Racism in Africa
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Racism in Africa is multi-faceted and dates back several centuries. The Licra denounces directories of "racialized" caregivers, Multiple Internet users testify to the racism of which they have been victims (France).
Ethnic pygmy populations in Central Africa suffer from racialized discrimination from Bantu peoples. Pygmies and Bantus differ physically and genetically due to long lasting evolutionary separation until the Bantu expansion brought them back into close contact. Pygmies have been targeted for slavery by Bantu populations continuing into the modern age. They are frequently ostracized from participation into the wider society in the various African countries that they live in and are seen as untouchables. Racially-motivated attacks occur on Pygmies including rape and cannibalization.
In 2001, Ivory Coast saw a resurgence in ethnic tribal hatred and religious intolerance. In addition to the many victims among the various tribes of the northern and southern regions of the country that have perished in the ongoing conflict, foreigners residing or visiting Ivory Coast have also been subjected to violent attacks. According to a report by Human Rights Watch in 2001, the Ivory Coast government was guilty of fanning ethnic hatred for its own political ends.
In 2004, the Young Patriots of Abidjan, a strongly nationalist organisation, rallied by the state media, plundered possessions of foreign nationals in Abidjan. Rapes and beatings of persons of European and Lebanese descent followed. No deaths were reported. Thousands of expatriates and white or ethnic Lebanese Ivorians fled the country. The attacks drew international condemnation.
Slavery in Mauritania persists despite its abolition in 1980 and mostly affects the descendants of black Africans abducted into slavery who now live in Mauritania as "black Moors" or haratin and who partially still serve the "white Moors", or bidhan, as slaves. The practice of slavery in Mauritania is most dominant within the traditional upper class of the Moors. For centuries, the haratin lower class, mostly poor black Africans living in rural areas, have been considered natural slaves by these Moors. Social attitudes have changed among most urban Moors, but in rural areas, the ancient divide remains.
The ruling bidanes (literally white-skinned people) are descendants of the Sanhaja Berbers and Beni Ḥassān Arab tribes who emigrated to northwest Africa and present-day Western Sahara and Mauritania during the Middle Ages. Many descendants of the Beni Ḥassān tribes today still adhere to the supremacist ideology of their ancestors, which has caused the oppression, discrimination and even enslavement of other groups in Mauritania.
According to some estimates, as many as 600,000 black Mauritanians, or 20% of the population, are still enslaved, many of them used as bonded labour. Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007.
On 12 January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero, rebelled against German colonial rule. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans, suffering a similar fate.
The violence eventually led to a genocide of the Herero and Nama people by the Germans, known as the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In total, 24,000 to 100,000 Herero and 10,000 Nama died. The genocide was characterized by a high number of deaths from starvation and thirst; the Herero who fled the violence were prevented from returning from the Namib Desert. Some sources also claim that the German colonial army systematically poisoned desert wells. The genocide took place between 1904 and 1907 in German South-West Africa (now modern day Namibia), during the Herero Wars.
Survivors, majority of whom were women and children, were eventually put in concentration camps, such as the one at Shark Island, where the German authorities forced them to work as slaves for German military and settlers. All prisoners were categorized into groups fit and unfit for work, and pre-printed death certificates indicating "death by exhaustion following privation" were issued. The British government published their widely known account of the German genocide of the Nama and Herero peoples in 1918.
Many Herero died later of disease, overwork and malnutrition. Camps, such as that in Windhoek, had mortality rates as high as 61% The mortality rate in the camps was 45% in 1908. The death rates are calculated to be between 69% and 74%.
Food in the camps was extremely scarce, consisting of rice with no additions. Shootings, hangings and beatings were common, and the sjambok was used by guards who treated the forced labourers harshly. Medical experiments were performed on the Herero and Nama people by the Germans, similar to those performed on the European Jews during the Holocaust. Eugen Fischer, a German anthropologist, came to the concentration camps to conduct medical experiments on race, using children of Herero people and mulatto children of Herero women and German men as test subjects. Other experiments were made by Dr Bofinger, who injected Herero that were suffering from scurvy with various substances including arsenic and opium; afterwards he researched the effects of these substances by performing autopsies on the dead bodies
With the closure of concentration camps, all surviving Herero were distributed as labourers for settlers in the German colony, and from then on, all Herero over the age of seven were forced to wear a metal disc with their labour registration number, and banned from owning land or cattle, a necessity in pastoral society.
In 1985, the United Nations' Whitaker Report classified the aftermath as an attempt to exterminate the Herero and Nama peoples of South-West Africa, and therefore one of the earliest attempts at genocide in the 20th century. The German government recognised and apologised for the events in 2004, but has ruled out financial compensation or land reparation for the victims' descendants. In 2004, there was only minor media attention in Germany on this matter.
About 4,000 commercial land owners, mostly whites, own over 50% of the arable land across the country despite a land reform process undertaken by the Namibian government. When the country was known as South West Africa, White Namibians enjoyed a highly privileged position due to apartheid laws enforcing strict segregation and white domination.
In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport to Chad the "Diffa Arabs", Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger. Their population numbered about 150,000. While the government was rounding up Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government eventually suspended their controversial decision to deport the Arabs.
In Niger, while the practice of slavery was outlawed in 2003, a study has found that more than 800,000 people are still slaves, almost 8% of the population. Slavery dates back centuries in Niger and was criminalised after five years of lobbying by Anti-Slavery International and Nigerian human-rights group, Timidria.
Descent-based slavery, where generations of the same family are born into bondage, is traditionally practiced by at least four of Niger's eight ethnic groups. The slave masters are mostly from the lighter-skinned nomadic tribes: the Tuareg, Fulani, Toubou and Arabs. It is especially rife among the warlike Tuareg, located in the wild deserts of north and west Niger, who roam near the borders with Mali and Algeria. In the region of Say on the right bank of the river Niger, it is estimated that three-quarters of the population around 1904–1905 was composed of slaves.
Historically, the Tuareg swelled the ranks of their black slaves by conducting war raids into other peoples’ lands. War was the main source of supply of slaves, although many were bought at slave markets, run mostly by indigenous peoples.
The Somali Bantu ethnic minority face significant stigmatization in Somali society due to their differing physical appearance and ancestry from the Cushitic-origin majority of Somalia. Racialized epithets targeted at the Somali Bantu community exist such as 'adoon' (slave) similar in connotation to the Arabic term abeed. The marginalization of the Somali Bantu community is primarily based on ethnoracial factors, unlike the marginalization of the Madhiban and other Somali-origin minorities which is primarily based on their status as a socially constructed caste. Ethnic Somalis and populations of Bantu stock are genetically divergent. Racially-motivated attacks on Somali Bantus have occurred.
Racism is still prevalent in South Africa. The end of apartheid might have removed the legal framework allowing institutionalised racism, however, racism in South Africa both predates and encompasses more than just the institutionalised racism of apartheid.
The establishment of the Dutch East India Company settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 brought with it the established slave labor practices of the company. Many of these slaves were imported from the company's more established settlements in India and the East Indies.
Slavery in South Africa was officially abolished in 1833 with the Slavery Abolition Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
There are many examples of racism and discriminatory practices during the colonial period, such as the allocation of rations during the Siege of Ladysmith
For Whites—Biscuit, 1/4 lb.; Maize meal, 3 oz.
For Indians and Kaffirs—Maize meal, 8 oz.
Europeans—Fresh meat, 1 lb.
Kaffirs—Fresh meat, 1-1/4 lbs. (Chiefly horseflesh.)
For White men—Coffee or tea, 1/12 oz.; pepper, 1/64 oz.; salt, 1/3 oz.; sugar, 1 oz.; mustard, 1/20 oz.; Vinegar, 1/12 gill.
For Indians—a little rice.— H. W. Nevinson
Apartheid (Afrikaans pronunciation: [aˈpartɦɛit]; an Afrikaans word meaning "separateness", or "the state of being apart", literally "apart-hood") was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994. Under apartheid, the rights, associations, and movements of the majority black inhabitants and other ethnic groups were curtailed, and white minority rule was maintained. Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organizations. The ideology was also enforced in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966 via United Nations Resolution 2145), until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990. By extension, the term is currently used for forms of systematic segregation established by the state authority in a country against the social and civil rights of a certain group of citizens due to ethnic prejudices.
While institutional racism still exists against black South Africans in the private sector, racism against white South Africans is on the rise). Some speculate this is due to black South Africans feeling that not enough has been done to address the inequalities that were a direct result of Apartheid.
Foreign nationals from other African countries are increasingly subjected to violent xenophobic and racist attacks by black South Africans.
In the Sudan, black African captives in the civil war were often enslaved, and female prisoners were often abused sexually, with their Arab captors claiming that Islamic law grants them permission. According to CBS News, slaves have been sold for US$50 a piece. In September 2000, the U.S. State Department alleged that "the Sudanese government's support of slavery and its continued military action which has resulted in numerous deaths are due in part to the victims' religious beliefs." Jok Madut Jok, professor of history at Loyola Marymount University, states that the abduction of women and children of the south is slavery by any definition. The government of Sudan insists that the whole matter is no more than the traditional tribal feuding over resources.
The United States government's Sudan Peace Act of October 21, 2002 accused Sudan of genocide in an ongoing civil war which has cost more than 2,000,000 lives and has displaced more than 4,000,000 people since the war started in 1983.
In 2004, it became publicly known that there was an organised campaign by Janjaweed militias (nomadic Arab shepherds with the support of Sudanese government troops) to get rid of 80 black African groups from the Darfur region of western Sudan. These peoples include the Fur, Zaghawa and Massalit.
Mukesh Kapila (United Nations humanitarian coordinator) is quoted as saying: "This is more than just a conflict. It is an organised attempt [by Khartoum] to do away with a group of people. The only difference between Rwanda [in 1994] and Darfur now is the numbers of dead, murdered, tortured and raped involved" A July 14, 2007 article noted that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 2.5 million have now been forced to flee their homes after attacks by Sudanese troops and Janjaweed militia.
The accession of the Almohade dynasty to the throne of the Maghreb provinces in 1146 proved disastrous to the Jews of Tunis. Jews as well as Christians were compelled either to embrace Islam or to leave the country. Abd al-Mu'min's successors pursued the same course, and their severe measures resulted either in emigration or in forcible conversions. Soon becoming suspicious of the sincerity of the new converts, the Almohades compelled them to wear a special garb, with a yellow cloth for a head-covering.
Mistranslations of Arab scholars and geographers from this time period have led many to attribute certain racist attitudes that were not prevalent until the 18th and 19th century to writings made centuries ago. Although bias against those of very black complexion existed in the Arab world in the 15th century, it did not carry as much stigma as it later would. Older translations of Ibn Khaldun, for example in The Negro land of the Arabs Examined and Explained which was written in 1841 gives excerpts of older translations that were not part of later colonial propaganda and show black Africans in a generally positive light.
- When the conquest of the West (by the Arabs) was completed, and merchants began to penetrate into the interior, they saw no nation of the Blacks so mighty as Ghanah, the dominions of which extended westward as far as the Ocean. The King's court was kept in the city of Ghanah, which, according to the author of the Book of Roger (El Idrisi), and the author of the Book of Roads and Realms (El Bekri), is divided into two parts, standing on both banks of the Nile, and ranks among the largest and most populous cities of the world. The people of Ghanah had for neighbours, on the east, a nation, which, according to historians, was called Susu; after which came another named Mali; and after that another known by the name of Kaukau; although some people prefer a different orthography, and write this name Kagho. The last-named nation was followed by a people called Tekrur. The people of Ghanah declined in course of time, being overwhelmed or absorbed by the Molaththemun (or muffled people;that is, the Morabites), who, adjoining them on the north towards the Berber country, attacked them, and, taking possession of their territory, compelled them to embrace the Mohammedan religion. The people of Ghanah, being invaded at a later period by the Susu, a nation of Blacks in their neighbourhood, were exterminated, or mixed with other Black nations.
Former British colonies in Sub-Saharan Africa have many citizens of South Asian descent. They were brought by the British Empire from British India to do clerical work in imperial service. The most prominent case of anti-Indian racism was the ethnic cleansing of the Indian (called Asian) minority in Uganda by strongman dictator and human rights violator Idi Amin.
The 1968 Committee on "Africanization in Commerce and Industry" in Uganda made far-reaching Indophobic proposals. A system of work permits and trade licenses was introduced in 1969 in order to restrict the role of Indians in economic and professional activities. Indians were segregated and discriminated against in all walks of life. After Amin came to power, he exploited these divisions to spread propaganda against Indians, stereotyping and scapegoating the Indian minority. Indians were stereotyped as "only traders" and so "inbred" to their profession. Indians were attacked as "dukawallas" (an occupational term that degenerated into an anti-Indian slur during Amin's time).
In the 1970s Uganda and other East African nations[which?] implemented racist policies that targeted the Asian population of the region. Uganda under Idi Amin's leadership was particularly virulent in its anti-Asian policies. In August 1972, Idi Amin declared what he called an "economic war", a set of policies that included the expropriation of properties owned by Asians and Europeans. Uganda's 80,000 Asians were mostly Indians born in the country, whose ancestors had come to Uganda when the country was still a British colony. Indians were stereotyped as "greedy" and "conniving", without any racial identity or loyalty but "always cheating, conspiring and plotting" to subvert Uganda. Amin used this propaganda to justify a campaign of "de-Indianization", eventually resulting in the expulsion and ethnic cleansing of Uganda's Indian minority. India refused to accept the expelled people. Most of the expelled Indians settled in Britain. The forced expulsion of Uganda's entire Asian population attests to the persecution of Asian peoples residing in the country at the time.[according to whom?]
In the 19th century, the British colonized Zimbabwe and imposed racist economic and social organzation within their territory. White colonists held full citizenship rights, as well as other significant economic and legal advantages over indigenous African people. Racial division would continue under Rhodesian governance, sparking an armed struggle to overthrow white rule led by the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU). This conflict culminated in the establishment of the modern state of Zimbabwe. The coalition of African forces was fragile, and the government led by Robert Mugabe and the majority-Shona ZANU committed massacres against Northern Ndebele people in ZAPU strongholds, producing resentment between the African ethnic groups.
Following the end of armed conflict, the white minority in Zimbabwe continued to exert disproportionate control over the economy, owned the majority of arable land in Zimbabwe, and maintained racially segregated social circles. White settlers were protected by generous provisions established by the Lancaster House Agreement, and thus continued to exert significant political and legal control over the African population. Wide disparities existed in access to sports, education and housing. The ZANU-led government did not engage in significant expropriation of white settlers despite promising land reform to the African population, with one white commercial farmer commenting that Mugabe's government in the early 1980s was "the best government for farmers that this country has ever seen". Dissatisfaction with the slow pace of land reform led to the illegal seizing of white-owned land by African peasants. The government responded with heavy-handed repression against the African peasants. Resentment of continued white control of the economy continued through the 1990s, spurred by the perception that the white business community was disinterested in improving the economic lot of the African population or otherwise changing the status quo.
By 2000, as the ZANU-PF government grew political isolated, it increasingly criticized the white population's segregationism and racism, and began to encourage violent farm invasions against the white population, which drew condemnations from the international community. Zimbabwe today continues to be fractured by enmity along racial lines.
- International, Survival. "'Pygmies': Racism". www.survivalinternational.org. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Quintana-Murci, Lluís; Heyer, Evelyne; Bahuchet, Serge; Froment, Alain; Gessain, Antoine; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Veen, Lolke Van der; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K. (2009-04-10). "Inferring the Demographic History of African Farmers and Pygmy Hunter–Gatherers Using a Multilocus Resequencing Data Set". PLOS Genetics. 5 (4): e1000448. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000448. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 2661362. PMID 19360089.
- Lori, Brumat (26 June 2018). "UN Experts conclude crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Kasai, warn against risk of new wave of ethnic violence". United Nations Human Rights. United Nations Human Rights - Office of the High Commissioner.
- "Mass rape, cannibalism, body parts as medals: UN team finds Congo war atrocities that 'beggar description'". South China Morning Post. 4 July 2018.
- Ivory Coast "fanning ethnic hatred"
- "News". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Europeans flee Ivory Coast violence. 13 November 2004. ABC News Online
- Tannenbaum, Jessie; Valcke, Anthony; McPherson, Andrew (2009-05-01). "Analysis of the Aliens and Nationality Law of the Republic of Liberia". Rochester, NY. SSRN 1795122. Cite journal requires
- Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "IRIN Africa - MAURITANIA: Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance - Mauritania - Governance - Human Rights". IRINnews. 2007-03-05. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "BBC World Service - The Abolition season on BBC World Service". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - Africa - Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". 2007-08-09. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904-1908 (PSI Reports) by Jeremy Sarkin-Hughes
- Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation and Subaltern Resistance in World History (War and Genocide) (War and Genocide) (War and Genocide) A. Dirk Moses -page 296(From Conquest to Genocide: Colonial Rule in German Southwest Africa and German East Africa. 296, (29). Dominik J. Schaller)
- The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy (Social History, Popular Culture, and Politics in Germany) by Sara L. Friedrichsmeyer, Sara Lennox, and Susanne M. Zantop page 87 University of Michigan Press 1999
- Walter Nuhn: Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904. Bernard & Graefe-Verlag, Koblenz 1989. ISBN 3-7637-5852-6.
- Marie-Aude Baronian, Stephan Besser, Yolande Jansen, "Diaspora and memory: figures of displacement in contemporary literature, arts and politics", pg. 33 Rodopi, 2007,
- Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny, "Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts" pg. 51, Routledge, 2004,
- Dan Kroll, "Securing our water supply: protecting a vulnerable resource", PennWell Corp/University of Michigan Press, pg. 22
- ‘Stolen’ Blue Book was just misplaced 23.04.2009 accessed 17 Dec 2011
- Gewald, Jan-Bart (1999), Herereo Heroes: A Socio-Political History of the Herero of Namibia 1890-1923, Ohio University Press, p. 242,
"Of late it has been claimed that the infamous 'Blue Book' which detailed the treatment of Africans in GSWA was little more than a piece of propaganda put about to further South Africa's territorial ambitions and Britain's position at the negotiating table. Granted that the book was used to strengthen Britain's position vis-a-vis Germany, it must however be borne in mind that the bulk of the evidence contained in the 'Blue Book' is little more than the literal translation of German texts published at the time which were the findings of a German commission of inquiry into the effects of corporal punishment." Thus, when the Blue Book was withdrawn from the public after Germany and England came to an agreement about how to share access to GSWA minerals, this was not censorship; it was just business
- The colonising camera: photographs in the making of Namibian history Wolfram Hartmann, Jeremy Silvester, Patricia Hayes, page 118, University of Cape Town Press, 1999
- Jan-Bart Gewald, Jeremy Silvester, "Words Cannot Be Found: German Colonial Rule in Namibia : An Annotated Reprint of the 1918 Blue Book (Sources on African History, 1)", Brill Academic Publishers, annotated edition (1 June 2003)
- Michael Mann (2004), The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, Cambridge University Press, p. 105
- Hitler's African Victims: The German Army Massacres of Black French Soldiers in 1940, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 83
- Helmut Walser Smith (2008), The continuities of German history: nation, religion, and race across the Long Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, p. 199
- Hitler's Black Victims: The Historical Experiences of European Blacks, Africans and African Americans During the Nazi Era (Crosscurrents in African American History) by Clarence Lusane, page 50-51 Routledge 2002
- Steinmetz, George, The devil's handwriting, pp 196-216
- The practice of war Production, Reproduction and Communication of Armed Violence Edited by Aparna Rao, Michael Bollig and Monika Böck, page 92, Berghahn Books; 2011
- Klaas van Walraven (2003), Rethinking resistance: revolt and violence in African history, Brill Academic Publishers, p. 282
- Mamdani, p. 12
- The Kaiser's Holocaust: Germany's Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism, page 225, Casper Erichsen, David Olusoga, Faber and Faber 2010
- Production, Reproduction and Communication of Armed Violence Aparna Rao, Michael Bollig and Monika Böck,page 89, Berghahn Books 2008
- "Germany admits Namibia genocide". BBC News. 2004-08-14. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Krabbe, Alexander. "Remembering Germany's African Genocide". OhmyNews International. Retrieved 2004-08-06.
- Namibians plan white farm grabs in BBC News, 5 November 2003
- Video on YouTube Al Jazeera, 2012
- Amid Namibia's White Opulence, Majority Rule Isn't So Scary Now in the New York Times, 26 December 1988
- "BBC NEWS - Africa - Niger starts mass Arab expulsions". 2006-10-26. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "BBC NEWS - Africa - Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion". 2006-10-25. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - The Leader in Refugee Decision Support". Refworld. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- ABC News (2006-01-06). "The Shackles of Slavery in Niger". ABC News. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Born to be a slave in Niger By Hilary Andersson, BBC Africa Correspondent, Niger
- The Christian Science Monitor (2005-03-10). "On the way to freedom, Niger's slaves stuck in limbo". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places - Smithsonian". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- dotMailer. "Anti-Slavery" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "IRIN Africa - NIGER: Slavery - an unbroken chain - Niger - Gender Issues - Human Rights". IRINnews. 2005-03-21. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Eno, Mohamed A.; Eno, Mohamed A.; Kusow, Abdi M. (2014-01-01). "Racial and caste prejudice in Somalia". Journal of Somali Studies. 1 (2). ISSN 2056-5674.
- Hodgson, Jason A.; Mulligan, Connie J.; Al-Meeri, Ali; Raaum, Ryan L. (2014-06-12). "Early Back-to-Africa Migration into the Horn of Africa". PLOS Genetics. 10 (6): e1004393. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393. PMC 4055572. PMID 24921250.
- Schlebusch, Carina M.; Malmström, Helena; Günther, Torsten; Sjödin, Per; Coutinho, Alexandra; Edlund, Hanna; Munters, Arielle R.; Vicente, Mário; Steyn, Maryna (2017-11-03). "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ago". Science. 358 (6363): 652–655. Bibcode:2017Sci...358..652S. doi:10.1126/science.aao6266. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 28971970.
- "Dalsan Warar Sugan". www.radiodalsan.com. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2018-09-20.
- "Caasimada". www.caasimada.net. 2018-09-21. Archived from the original on 2018-09-21. Retrieved 2018-09-21.
- A., Eno, Mohamed (2008). The Bantu-Jareer Somalis : unearthing apartheid in the Horn of Africa (1st ed.). London, UK: Adonis & Abbey Publishers. ISBN 978-1905068944. OCLC 638660234.
- Englert, Birgit. "Interview with Prof. Alfred Tokollo Moleah, South African Ambassador to Vienna" (PDF). Universität Wien. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- "Slavery at the Cape". Iziko Museums of Cape Town. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- "Indian Slaves in South Africa". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- "Slavery Abolition Act 1833". Houses of Parliament, Palace of Westminster, London. 1833-10-29. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
- "News". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Islam and Slavery Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine
- Curse Of Slavery Haunts Sudan CBS News. January 25, 1998
- U.S. State Department report says 'religious intolerance remains far too common' around world. September 6, 2000 CNN US News
- Jok Madut Jok (2001), p.3
- U.S. Department of State: Sudan Peace Act October 21, 2002
- "Slavery, Abduction and Forced Servitude in Sudan". US Department of State. 22 May 2002. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- Jonathan Clayton Desert hides world's worst humanitarian crisis in The Times May 13, 2004, Page 2
- Hilary AnderssonGenocide lays waste Darfur’s land of no men in Sunday Times November 14, 2004
- Fred Bridgland Darfur: Africa’s hidden holocaust? Archived 2005-05-27 at the Wayback Machine in Sunday Herald April 11, 2004
- Darfur, Sudan: Crisis, response and lessons UK Parliament Press Notice 14, Session 2004-05
- Collins, Robert O., "Civil Wars and Revolution in the Sudan: Essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan, and Darfur, 1962-2004 ", (p. 156), Tsehai Publishers (US), (2005) ISBN 0-9748198-7-5 .
- Power, Samantha "Dying in Darfur: Can the ethnic cleansing in Sudan be stopped?", The New Yorker, 30 August 2004. Human Rights Watch, "Q & A: Crisis in Darfur" (web site, retrieved 24 May 2006). Hilary Andersson, "Ethnic cleansing blights Sudan", BBC News, 27 May 2004.
- "The Independent - 404". The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS OF TUNISIA". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Translation and the Colonial Imaginary: Ibn Khaldun Orientalist, by Abdelmajid Hannoum © 2003 Wesleyan University. JSTOR 3590803
- http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/~amcdouga/Hist446/readings/conquest_in_west_african_historiography.pdf Not Quite Venus from the Waves: The Almoravid Conquest of Ghana in the Modern Historiography of Western Africa by Pekka Masonen; Humphrey J. Fisher 1996
- The Conquest That Never Was: Ghana and the Almoravids, 1076. I. The External Arabic Sources, by David Conrad and Humphrey Fisher © 1982 African Studies Association JSTOR 3171598
- General Amin and the Indian Exodus from Uganda Hasu H. Patel, Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Winter, 1972), pp. 12-22 doi:10.2307/1166488
- "Idi Amin". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda". BBC News. 1972-08-07.
- "UK Indians taking care of business". 2006-03-08. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "BBC - Legacies - Immigration and Emigration - England - Suffolk - Uganda's loss, Britain's gain - Article Page 1". Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Mlambo, Alois S. (2014-04-07). A History of Zimbabwe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 222–224, 254–256. ISBN 978-1-139-86752-8.
- Masocha, Vincent; Mugari, Abisha (2015-11-30). "Sport and Racial Inequality: An Analysis of Pre-Independence Zimbabwe (1890-1979)". Cite journal requires
- Mlambo, Alois S. (2012-11-26). "Becoming Zimbabwe or becoming Zimbabwean : identity, nationalism and state building in the historical context of Southern Africa". hdl:2263/20491. Cite journal requires
- Cheater, Angela (2003-12-16). The Anthropology of Power. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-65048-4.
- Abednico, Siambombe (2017-06-01). "A wrong without design : assessing racism and white color crime in Zimbabwe". AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society. 7 (1): 127–134. doi:10.31920/2075-6534/2017/v7n1a7. ISSN 1998-4936.