the vertical stem, if present. The other members of the conjunct ignore Repha for shaping, combining with the other members of the conjunct to form ligatures or stacked conjuncts normally.

Rakar is used to indicate a consonant conjunct ending in "Ra". It is an upward-pointing wedge shape that is found either centered below the rest of the conjunct, or tilted to the right and integrated with the bottom of the stemline. Like with Repha, the rest of the conjunct ignores Rakar for shaping, except for minor alteration of the bottom of any stemline.

The third conjunct form of Ra is the so-called Eyelash Ra. It resembles a half-form in retaining the head line, with a shape below that connects to the following letter, but this remaining eyelash shape does not resemble either र or ऱ. The eyelash Ra is used in Nepali and Marathi texts instead of Repha for an initial "R" sound in a conjunct. Even though those languages both use the dotted Ra ऱ, eyelash Ra is the default form of Ra + Virama in Unicode for backwards compatibility, and the Repha form is mapped individually as a ligature with each other Devanagari consonant.

#### Devanagari Repha

• Repha र্ (r) + ब (ba) gives the ligature rba: note

• Repha र্ (r) + भ (bha) gives the ligature rbha:

• Repha र্ (r) + च (ca) gives the ligature rca:

• Repha र্ (r) + छ (cha) gives the ligature rcha:

• Repha र্ (r) + द (da) gives the ligature rda:

• Repha र্ (r) + ड (ḍa) gives the ligature rḍa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ढ (ḍʱa) gives the ligature rḍʱa:

• Repha र্ (r) + द্ (d) + ध (dʱa) gives the ligature rddʱa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ध (dʱa) gives the ligature rdʱa:

• Repha र্ (r) + द্ (d) + व (va) gives the ligature rdva:

• Repha र্ (r) + ग (ga) gives the ligature rga:

• Repha र্ (r) + घ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ह (ha) gives the ligature rha:

• Repha र্ (r) + ज (ja) gives the ligature rja:

• Repha र্ (r) + झ (jha) gives the ligature rjha:

• Repha र্ (r) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rjña:

• Repha र্ (r) + क (ka) gives the ligature rka:

• Repha र্ (r) + ख (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

• Repha र্ (r) + क্ (k) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rkṣa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ल (la) gives the ligature rla:

• Repha र্ (r) + ळ (ḷa) gives the ligature rḷa:

• Repha र্ (r) + म (ma) gives the ligature rma:

• Repha र্ (r) + न (na) gives the ligature rna:

• Repha र্ (r) + ङ (ŋa) gives the ligature rŋa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ङ্ (ŋ) + ग (ga) gives the ligature rŋga:

• Repha र্ (r) + ण (ṇa) gives the ligature rṇa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rña:

• Repha र্ (r) + प (pa) gives the ligature rpa:

• Repha र্ (r) + फ (pha) gives the ligature rpha:

• Repha र্ (r) + र (ra) gives the ligature rra:

• Repha र্ (r) + स (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

• Repha र্ (r) + श (ʃa) gives the ligature rʃa:

• Repha र্ (r) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rṣa:

• Repha र্ (r) + स্ (s) + व (va) gives the ligature rsva:

• Repha र্ (r) + त (ta) gives the ligature rta:

• Repha र্ (r) + थ (tha) gives the ligature rtha:

• Repha र্ (r) + ट (ṭa) gives the ligature rṭa:

• Repha र্ (r) + त্ (t) + त (ta) gives the ligature rtta:

• Repha र্ (r) + ठ (ṭha) gives the ligature rṭha:

• Repha र্ (r) + व (va) gives the ligature rva:

• Repha र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature rya:

#### Devanagari Rakar

• भ্ (bh) + र (ra) gives the ligature bhra:

• ब্ (b) + र (ra) gives the ligature bra:

• छ্ (ch) + र (ra) gives the ligature chra:

• च্ (c) + र (ra) gives the ligature cra:

• द্ (d) + ब্ (b) + र (ra) gives the ligature dbra:

• ढ্ (ḍʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ḍʱra:

• ड্ (ḍ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ḍra:

• द্ (d) + द্ (d) + र (ra) gives the ligature ddra:

• द্ (d) + ग্ (g) + र (ra) gives the ligature dgra:

• ध্ (dʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature dʱra:

• द্ (d) + र (ra) gives the ligature dra:

• घ্ (ɡʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

• ग্ (g) + र (ra) gives the ligature gra:

• ग্ (g) + र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature grya:

• ह্ (h) + र (ra) gives the ligature hra:

• झ্ (jh) + र (ra) gives the ligature jhra:

• ज্ (j) + र (ra) gives the ligature jra:

• क্ (k) + र (ra) gives the ligature kra:

• क্ (k) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature ktra:

• ळ্ (ḷ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ḷra:

• ल্ (l) + र (ra) gives the ligature lra:

• म্ (m) + र (ra) gives the ligature mra:

• ङ্ (ŋ) + क্ (k) + र (ra) gives the ligature ŋkra:

• ङ্ (ŋ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ŋra:

• ण্ (ṇ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṇra:

• न্ (n) + र (ra) gives the ligature nra:

• ञ্ (ñ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ñra:

• फ্ (ph) + र (ra) gives the ligature phra:

• प্ (p) + र (ra) gives the ligature pra:

• प্ (p) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature ptra:

• श্ (ʃ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ʃra:

• स্ (s) + र (ra) gives the ligature sra:

• ष্ (ṣ) + क্ (k) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṣkra:

• ष্ (ṣ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṣra:

• थ্ (th) + र (ra) gives the ligature thra:

• त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature tra:

• त্ (t) + र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature trya:

• ठ্ (ṭh) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṭhra:

• ट্ (ṭ) + र (ra) gives the ligature ṭra:

• त্ (t) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature ttra:

• व্ (v) + र (ra) gives the ligature vra:

• य্ (y) + र (ra) gives the ligature yra:

##### Conjuncts with both Repha and Rakar forms
• र্ (r) + ध্ (dʱ) + र (ra) gives the ligature rdʱra:

• र্ (r) + ष্ (ṣ) + ट্ (ṭ) + र (ra) gives the ligature rṣṭra:

• र্ (r) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature rtra:

• र্ (r) + त্ (t) + त্ (t) + र (ra) gives the ligature rttra:

#### Devanagari Eyelash Ra

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ब (ba) gives the ligature rba:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + भ (bha) gives the ligature rbha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + च (ca) gives the ligature rca:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + छ (cha) gives the ligature rcha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + द (da) gives the ligature rda:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ड (ḍa) gives the ligature rḍa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ढ (ḍʱa) gives the ligature rḍʱa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ध (dʱa) gives the ligature rdʱa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ग (ga) gives the ligature rga:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + घ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ह (ha) gives the ligature rha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ज (ja) gives the ligature rja:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + झ (jha) gives the ligature rjha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rjña:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + क (ka) gives the ligature rka:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ख (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + क্ (k) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rkṣa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ल (la) gives the ligature rla:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ळ (ḷa) gives the ligature rḷa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + म (ma) gives the ligature rma:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + न (na) gives the ligature rna:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ङ (ŋa) gives the ligature rŋa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ण (ṇa) gives the ligature rṇa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature rña:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + प (pa) gives the ligature rpa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + फ (pha) gives the ligature rpha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + स (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + श (ʃa) gives the ligature rʃa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ष (ṣa) gives the ligature rṣa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + त (ta) gives the ligature rta:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + थ (tha) gives the ligature rtha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ट (ṭa) gives the ligature rṭa:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + ठ (ṭha) gives the ligature rṭha:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + व (va) gives the ligature rva:

• Eyelash र্ (r) + य (ya) gives the ligature rya:

## Bengali-Assamese Ra

The Bengali-Assamese script র and ৰ are derived from the Siddhaṃ , and are marked by a similar horizontal head line, but less geometric shape, than their Devanagari counterpart, र. The inherent vowel of Bengali and Assamese consonant letters is /ɔ/, so the bare letter র/ৰ will sometimes be transliterated as "ro" instead of "ra". Adding okar, the "o" vowel mark, gives a reading of /ro/. Like all Indic consonants, র/ৰ can be modified by marks to indicate another (or no) vowel than its inherent "a".

Bengali র with vowel marks
ra ri ru rr rr̄ re rai ro rau r
রা রি রী রু রূ রৃ রৄ রে রৈ রো রৌ র্
ৰা ৰি ৰী ৰু ৰূ ৰৃ ৰৄ ৰে ৰৈ ৰো ৰৌ ৰ্

### র/ৰ in Bengali-Assamese using languages

র or ৰ is used as a basic consonant character in many of the Bengali-Assamese script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese. Bengali uses র and Assamese uses ৰ. In Assamese র was used for va but now standardised as ৱ.

### Conjuncts with র/ৰ

Bengali-Assamese র/ৰ exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. Much like other Indic scripts, Bengali-Assamese র/ৰ also rarely appears in conjuncts in full form, and has special unrelated graphic forms for both initial and trailing র/ৰ in conjuncts called Repha and Ra phala (in Bengali) or Ra kar (in Assamese).[5]

#### Bengali-Assamese Ra-phala/kar

The letter র/ৰ has a special form when used as the last letter of a conjunct called "Ra phala/kar" (or "Ro pholo"). This reduced form of র/ৰ is appended to the bottom of a letter or conjunct. Both Ya and Va have a similar "phala" trailing form. Ra-phala and Ya-phala can be found together in many conjuncts.

• ভ্ (bh) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature bhra:

• ব্ (b) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature bra:

• চ্ (c) + ছ্ (ch) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature cchra:

• দ্ (d) + ভ্ (bh) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature dbhra:

• ঢ্ (ḍʱ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ḍʱra:

• ড্ (ḍ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ḍra:

• ধ্ (dʱ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature dʱra:

• দ্ (d) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature dra:

• দ্ (d) + র্/ৰ্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature drya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

• গ্ (g) + ধ্ (dʱ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature gdʱra:

• ঘ্ (ɡʱ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

• গ্ (g) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature gra:

• গ্ (g) + র্/ৰ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature grya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

• জ্ (j) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature jra:

• খ্ (kh) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature khra:

• ক্ (k) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature kra:

• ক্ (k) + ত্ (t) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ktra:

• ক্ (k) + ট্ (ṭ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature kṭra:

• ম্ (m) + ভ্ (bh) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature mbhra:

• ম্ (m) + প্ (p) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature mpra:

• ম্ (m) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature mra:

• ম্ (m) + ব্ (v) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature mvra:

• ন্ (n) + ড্ (ḍ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature nḍra:

• ন্ (n) + ধ্ (dʱ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ndʱra:

• ন্ (n) + দ্ (d) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ndra:

• ঙ্ (ŋ) + ঘ্ (ɡʱ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ŋɡʱra:

• ঙ্ (ŋ) + ক্ (k) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ŋkra:

• ণ্ (ṇ) + ড্ (ḍ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ṇḍra:

• ন্ (n) + থ্ (th) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature nthra:

• ন্ (n) + ত্ (t) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ntra:

• ন্ (n) + ত্ (t) + র্/ৰ্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature ntrya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

• ন্ (n) + ট্ (ṭ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature nṭra:

• ফ্ (ph) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature phra:

• প্ (p) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature pra:

• প্ (p) + র্/ৰ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature prya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

• শ্ (ʃ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ʃra:

• স্ (s) + ক্ (k) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature skra:

• স্ (s) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature sra:

• ষ্ (ṣ) + ক্ (k) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ṣkra:

• ষ্ (ṣ) + প্ (p) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ṣpra:

• ষ্ (ṣ) + ট্ (ṭ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ṣṭra:

• স্ (s) + ত্ (t) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature stra:

• স্ (s) + ট্ (ṭ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature sṭra:

• থ্ (th) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature thra:

• ত্ (t) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature tra:

• ত্ (t) + র্/ৰ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature trya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to ra phala:

• ট্ (ṭ) + র/ৰ (ra) gives the ligature ṭra:

#### Bengali-Assamese Repha

Unlike other letters, র/ৰ also has a special form when used as the initial letter of a conjunct called "Repha". This reduced form of র on top of the following letter or conjunct. Repha can be found in combination with Ra-phala, Ya-phala/kar and Va-phala/kar in many conjuncts.

• র্ (r) + ভ (bha) gives the ligature rbha:

• র্ (r) + ব্ (b) + য (ya) gives the ligature rbya, with the ya phala suffix:

• র্ (r) + চ (ca) gives the ligature rca:

• র্ (r) + ছ (cha) gives the ligature rcha:

• র্ (r) + চ্ (c) + য (ya) gives the ligature rcya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + দ (da) gives the ligature rda:

• র্ (r) + ড (ḍa) gives the ligature rḍa:

• র্ (r) + ঢ্ (ḍʱ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rḍʱya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ধ (dʱa) gives the ligature rdʱa:

• র্ (r) + ধ্ (dʱ) + ব (va) gives the ligature rdʱva, with the va phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + দ্ (d) + র (ra) gives the ligature rdra:

• র্ (r) + দ্ (d) + ব (va) gives the ligature rdva, with the va phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + গ (ga) gives the ligature rga:

• র্ (r) + ঘ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

• র্ (r) + (ɡʱ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rɡʱya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + গ্ (ga) + য (ya) gives the ligature rɡya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + হ (ha) gives the ligature rha:

• র্ (r) + হ্ (h) + য (ya) gives the ligature rhya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + জ (ja) gives the ligature rja:

• র্ (r) + ঝ (jha) gives the ligature rjha:

• র্ (r) + জ্ (j) + য (ya) gives the ligature rjya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ক (ka) gives the ligature rka:

• র্ (r) + খ (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

• র্ (r) + খ্ (kh) + য (ya) gives the ligature rkhya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ক্ (k) + য (ya) gives the ligature rkya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ল (la) gives the ligature rla:

• র্ (r) + ম (ma) gives the ligature rma:

• র্ (r) + ম্ (m) + য (ya) gives the ligature rmya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ন (na) gives the ligature rna:

• র্ (r) + ণ (ṇa) gives the ligature rṇa:

• র্ (r) + ণ্ (ṇ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rṇya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + প (pa) gives the ligature rpa:

• র্ (r) + ফ (pha) gives the ligature rpha:

• র্ (r) + স (sa) gives the ligature rsa:

• র্ (r) + শ (ʃa) gives the ligature rʃa:

• র্ (r) + শ্ (ʃ) + ব (va) gives the ligature rʃva, with the va phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + শ্ (ʃ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rʃya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ষ (ṣa) gives the ligature rṣa:

• র্ (r) + ষ্ (ṣ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rṣya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ত (ta) gives the ligature rta:

• র্ (r) + থ (tha) gives the ligature rtha:

• র্ (r) + থ্ (th) + য (ya) gives the ligature rthya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + ত্ (t) + র (ra) gives the ligature rtra:

• র্ (r) + ট (ṭa) gives the ligature rṭa:

• র্ (r) + ত্ (t) + য (ya) gives the ligature rtya, with the ya phala suffix in addition to repha:

• র্ (r) + য (ya) gives the ligature rya, with repha, not ya phala:

## Gujarati Ra

Ra () is twenty-seventh consonant of the Gujarati abugida. It is derived from the Devanagari Ra with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed, and ultimately the Brahmi letter . When combined with certain vowels, the Gujarati Ra may assume unique forms, such as રુ and રૂ.

### Gujarati-using Languages

The Gujarati script is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. In both languages, ર is pronounced as [rə] or [r] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Gujarati uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Ra Ri Ru Rr Rl Rr̄ Rl̄ Re Rai Ro Rau R
Gujarati Ra syllables, with vowel marks in red.

### Conjuncts with ર

Gujarati ર exhibits conjunct ligatures, much like its parent Devanagari Script. While most Gujarati conjuncts can only be formed by reducing the letter shape to create a "half form" that fits tightly to following letter, Ra does not have a half form. A few conjunct clusters can be represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters, and vertically stacked conjuncts can also be found in Gujarati, although much less commonly than in Devanagari. True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Gujarati are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. The most common conjunct variants are the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra. A leading consonant or conjunct will use its full form, rather than half form, when being modified by a trailing Rakar.

Repha Rakar
* ર્ (r) + ક (ka) gives the ligature RKa:

• ર્ (r) + ખ (kha) gives the ligature RKha:

• ર્ (r) + ગ (ga) gives the ligature RGa:

• ર્ (r) + ઘ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature RGha:

• ર્ (r) + ઙ (ŋa) gives the ligature RṄa:

• ર્ (r) + ચ (ca) gives the ligature RCa:

• ર્ (r) + છ (cha) gives the ligature RCha:

• ર્ (r) + જ (ja) gives the ligature RJa:

• ર્ (r) + ઝ (jha) gives the ligature RJha:

• ર્ (r) + ઞ (ɲa) gives the ligature RÑa:

• ર્ (r) + ટ (ʈa) gives the ligature RṬa:

• ર્ (r) + ઠ (ʈha) gives the ligature RṬha:

• ર્ (r) + ડ (ɖa) gives the ligature RḌa:

• ર્ (r) + ઢ (ɖʱa) gives the ligature RḌha:

• ર્ (r) + ણ (ɳa) gives the ligature RṆa:

• ર્ (r) + ત (ta) gives the ligature RTa:

• ર્ (r) + થ (tha) gives the ligature RTha:

• ર્ (r) + દ (da) gives the ligature RDa:

• ર્ (r) + ધ (dʱa) gives the ligature RDha:

• ર્ (r) + ન (na) gives the ligature RNa:

• ર્ (r) + પ (pa) gives the ligature RPa:

• ર્ (r) + ફ (pha) gives the ligature RPha:

• ર્ (r) + બ (ba) gives the ligature RBa:

• ર્ (r) + ભ (bha) gives the ligature RBha:

• ર્ (r) + મ (ma) gives the ligature RMa:

• ર્ (r) + ય (ya) gives the ligature RYa:

• ર્ (r) + લ (la) gives the ligature RLa:

• ર્ (r) + ળ (ɭ̆a) gives the ligature Ra:

• ર્ (r) + વ (va) gives the ligature RVa:

• ર્ (r) + શ (ʃa) gives the ligature RŚa:

• ર્ (r) + ષ (ʂa) gives the ligature RṢa:

• ર્ (r) + સ (sa) gives the ligature RSa:

• ર્ (r) + હ (ha) gives the ligature RHa:

• ર્ (r) + ક (ka) ષ (ʂa) gives the ligature RKṢa:

• ર્ (r) + જ (ja) ઞ (ɲa) gives the ligature RJÑa:

• ર્ (r) + ર (ra) gives the ligature RRa:

* ક્ (k) + ર (ra) gives the ligature KRa:

• ખ્ (kh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature KhRa:

• ગ્ (g) + ર (ra) gives the ligature GRa:

• ઘ્ (ɡʱ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature GhRa:

• ઙ્ (ŋ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṄRa:

• ચ્ (c) + ર (ra) gives the ligature CRa:

• છ્ (ch) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ChRa:

• જ્ (j) + ર (ra) gives the ligature JRa:

• ઝ્ (jh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature JhRa:

• ઞ્ (ɲ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ÑRa:

• ટ્ (ʈ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṬRa:

• ડ્ (ɖ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ḌRa:

• ઠ્ (ʈh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṬhRa:

• ઢ્ (ɖʱ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ḌhRa:

• ણ્ (ɳ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṆRa:

• ત્ (t) + ર (ra) gives the ligature TRa:

• થ્ (th) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ThRa:

• દ્ (d) + ર (ra) gives the ligature DRa:

• ધ્ (dʱ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature DhRa:

• ન્ (n) + ર (ra) gives the ligature NRa:

• પ્ (p) + ર (ra) gives the ligature PRa:

• ફ્ (ph) + ર (ra) gives the ligature PhRa:

• બ્ (b) + ર (ra) gives the ligature BRa:

• ભ્ (bh) + ર (ra) gives the ligature BhRa:

• મ્ (m) + ર (ra) gives the ligature MRa:

• ય્ (y) + ર (ra) gives the ligature YRa:

• લ્ (l) + ર (ra) gives the ligature LRa:

• ળ્ (ɭ̆) + ર (ra) gives the ligature Ra:

• વ્ (v) + ર (ra) gives the ligature VRa:

• શ્ (ʃ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ŚRa:

• ષ્ (ʂ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ṢRa:

• સ્ (s) + ર (ra) gives the ligature SRa:

• હ્ (h) + ર (ra) gives the ligature HRa:

• ક્ (k) + ષ (ʂa) ર (ra) gives the ligature KṢRa:

• જ્ (j) + ઞ (ɲa) ર (ra) gives the ligature JÑRa:

## Telugu Ra

Telugu independent and subjoined Ra.

Ra () is a consonant of the Telugu abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter . It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Most Telugu consonants contain a v-shaped headstroke that is related to the horizontal headline found in other Indic scripts, although headstrokes do not connect adjacent letters in Telugu. The headstroke is normally lost when adding vowel matras. Telugu conjuncts are created by reducing trailing letters to a subjoined form that appears below the initial consonant of the conjunct. Like the Rakar forms in other Indic scripts, the subjoined Ra in Telugu is not immediately related to the full form of Ra. Unlike other the Repha in other Indic scripts, there is no special prefix form of Ra in Telugu. Ligature conjuncts are not a feature in Telugu, with the only non-standard construction being an alternate subjoined form of Ṣa (borrowed from Kannada) in the KṢa conjunct.

### Telugu Rra

Telugu independent and subjoined Rra.

In addition, Telugu also contains a second /r/ consonant, Rra (). It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Since it lacks the v-shaped headstroke common to most Telugu letters, ఱ remains unaltered by most vowel matras, and its subjoined form is simply a smaller version of the normal letter shape.

## Malayalam Ra

Ra () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , via the Grantha letter Ra. Like in other Indic scripts, Malayalam consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

### Conjuncts of ര

Malayalam Chillu R and conjoining Ra

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Like in most Indic scripts, Malayalam Ra has special forms, including a chillu letter and a conjoining form for a trailing ra, which appears before the other elements of a conjunct but is pronounced after. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

• ക് (k) + ര (ra) gives the ligature kra:

• ഖ് (kh) + ര (ra) gives the ligature khra:

• ഗ് (g) + ര (ra) gives the ligature gra:

• ഘ് (ɡʱ) + ര (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

### Malayalam Ṟa

Ṟa () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It is related to the Malayalam Ra consonant and has a similar pronunciation.

#### Conjuncts of റ

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

• ന് (n) + റ (ṟa) gives the ligature nṟa:

• റ് (ṟ) + റ (ṟa) gives the ligature ṟṟa:

## Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics Re

, , and are the base characters "Re", "Ri", "Ro" and "Ra" in the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. The bare consonant (R) is a small version of the A-series letter ᕋ, although the Western Cree letter ᕑ, derived from Pitman shorthand was the original bare consonant symbol for R. The character ᕂ is derived from a handwritten form of the Devanagari letter र, without the headline or vertical stem, and the forms for different vowels are derived by mirroring and rotation.[6][7] Unlike most writing systems without legacy computer encodings, complex Canadian syllabic letters are represented in Unicode with pre-composed characters, rather than with base characters and diacritical marks.

Variant E-series I-series O-series A-series Other
R + vowel
Re Cree Re Ri Ro Ra Ray
Small - - - -
- - - R -
R with long vowels -
- Rāi
R + W-vowels -
Cree Rwe Rwi Rwo Rwa Rway
R + long W-vowels -
Rwē Rwī Rwō Rwā Cree Rwā -
Related characters - - -
Medial R Cree R

## Odia Ra

Ra () is a consonant of the Odia abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , via the Siddhaṃ letter Ra. Like in other Indic scripts, Odia consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

Odia Ra with vowel matras
Ra Ri Ru Rr̥ Rr̥̄ Rl̥ Rl̥̄ Re Rai Ro Rau R
ରା ରି ରୀ ରୁ ରୂ ରୃ ରୄ ରୢ ରୣ ରେ ରୈ ରୋ ରୌ ର୍

### Conjuncts of ର

Odia Repha and Ra Phala

s is common in Indic scripts, Odia joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. The most common conjunct formation is achieved by using a small subjoined form of trailing consonants. Most consonants' subjoined forms are identical to the full form, just reduced in size, although a few drop the curved headline or have a subjoined form not directly related to the full form of the consonant. The subjoined form of Ra is one of these mismatched forms, and is referred to as "Ra Phala". In addition, an initial Ra is indicated with a special form called "Repha". The Repha and Ra-Phala forms are the only way conjuncts with Ra are made.

#### Odia Repha

• ର୍ (r) + କ (ka) gives the ligature rka:

• ର୍ (r) + ଖ (kha) gives the ligature rkha:

• ର୍ (r) + ଗ (ga) gives the ligature rga:

• ର୍ (r) + ଘ (ɡʱa) gives the ligature rɡʱa:

• ର୍ (r) + ଙ (ŋa) gives the ligature rŋa:

• ର୍ (r) + ର (ra) gives the ligature rra:

#### Odia Ra Phala

• କ୍ (k) + ର (ra) gives the ligature kra:

• ଖ୍ (kh) + ର (ra) gives the ligature khra:

• ଗ୍ (g) + ର (ra) gives the ligature gra:

• ଘ୍ (ɡʱ) + ର (ra) gives the ligature ɡʱra:

• ଙ୍ (ŋ) + ର (ra) gives the ligature ŋra:

• ଲ୍ (l) + ର (ra) gives the ligature lra:

## Kaithi Ra

Kaithi bare Ra consonant.

Ra (𑂩) is a consonant of the Kaithi abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , via the Siddhaṃ letter Ra. Like in other Indic scripts, Kaithi consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

Kaithi Ra with vowel matras
Ra Ri Ru Re Rai Ro Rau R
𑂩 𑂩𑂰 𑂩𑂱 𑂩𑂲 𑂩𑂳 𑂩𑂴 𑂩𑂵 𑂩𑂶 𑂩𑂷 𑂩𑂸 𑂩𑂹𑂩𑂹

### Conjuncts of 𑂩

As is common in Indic scripts, Kaithi joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. As is common in most Indic scripts, conjucts of ra are indicated with a repha or rakar mark attached to the rest of the consonant cluster.

Kaithi Repha and Rakar.

#### Repha

Kaithi repha takes the form of a crescent attached to the top of a following consonant or consonant cluster.

• 𑂩୍ (r) + 𑂍 (ka) gives the ligature rka:

#### Rakar

Kaithi rakar take the form of a diagonal stroke attached near the bottom of the vertical stem of the preceding consonant or consonant cluster.

• 𑂍୍ (k) + 𑂩 (ra) gives the ligature kra:

## Comparison of Ra

The various Indic scripts are generally related to each other through adaptation and borrowing, and as such the glyphs for cognate letters, including Ra, are related as well.

Comparison of Ra in different scripts
 Aramaic Kharoṣṭhī 𐨪 Ashoka Brahmi Kushana Brahmi[a] Tocharian[b]  / Gupta Brahmi Pallava Kadamba - Bhaiksuki 𑰨 Siddhaṃ Grantha 𑌰 Cham ꨣ Sinhala ර Pyu /Old Mon[c] - Tibetan Newa 𑐬 Ahom 𑜍 Malayalam ര Telugu ర Burmese ရ Lepcha ᰛ Ranjana Saurashtra ꢬ Dives Akuru 𑤧 Kannada ರ Kayah Li ꤚ Limbu ᤖ Soyombo[d] 𑩼 Khmer រ Tamil Chakma 𑄢 Tai Tham ᩁ Meitei Mayek ꯔ Gaudi - Thai ร Lao ຣ / ຮ Tai Le - Marchen 𑲊 Tirhuta 𑒩 New Tai Lue ᦣ Tai Viet ꪦ / ꪧ Aksara Kawi 'Phags-pa ꡘ Odia ର Sharada 𑆫 Rejang ꤽ Batak ᯒ Buginese ᨑ Zanabazar Square 𑨫 Bengali-Assamese Takri 𑚤 Javanese ꦫ Balinese ᬭ Makasar 𑻭 Hangul[e] - Northern Nagari - Dogri 𑠤 Laṇḍā - Sundanese ᮛ Baybayin - Modi 𑘨 Gujarati ર Khojki 𑈦 Khudabadi 𑋙 Mahajani 𑅭 Tagbanwa - Devanagari Nandinagari 𑧈 Kaithi Gurmukhi ਰ Multani 𑊢 Buhid ᝍ Canadian Syllabics[f] ᕂ Soyombo[g] 𑩼 Sylheti Nagari ꠞ Gunjala Gondi 𑶈 Masaram Gondi[h] 𑴦 Hanuno'o ᜭ
Notes
1. ^ The middle "Kushana" form of Brahmi is a later style that emerged as Brahmi scripts were beginning to proliferate. Gupta Brahmi was definitely a stylistic descendant from Kushana, but other Brahmi-derived scripts may have descended from earlier forms.
2. ^ Tocharian is probably derived from the middle period "Kushana" form of Brahmi, although artifacts from that time are not plentiful enough to establish a definite succession.
3. ^ Pyu and Old Mon are probably the precursors of the Burmese script, and may be derived from either the Pallava or Kadamba script
4. ^ May also be derived from Devangari (see bottom left of table)
5. ^ The Origin of Hangul from 'Phags-pa is one of limited influence, inspiring at most a few basic letter shapes. Hangul does not function as an Indic abugida.
6. ^ Although the basic letter forms of the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics were derived from handwritten Devanagari letters, this abugida indicates vowel sounds by rotations of the letter form, rather than the use of vowel diacritics as is standard in Indic abugidas.
7. ^ May also be derived from Ranjana (see above)
8. ^ Masaram Gondi acts as an Indic abugida, but its letterforms were not derived from any single precursor script.

## Character encodings of Ra

Most Indic scripts are encoded in the Unicode Standard, and as such the letter Ra in those scripts can be represented in plain text with unique codepoint. Ra from several modern-use scripts can also be found in legacy encodings, such as ISCII.

Character information
Preview
Unicode name DEVANAGARI LETTER RA BENGALI LETTER RA TAMIL LETTER RA TELUGU LETTER RA ORIYA LETTER RA KANNADA LETTER RA MALAYALAM LETTER RA GUJARATI LETTER RA GURMUKHI LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 2352 U+0930 2480 U+09B0 2992 U+0BB0 3120 U+0C30 2864 U+0B30 3248 U+0CB0 3376 U+0D30 2736 U+0AB0 2608 U+0A30
UTF-8 224 164 176 E0 A4 B0 224 166 176 E0 A6 B0 224 174 176 E0 AE B0 224 176 176 E0 B0 B0 224 172 176 E0 AC B0 224 178 176 E0 B2 B0 224 180 176 E0 B4 B0 224 170 176 E0 AA B0 224 168 176 E0 A8 B0
Numeric character reference &#2352; &#x930; &#2480; &#x9B0; &#2992; &#xBB0; &#3120; &#xC30; &#2864; &#xB30; &#3248; &#xCB0; &#3376; &#xD30; &#2736; &#xAB0; &#2608; &#xA30;
ISCII 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF 207 CF

Character information
Preview
Ashoka
Kushana
Gupta
𐨪 𑌰
Unicode name BRAHMI LETTER RA KHAROSHTHI LETTER RA SIDDHAM LETTER RA GRANTHA LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 69677 U+1102D 68138 U+10A2A 71080 U+115A8 70448 U+11330
UTF-8 240 145 128 173 F0 91 80 AD 240 144 168 170 F0 90 A8 AA 240 145 150 168 F0 91 96 A8 240 145 140 176 F0 91 8C B0
UTF-16 55300 56365 D804 DC2D 55298 56874 D802 DE2A 55301 56744 D805 DDA8 55300 57136 D804 DF30
Numeric character reference &#69677; &#x1102D; &#68138; &#x10A2A; &#71080; &#x115A8; &#70448; &#x11330;

Character information
Preview 𑨫 𑐬 𑰨 𑆫
Unicode name TIBETAN LETTER RA TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER RA PHAGS-PA LETTER RA ZANABAZAR SQUARE LETTER RA NEWA LETTER RA BHAIKSUKI LETTER RA SHARADA LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 3938 U+0F62 4018 U+0FB2 43096 U+A858 72235 U+11A2B 70700 U+1142C 72744 U+11C28 70059 U+111AB
UTF-8 224 189 162 E0 BD A2 224 190 178 E0 BE B2 234 161 152 EA A1 98 240 145 168 171 F0 91 A8 AB 240 145 144 172 F0 91 90 AC 240 145 176 168 F0 91 B0 A8 240 145 134 171 F0 91 86 AB
UTF-16 3938 0F62 4018 0FB2 43096 A858 55302 56875 D806 DE2B 55301 56364 D805 DC2C 55303 56360 D807 DC28 55300 56747 D804 DDAB
Numeric character reference &#3938; &#xF62; &#4018; &#xFB2; &#43096; &#xA858; &#72235; &#x11A2B; &#70700; &#x1142C; &#72744; &#x11C28; &#70059; &#x111AB;

Character information
Preview
Unicode name MYANMAR LETTER RA NEW TAI LUE LETTER LOW HA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 4123 U+101B 6563 U+19A3
UTF-8 225 128 155 E1 80 9B 225 166 163 E1 A6 A3
Numeric character reference &#4123; &#x101B; &#6563; &#x19A3;
• See further below for Tai Tham codepoints.

Character information
Preview
Unicode name KHMER LETTER RO LAO LETTER LO LING LAO LETTER HO TAM THAI CHARACTER RO RUA TAI VIET LETTER LOW RO TAI VIET LETTER HIGH RO
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 6042 U+179A 3747 U+0EA3 3758 U+0EAE 3619 U+0E23 43686 U+AAA6 43687 U+AAA7
UTF-8 225 158 154 E1 9E 9A 224 186 163 E0 BA A3 224 186 174 E0 BA AE 224 184 163 E0 B8 A3 234 170 166 EA AA A6 234 170 167 EA AA A7
Numeric character reference &#6042; &#x179A; &#3747; &#xEA3; &#3758; &#xEAE; &#3619; &#xE23; &#43686; &#xAAA6; &#43687; &#xAAA7;

Character information
Preview 𑄢 𑜍 𑤧
Unicode name SINHALA LETTER RAYANNA KAYAH LI LETTER RA CHAKMA LETTER RAA AHOM LETTER RA DIVES AKURU LETTER RA SAURASHTRA LETTER RA CHAM LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 3515 U+0DBB 43290 U+A91A 69922 U+11122 71437 U+1170D 71975 U+11927 43180 U+A8AC 43555 U+AA23
UTF-8 224 182 187 E0 B6 BB 234 164 154 EA A4 9A 240 145 132 162 F0 91 84 A2 240 145 156 141 F0 91 9C 8D 240 145 164 167 F0 91 A4 A7 234 162 172 EA A2 AC 234 168 163 EA A8 A3
UTF-16 3515 0DBB 43290 A91A 55300 56610 D804 DD22 55301 57101 D805 DF0D 55302 56615 D806 DD27 43180 A8AC 43555 AA23
Numeric character reference &#3515; &#xDBB; &#43290; &#xA91A; &#69922; &#x11122; &#71437; &#x1170D; &#71975; &#x11927; &#43180; &#xA8AC; &#43555; &#xAA23;

Character information
Preview 𑘨 𑧈 𑩼 𑶈
Unicode name MODI LETTER RA NANDINAGARI LETTER RA SOYOMBO LETTER RA SYLOTI NAGRI LETTER RO GUNJALA GONDI LETTER RA KAITHI LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 71208 U+11628 72136 U+119C8 72316 U+11A7C 43038 U+A81E 73096 U+11D88 69801 U+110A9
UTF-8 240 145 152 168 F0 91 98 A8 240 145 167 136 F0 91 A7 88 240 145 169 188 F0 91 A9 BC 234 160 158 EA A0 9E 240 145 182 136 F0 91 B6 88 240 145 130 169 F0 91 82 A9
UTF-16 55301 56872 D805 DE28 55302 56776 D806 DDC8 55302 56956 D806 DE7C 43038 A81E 55303 56712 D807 DD88 55300 56489 D804 DCA9
Numeric character reference &#71208; &#x11628; &#72136; &#x119C8; &#72316; &#x11A7C; &#43038; &#xA81E; &#73096; &#x11D88; &#69801; &#x110A9;

Character information
Preview 𑒩 𑲊
Unicode name TIRHUTA LETTER RA LEPCHA LETTER RA LIMBU LETTER RA MEETEI MAYEK LETTER RAI MARCHEN LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 70825 U+114A9 7195 U+1C1B 6422 U+1916 43988 U+ABD4 72842 U+11C8A
UTF-8 240 145 146 169 F0 91 92 A9 225 176 155 E1 B0 9B 225 164 150 E1 A4 96 234 175 148 EA AF 94 240 145 178 138 F0 91 B2 8A
UTF-16 55301 56489 D805 DCA9 7195 1C1B 6422 1916 43988 ABD4 55303 56458 D807 DC8A
Numeric character reference &#70825; &#x114A9; &#7195; &#x1C1B; &#6422; &#x1916; &#43988; &#xABD4; &#72842; &#x11C8A;

Character information
Preview 𑚤 𑠤 𑈦 𑋙 𑅭 𑊢
Unicode name TAKRI LETTER RA DOGRA LETTER RA KHOJKI LETTER RA KHUDAWADI LETTER RA MAHAJANI LETTER RA MULTANI LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 71332 U+116A4 71716 U+11824 70182 U+11226 70361 U+112D9 69997 U+1116D 70306 U+112A2
UTF-8 240 145 154 164 F0 91 9A A4 240 145 160 164 F0 91 A0 A4 240 145 136 166 F0 91 88 A6 240 145 139 153 F0 91 8B 99 240 145 133 173 F0 91 85 AD 240 145 138 162 F0 91 8A A2
UTF-16 55301 56996 D805 DEA4 55302 56356 D806 DC24 55300 56870 D804 DE26 55300 57049 D804 DED9 55300 56685 D804 DD6D 55300 56994 D804 DEA2
Numeric character reference &#71332; &#x116A4; &#71716; &#x11824; &#70182; &#x11226; &#70361; &#x112D9; &#69997; &#x1116D; &#70306; &#x112A2;

Character information
Preview 𑻭
Unicode name BALINESE LETTER RA BATAK LETTER RA BUGINESE LETTER RA JAVANESE LETTER RA MAKASAR LETTER RA REJANG LETTER RA SUNDANESE LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 6957 U+1B2D 7122 U+1BD2 6673 U+1A11 43435 U+A9AB 73453 U+11EED 43325 U+A93D 7067 U+1B9B
UTF-8 225 172 173 E1 AC AD 225 175 146 E1 AF 92 225 168 145 E1 A8 91 234 166 171 EA A6 AB 240 145 187 173 F0 91 BB AD 234 164 189 EA A4 BD 225 174 155 E1 AE 9B
UTF-16 6957 1B2D 7122 1BD2 6673 1A11 43435 A9AB 55303 57069 D807 DEED 43325 A93D 7067 1B9B
Numeric character reference &#6957; &#x1B2D; &#7122; &#x1BD2; &#6673; &#x1A11; &#43435; &#xA9AB; &#73453; &#x11EED; &#43325; &#xA93D; &#7067; &#x1B9B;

Character information
Preview 𑴦
Unicode name BUHID LETTER RA HANUNOO LETTER RA MASARAM GONDI LETTER RA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 5965 U+174D 5933 U+172D 72998 U+11D26
UTF-8 225 157 141 E1 9D 8D 225 156 173 E1 9C AD 240 145 180 166 F0 91 B4 A6
UTF-16 5965 174D 5933 172D 55303 56614 D807 DD26
Numeric character reference &#5965; &#x174D; &#5933; &#x172D; &#72998; &#x11D26;
Character information
Preview
Unicode name CANADIAN SYLLABICS RE CANADIAN SYLLABICS RI CANADIAN SYLLABICS RO CANADIAN SYLLABICS RA CANADIAN SYLLABICS R
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 5442 U+1542 5446 U+1546 5448 U+1548 5451 U+154B 5456 U+1550
UTF-8 225 149 130 E1 95 82 225 149 134 E1 95 86 225 149 136 E1 95 88 225 149 139 E1 95 8B 225 149 144 E1 95 90
Numeric character reference &#5442; &#x1542; &#5446; &#x1546; &#5448; &#x1548; &#5451; &#x154B; &#5456; &#x1550;
• The full range of RE Canadian syllabic characters can be found at the codepoint ranges 1542-1550, 1622-1627, 18CE-18D3, 18B0-18B3, 18DC-18DD.

Character information
Preview
Unicode name TAI THAM LETTER RA TAI THAM CONSONANT SIGN MEDIAL RA TAI THAM SIGN RA HAAM
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 6721 U+1A41 6741 U+1A55 6778 U+1A7A
UTF-8 225 169 129 E1 A9 81 225 169 149 E1 A9 95 225 169 186 E1 A9 BA
Numeric character reference &#6721; &#x1A41; &#6741; &#x1A55; &#6778; &#x1A7A;

## References

1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
2. ^ a b Bühler, Georg (1898). "On the Origin of the Indian Brahmi Alphabet". archive.org. Karl J. Trübner. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
3. ^ Evolutionary chart, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol 7, 1838 [1]
4. ^ Pall, Peeter. "Microsoft Word - kblhi2" (PDF). Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
5. ^ "The Bengali Alphabet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-28.
6. ^ Andrew Dalby (2004:139) Dictionary of Languages
7. ^ Some General Aspects of the Syllabics Orthography, Chris Harvey 2003
^note Conjuncts are identified by IAST transliteration, except aspirated consonants are indicated with a superscript "h" to distinguish from an unaspirated cononant + Ha, and the use of the IPA "ŋ" and "ʃ" instead of the less dinstinctive "ṅ" and "ś".