Rachel Mary Parsons

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Rachel Mary Parsons
Rachel Parsons.jpg
Parsons in 1923
Born (1885-01-25)25 January 1885
10 Connaught Place London, England
Died 2 July 1956(1956-07-02) (aged 71)
Lansdown House, Newmarket, England
Residence Northumberland, London, Newmarket
Nationality British
Alma mater Newnham College, Cambridge University
Scientific career
Fields Engineering, politics, women's rights

Rachel Mary Parsons (1885–1956), engineer and advocate for women's employment rights, was the founding President of the Women's Engineering Society[1] in Britain.[2]

Early life[edit]

Rachel Mary Parsons was born in 1885, to Sir Charles Algernon Parsons and his wife Katharine (d. 1933), the daughter of William Froggatt Bethell of Rise Park, East Riding of Yorkshire.[3] Her brother, Algernon George (Tommy) (b. 1886 or 1887), was killed on 28 April 1918 while a Major in the Royal Field Artillery.[2] Her interest and aptitude for engineering and science was fostered from a young age by the engineering tradition in her family including her grandmother Mary Rosse and grandfather William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse. Her father invented the steam turbine and developed successful international engineering businesses. The family lived on Tyneside (Elvaston Hall, Ryton, and Holeyn Hall, Wylam) and later in Northumberland (Ray Demesne, Kirkwhelpington).[2] She was educated at Newcastle High, Wycombe Abbey, Clarence House (May 1899–April 1900) and finally Roedean from 1900–1903.[4] In 1910 she entered Newnham College at the University of Cambridge and was one of the first three women to study Mechanical Sciences there although, like all women until 1948, she could not graduate with a degree or become a full member of the University. Nevertheless, she was able to add theoretical knowledge to the practical skills she had already obtained at her father's factory. She left in 1912 having taken the preliminary examination for Part I of the Tripos and a qualifying examination in Mechanical Sciences in 1911.[2]

When the First World War broke out, she replaced her brother as a director on the board of their father's Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company based at Wallsend on Tyne. In particular, she oversaw the recruitment and training of women to replace the men who had left to join the armed forces. She became a leading member of the National Council of Women, and campaigned for equal access for all to technical schools and colleges, regardless of gender.[4]

Life after the First World War[edit]

Following her brother's death, her father would not let her continue in a role in the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company. This caused a lifelong rift between them.[2] As evidence of her continued aspirations in engineering she became a member of The Royal Institution of Great Britain, in 1918, continuing to be a member until she died.[2] She and her mother were among the founders of the Women's Engineering Society that promoted the retention of women engineers after the end of the First World War as well as supporting engineering as a career for women. Rachel Parsons became its first president (1919–1921).[1] She became a lifelong member of the Royal Institute of International Affairs from 1921 and of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects in 1922.[2] She also had a Master Mariner's Certificate.

In 1920 she was one of a group of eight women who founded the engineering company Atalanta Ltd, with her mother as Chairman[5] and one of the principal shareholders. All the employees were women. The company produced surface plates and machine models. It was initially based in Loughborough where it was intended that the employees could receive further education at the Loughborough Technical College.[6] It was then moved to London with premises initially in Fulham Road in 1922 and then Brixton Road in 1925. It was voluntarily wound up in 1928.[2]

In 1922 she set up her own home in 5, Portman Square, London, and began to host social events attended by the elite of London society. She became an elected member of the London County Council for Finsbury in 1922 and sat on the Electricity and Highways Committee.[7] She stood for Parliament in the 1923 election as the Conservative candidate in the constituency of Ince, Lancashire, but was not elected.[2][8] She moved to the larger property of 5 Grosvenor Square in 1926 and continued as a society hostess. She put herself forward for selection as the Conservative candidate for Newcastle in 1940, but was not successful.[2]

In 1940 she moved into the countryside at Sunningdale, Berkshire, purchasing Little Court, a Georgian-style house with twenty-five acres of land. However, she also maintained a London residence, living successively in two houses in Belgrave Square. Her interest in horse racing led her to buy the 2600-acre Branches Park estate at Cowlinge near Newmarket, Suffolk, in the 1940s where she built up a large stud farm, as well as in 1954 purchasing the Lansdowne House racing stable in Falmouth Avenue, Newmarket. She had several notable successes from her stables. These included wins in 1953 with Cavalleria, Golden God and Fraise Melba (trained by Geoffrey Brooke) followed by success with Le Dieu D'Or, Golden God and Fraise Melba under trainer Sam Armstrong.[2][9][10]

Death[edit]

She was found dead on 2 July 1956 and stableman Dennis James Pratt, a former employee, was convicted of her manslaughter on the grounds of provocation.[11][2][12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "History - Women's Engineering Society". Women's Engineering Society. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Raphael, E. L. "Rachel Parsons 1885–1956, woman engineer". Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  3. ^ McConnell, Anita. "Parsons, Sir Charles Algernon". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  4. ^ a b "What was a girl to do? Rachel Parsons (1885–1956): engineer and feminist campaigner". blue-stocking. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  5. ^ "Scottish Council of Women Citizens Associations". Scottish Archives for Schools. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  6. ^ "A Seven-Day Journal Women engineers" (PDF). The Engineer: 203. 25 February 1921. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  7. ^ Scaife, Garrett (1 Jan 1999). From Galaxies to Turbines: Science, Technology and the Parsons Family. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0750305822.
  8. ^ Heald, Henrietta. "Rachel Parsons". Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  9. ^ Heald, Henrietta. "Forgotten Women of History – Rachel Parsons". Woman's Hour 6 January 2015. BBC. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  10. ^ Ashforth, David (3 July 2012). "Murder of millionaire racehorse owner that came as no surprise". The Racing Post.
  11. ^ "Grand old lady of racing in Britain beaten to death". Ottawa Citizen. Reuters. 8 July 1956. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  12. ^ "LOOKING BACK: The killing of an heiress that scandalised a town". Newmarket Journal. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2015.