Rabies immunoglobulin

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Rabies immunoglobulin
Clinical data
Trade namesImogam Rabies-HT, Kedrab, Hyperrab, others
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular injection
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
DrugBank
ChemSpider
  • none
UNII

Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is a medication made up of antibodies against the rabies virus.[9] It is used to prevent rabies following exposure.[9] It is given after the wound is cleaned with soap and water or povidone-iodine and is followed by a course of rabies vaccine.[9] It is given by injection into the site of the wound and into a muscle.[9] It is not needed in people who have been previously vaccinated against rabies.[10]

Common side effects include pain at the site of injection, fever, and headache.[9] Severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis may rarely occur.[11] Use during pregnancy is not known to harm the baby.[9] It works by binding to the rabies virus before it can enter nerve tissue.[9] After the virus has entered the central nervous system, rabies immunoglobulin is no longer useful.[9]

The use of rabies immunoglobulin in the form of blood serum dates from 1891.[12] Use became common within medicine in the 1950s.[13] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[14] Rabies immunoglobulin is expensive and hard to come by in the developing world.[15] In the United States it is estimated to be more than US$1,000.00 per dose.[16] It is made from the blood plasma of people or horses who have high levels of the antibody in their blood.[9][16] The horse version is less expensive but has a higher rate of side effects.[16][13]

Medical uses[edit]

Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is indicated for the passive, transient post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies infection, when given immediately after contact with a rabid or possibly rabid animal and in combination with a rabies vaccine.[17][18][1]

Society and culture[edit]

Names[edit]

There are three versions of rabies immunoglobulin licensed and available in the US.[19] Imogam Rabies-HT is produced by Sanofi Pasteur.[5] Kedrab is produced by Kedrion Biopharma.[17][6] Hyperrab is produced by Grifols.[7]

Imogam Rabies-HT and Kedrab have a nominal potency of 150 IU/mL while Hyperrab has a nominal potency of 300 IU/mL and requires smaller dosing. All three versions are used for post-exposure[20] and indicate local infusion at the wound site with additional amount intramuscularly at a site distant from vaccine administration.[medical citation needed]

Kamrab is approved for medical use in Australia.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Kamrab". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 23 August 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  2. ^ "Kamrab PI". Health Canada. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  3. ^ "Imogam PI". Health Canada. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  4. ^ "Hyperrab S/D PI". Health Canada. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Imogam Rabies-HT - human rabies virus immune globulin injection, solution". DailyMed. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Kedrab- human rabies virus immune globulin injection, solution". DailyMed. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Hyperrab (rabies immune globulin- human injection, solution". DailyMed. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Hyperrab S/D (rabies immune globulin- human injection". DailyMed. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Rabies Immune Globulin". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  10. ^ World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 398. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  11. ^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 869. ISBN 9780857111562.
  12. ^ Plotkin, [edited by] Stanley A.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Offit, Paul A. (2013). Vaccines (6th ed.). [Edinburgh]: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 659. ISBN 978-1455700905. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017. {{cite book}}: |first1= has generic name (help)
  13. ^ a b Jong, Elaine C.; Zuckerman, Jane N. (2004). Travelers' Vaccines. PMPH-USA. p. 205. ISBN 9781550092257. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017.
  14. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  15. ^ Tintinalli, Judith E. (2010). Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (Emergency Medicine (Tintinalli)) (7 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies. p. 1054. ISBN 978-0-07-148480-0.
  16. ^ a b c Research Advances in Rabies. Academic Press. 2011. p. 351. ISBN 9780123870414. Archived from the original on 9 January 2017.
  17. ^ a b "Kedrab". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 21 March 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  18. ^ https://www.fda.gov/media/107453/download
  19. ^ "Vaccine and Immune Globulin Availability". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 26 February 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  20. ^ "WHO Guide for Rabies Pre and Post Exposure Prophylaxis in Humans" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). 2014.

Further reading[edit]