Racism in Poland
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Racism in Poland in the 20th and 21st century has been the subject of significant inquiry. While ethnic minorities made up a more significant proportion of the country's population from the founding of the Polish state through the Second Polish Republic, 21st century government statistics have shown 94% or more of the population self-reports as ethnically Polish. During the 16th century, many Jews lived in Poland, so much that it was called the center of the Jewish world. Jewish expulsions and pogroms punctuated the time period: from Krakow in 1494, to Warsaw in 1527 to Silesia in 1559 and 1582. 30,000 Jews were killed in the Chmielnicki Uprising. After the second partition of Poland, Frederick the Great, considering the territory a new colony and its people like the Iroquois of North America, began a Prussian colonisation campaign which sought to replace the Polish language and culture with German.
During World War II Poland was the main scene of the Holocaust, the Porajmos, and the Nazi atrocities against the Polish nation. These genocides varied in how, when and where they were applied; Jews and Romani were targeted for immediate extermination and suffered the greatest casualties, while the Poles were targeted for destruction and enslavement within 15–20 years. Robert Gellately has called the Nazi racial policy of cultural eradication and mass extermination of people based on ethnicity a serial genocide, since in its broader formulation it targeted multiple ethnic groups who the Nazis deemed "sub-human", including Ukrainians, Belorusians, Poles and Jews.:253, 256
In 2017, a far-right march gathered 60,000 participants chanting phrases including "We want God," "Poland for Poles," and anti-semitic slogans. Poland also has a major problem with racist football hooligans. The ruling Polish Law and Justice party has been described as far-right, and in Poland today the number of racist incidents is increasing. In 2013 there were more than 800 racially motivated crimes and in 2016 it had increased to over 1600. Poland tops the list of countries with the most attacks on Indian students, with 9 of 21 worldwide incidents in 2017 occurring in Poland.
- 1 Jews
- 2 Roma
- 3 Ukrainians
- 4 Sub-Saharan Africans
- 5 Ethnic Poles
- 6 Studies and surveys
- 7 Countering racism
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 See also
King Casimir III the Great brought Jews to Poland during the Black Death at a time when Jewish communities were being persecuted and expelled from all over Europe. As a result of better living conditions, 80% of the world's Jews lived in Poland by the mid-16th century.
During the 15th century in the royal capital of Kraków, extremist clergymen advocated violence towards the Jews, who gradually lost their positions. In 1469 Jews were expelled from their old settlement and forced to move to Spiglarska Street. In 1485 Jewish elders were forced to renounce trade in Kraków, which led many Jews to leave for Kazimierz which did not fall under the restrictions due to its status as a royal town. Following the 1494 fire in Kraków, a wave of anti-Jewish attacks occurred. King John I Albert forced the remaining Jews of Kraków to move to Kazimierz. Starting in 1527, Jews were no longer admitted into the city walls of Warsaw (generally speaking, temporary stays were possible in the royal palace). Only the Praga suburb was open to them.:334 They were likewise barred from all of Silesia by Ferdinand I in 1559 and by Rudolph II in 1582.:339
The Council of Four Lands created in 1581 was a Jewish diet presided over by community elders from each major part of Poland, another governing body was established in Lithuania in 1623. Jewish communities were usually protected by the szlachta (nobles) in exchange for their work administering the nobles' domains.:358 As such, they were often on the front line in revolts against the lords of the land, as was the case during the Cossack revolts in 1630, 1637 and 1639. It is estimated, in particular, that 30,000 Jews perished from 1648–9 as a result of the Chmielnicki Uprising.:342
In Congress Poland, Jews gained civic rights with the ukase (edict) of 5 June 1862, two years before serfdom was abolished and the peasantry was freed. 35 years later, in 1897, the 1.4 million Jews represented 14% of the population of the Russian-administered partition, which included Warsaw and Lodz.:478-480
In the Second Polish Republic, from the 1920s the Polish government excluded Jews: from receiving government bank credits, from public sector employment (in 1931, only 599 of 87,640 public servants were Jewish—in the domains of telephony, railroads, administration and justice:483), and from obtaining business licenses in the government-controlled sphere of the economy. From the 1930s, limits were placed on Jewish enrollment in university education, Jewish shops, Jewish export firms, Shechita, Jewish admission to the medical and legal professions, Jews in business associations, etc. While in 1921-22 25% of students were Jews, by 1938-9 the proportion went down to 8%. The far-right National Democracy (Endeks) organized anti-Jewish boycotts. Following the death of Poland's ruler Józef Piłsudski in 1935, the Endeks intensified its efforts and in 1937 it declared that its "main aim and duty must be to remove the Jews from all spheres of social, economic, and cultural life in Poland", which lead to violence in a few cases (pogroms in smaller towns). In response the government organized the Camp of National Unity (OZON), which took control of the Polish parliament in 1938. The Polish parliament then drafted anti-Jewish legislation which was similar to anti-Jewish laws which existed in Germany, Hungary, and Romania. OZON advocated the mass emigration of Jews from Poland, boycotts of Jews, numerus clausus (see also Ghetto benches), and other limitations on Jewish rights.
In the mid-20th century, notable incidents of antisemitism in Poland included the Jedwabne pogrom of 1941 in the presence of German Ordnungspolizei (police officers) and Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–46, attributed to postwar lawlessness as well as an anti-communist insurrection against the new pro-Soviet government immediately after the end of World War II in Europe, and the "Żydokomuna" (Jewish communism) stereotype. Another major event took place during the 1968 Polish political crisis.
The Jewish community in Poland made up about 10% of the country's total population in 1939, but was all but eradicated during the Holocaust. In the Polish census of 2011, only 7,353 people declared either their primary or secondary ethnicity as Jewish.
In 2017, the University of Warsaw’s Center for Research on Prejudice found an increase in antisemitic views in Poland, possibly due to growing Islamophobia and anti-migrant sentiment. Later that year, the European Jewish Congress accused the Polish government of "normalizing" the phenomenon in the country.
Despite the fact that Poland's Jewish population is currently scant, antisemitism persists and fulfills various important roles in Polish society. It is an informal tenet of Polish religiosity, enables Poles to view themselves as the main victims of the Nazis, enables them to deny their historic responsibility for anti-Jewish crimes, and provides a scapegoat for problems in the post-communist transition. Unlike other European societies, contemporary Polish antisemitism is not related to attitudes towards Israel. Furthermore, political representation of those employing antisemitic rhetoric is very limited. One contemporary motif that is claimed to be antisemitic is the Jew with a coin picture, displayed in 18% Polish homes to bring luck.
In June 1991 the Mława riot occurred, which was a series of violent incidents against Polska Roma that broke out after one Polish man was killed and another Polish man was permanently harmed when a Romani teenager drove into three ethnic Poles in a crosswalk, killing one, then left the scene of the accident. After the accident a rioting mob attacked wealthy Romani settlements in the Polish town of Mława. Both the Mława police chief and University of Warsaw sociology researchers said that the pogrom was primarily due to class envy (some Romani have grown wealthy in the gold and automobile trades). At the time, the mayor of the town, as well as the Romani involved and other residents, said the incident was primarily racially motivated. 
During the coverage of the riot, a change in ethnic stereotypes about Roma in Poland was mentioned: A Roma is no longer poor, dirty, or cheerful. They also do not beg or pretend to be lowly. Nowadays a Roma drives a high status car, lives in a fancy mansion, flaunts his wealth, brags that the local authorities and the police are on his pay and thus he is not afraid of anybody. At the same time he is, as before, a swindler, a thief, a hustler, a dodger of military service and a holder of a legal, decent job. Negative "metastereotypes" – or the Romas' own perceptions regarding the stereotypes that members of the dominant groups hold about their own group – were described by the Polish Roma Society in an attempt to intensify the dialogue about exclusionism.
During the second half of the last millennium, Poland experienced significant periods of time where its feudal economy was dominated by serfdom. Many serfs were treated in condescending fashion by the nobility (szlachta), and had few rights. While many serfs were ethnic, Catholic Poles, many others were Orthodox Ruthenians, later self-identifying as Ukrainians. Some scholars described the attitudes of the (mostly Polish) nobility towards serfs as a form of racism. In modern Poland, where Ukrainians form a significant minority of migrant workers, they are subject to occasional racism in everyday life.
The most common word in Polish for a black person is "murzyn". It is generally regarded as a neutral word which was used to describe a person of black (Sub-Saharan African) ancestry for centuries, but nowadays some black Africans consider it pejorative, though the majority of people in Poland still consider it a neutral term.
One high-profile event with regard to blacks in Poland was the death of Maxwell Itoya in 2010, a Nigerian street vendor from a mixed marriage who was selling counterfeit goods. He was shot in the upper leg by a policeman during a street brawl that followed a screening check at a market in Warsaw and died of a severed artery. The event led to a media debate regarding policing and racism.
There have been other cases of violence against blacks in recent years. In Strzelce Opolskie, Black soccer players from LZS Piotrówka club were attacked in a bar by fans of the opposing team Odra Opole in 2015 and two young men were arrested. At least six men were sentenced.  In a Łódź dance-club, a black student was attacked in a men's washroom.
Through Poles generally have formed a majority in Poland, particularly during the times of partitions of Poland (mid-18th century to 1918) most of the Polish territories were under control of other nations, and Poles, effectively minorities in nationalistic German Empire and Russian Empire, were subject to discrimination and racism.
Racist publications about Poles appeared as early as the 18th century, and they were imbued with Medieval ethnic stereotypes and racist overtones in order to justify German rule over Polish territories. Authors such as Georg Forster wrote about Poles that they are "cattle in human form".
When part of Poland was under the rule of the German Empire, the Polish population was discriminated against by racist policies. These policies gained popularity among German nationalists, some of whom were members of the Völkisch movement, leading to the expulsion of Poles by Germany. This was fueled by Anti-Polish sentiment, especially during the age of partitions in the 18th century. The Kulturkampf campaign led by Otto von Bismarck resulted in legacy of anti-Polish racism; in turn Polish population experienced oppression and exploitation at hands of Germans. The racist ideas of Prussian state directed against Polish people were taken on by German social scientists, in part led by Max Weber.
During World War II Poland was occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and Polish people were harshly discriminated against in their own country. In directive No. 1306, issued by Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda on 24 October 1939, the concept of untermenschen (subhuman) is cited in reference to Polish ethnicity and culture:
It must become clear to everybody in Germany, even to the last milkmaid, that Polishness is equal to subhumanity. Poles, Jews and Gypsies are on the same inferior level. This must be clearly outlined [...] until every citizen of Germany has it encoded in his subconsciousness that every Pole, whether a farm worker or intellectual, should be treated like vermin".
Most Nazis considered the Poles, like the majority of other Slavs, to be non-Aryan and non-European "masses from the East" which should be either totally annihilated along with the Jews and Gypsies, or entirely expelled from the European continent. Poles were the victims of Nazi crimes against humanity and some of the main non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Approximately 2.7 million ethnic Poles were murdered or killed during World War II.
Nazi policy towards ethnically Polish people was eventually the genocide and destruction of the whole Polish nation, as well as cultural genocide which involved Germanisation, as well as the suppression or murder of religious, cultural, intellectual, and political leadership.
On March 15, 1940, Heinrich Himmler stated “All Polish specialists will be exploited in our military-industrial complex. Later, all Poles will disappear from this world. It is imperative that the great German nation considers the elimination of all Polish people as its chief task.” The goal of the policy was to prevent effective Polish resistance and to exploit Polish people as slave laborers and foresaw the extermination of Poles as a nation. Polish slaves in Nazi Germany were forced to wear identifying red tags with the letter P that were sewn to their clothing. Sexual relations with Germans (rassenschande or "racial defilement") were punishable by death. During the war many Polish men were executed for their relations with German women.
Maintain the purity of German blood! That applies to both men and women! Just as it is considered the greatest disgrace to become involved with a Jew, any German engaging in intimate relations with a Polish male or female is guilty of sinful behavior. Despise the bestial urges of this race! Be racially conscious and protect your children. Otherwise you will forfeit your greatest asset: your honor!
During post-war Trials of Nazis it was stated during Trial of Ulrich Freifelt that: "The methods applied by the Nazis in Poland and other occupied territories, including once more Alsace and Lorraine, were of a similar nature with the sole difference that they were more ruthless and wider in scope than in 1914-1918. In this connection the policy of “ Germanizing ” the populations concerned, as shown by the evidence in the trial under review, consisted partly in forcibly denationalising given classes or groups of the local population, such as Poles, Alsace-Lorrainers, Slovenes and others eligible for Germanization under the German People’s List. As a result in these cases the programme of genocide was being achieved through acts which, in themselves, constitute war crimes"
Likewise, during World War II around 120,000 Polish people, mostly women and children, became the primary victims of an ethnicity-based genocide by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, which was then operating in the territory of occupied Poland.
Studies and surveys
2008 EVS survey
An analysis based on the European Values Survey (EVS), which took place in 2008, compares Poland to other European nations. Poland had very high levels of political tolerance (lack of extremist political attitudes), relatively high levels of ethnic tolerance (based on attitudes towards Muslims, immigrants, Romas, and Jews) and at the same time low levels of personal tolerance (based on attitudes towards people considered "deviant" or "threatening"). From 1998 to 2008, there was a marked increase in political and ethnic tolerance, but a decrease in personal tolerance.
In 1990, due partly to the political euphoria accompanying the fall of communism, Poland was the most tolerant nation in Central Europe. However, over the course of the '90s, the level of tolerance decreased. By 1999, EVS recorded Poland as having one of the highest rates of xenophobia in Europe, while antisemitism also increased during this time. The factors behind these decreases in tolerance and the radicalization in attitudes towards other ethnic groups during this time likely included the country's economic problems associated with a costly transition from Communism (for example, high unemployment), ineffectual government and possibly an increase in immigration from outside.
These attitudes began to change after 2000, possibly due to Poland's entry into the European Union, increased travel abroad and more frequent encounters with people of other races. By 2008, the EVS showed Poland as one of the least xenophobic countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The negative attitudes towards Jews have likewise returned to their lower 1990s level, although they do remain somewhat above the European average. During the same time period, ethnic tolerance and political tolerance increased in Southern Europe (Spain, Greece) and decreased in other parts of Northern Europe (Netherlands).
While the Roma group was listed as most rejected, the level of exclusion was still lower than elsewhere in Europe, most likely due the long history of Roma (see Polska Roma) and their relatively low numbers in the country.
2012 CRP survey
In a 2012 survey conducted by the Center for Research on Prejudice at the University of Warsaw, it was found that 78.5% of participants disagreed with traditional antisemitic statements (eg. "Jews are responsible for the death of Jesus Christ"), but 52.9% agreed with secondary antisemitic statements (eg. "Jews spread the stereotype of Polish anti-Semitism"), and 64.6% believed in a "Jewish conspiracy" (eg. "Jews would like to rule the world"). The authors noted that "belief in [a] Jewish conspiracy proved to be the strongest significant predictor of discriminatory intentions towards Jews in all fields. Traditional anti-Semitism predicted social distance towards Jews, while it did not predict any of the other discriminatory intentions. Secondary anti-Semitism failed to predict any form of discriminatory intentions against Jews."
2014 ADL Global 100 survey
In the ADL Global 100 survey conducted in 2013-2014, 57% of respondents said that "it is probably true" that "Jews have too much power in the business world"; 55% that "Jews have too much power in international financial markets"; 42% that "Jews have too much control over global affairs"; and 33% that "people hate Jews because of the way Jews behave".
2018 FRA survey
In the FRA 2018 Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism/Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU, antisemtism in Poland was identified as a "fairly big" or "very big" problem by 85% of respondants (placing Poland at the fourth place after France, Germany and Belgium); 61% reported that antisemitism had increased "a lot" in the past five years (second place after France, and before Belgium and Germany); 74% reported that intolerance towards Muslim had increased "a lot" (second place after Hungary, and before Austria and the UK); and 89% reported an increase in expressions of antisemitism online (second place after France, and before Italy and Belgium). The most commonly heard antisemitic statements were "Jews have too much power in Poland" (70%) and "Jews exploit Holocaust victimhood for their own purposes" (67%).
In 2004, the government took some initiatives in order to tackle the problem of racism. It adopted the "National Programme to Prevent Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance 2004-2009" ("Krajowy Program Przeciwdziałania Dyskryminacji Rasowej, Ksenofobii i Związanej z Nimi Nietolerancji 2004 – 2009") and also established the Monitoring Team on Racism and Xenophobia within the Ministry of Interior and Administration. The Implementation Report (2010) stated that the programme suffered from various obstacles, including lacking and unclear funding, and eventually some planned tasks were completed, while others were not.
"Never Again" Association
The "Never Again" Association is an apolitical and anti-racist organization, based in Warsaw. The organization has its roots in an informal anti-Nazi youth group that has been active since 1992, and was formally founded in 1996 in Bydgoszcz by Marcin Kornak. As of 2010, the organization had several hundred members, of which some 80% were in Poland and 20% were in other European countries. "Never Again" has published the "Never Again" magazine since 1994. The magazine is focused on countering intolerance, fascism, racism and xenophobia. "Never Again" publishes the Brown Book (Polish: „Brunatna Księga”), which compiles xenophobic, racist, and anti-gay incidents.
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny, Wyniki Narodowego Spisu Powszechnego Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 Archived 21 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Warszawa 2012, pp. 105-106
- Polish population census 2002 nationalities tables 1 or 2
- Marie-Élizabeth Ducreux (2011). "Les Juifs dans les sociétés d'Europe centrale et orientale". In Germa, Antoine; Lellouch, Benjamin; Patlagean, Evelyne (eds.). Les Juifs dans l'histoire: de la naissance du judaïsme au monde contemporain (in French). Ed. Champ Vallon. pp. 331–373.
- Carroll P. Kakel III (2013). The Holocaust as Colonial Genocide: Hitler's 'Indian Wars' in the 'Wild East'. Palgrave. doi:10.1007/978-1-137-39169-8. ISBN 978-1-349-48303-7.
- David Blackbourn; James N. Retallack. Localism, Landscape, and the Ambiguities of Place: German-speaking Central Europe, 1860–1930. University of Toronto 2007.
In fact, from Hitler to Hans Frank, we find frequent references to Slavs and Jews as 'Indians.' This, too, was a long standing trope. It can be traced back to Frederick the Great, who likened the 'slovenly Polish trash' in newly' reconquered West Prussia to Iroquois
- Norman M. Naimark (2017). Genocide: A World History. Oxford University Press. p. 78.
Hitler's genocidal policies in Poland were directed both at the Poles and at the Jews
- Jerzy J. Wiatr (2014). Polish-German Relations: The Miracle of Reconciliation. Verlag Barbara Budrich. p. 18. doi:10.2307/j.ctvddzfqg.
Third, ethnic Poles were also victims of Nazi genocide, more than two and a half million of them – mostly civilians – were killed by the Nazis.
- "2010 Education Working Group Paper on the Holocaust and Other Genocides" (PDF). UN Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research Task Force.
The Holocaust is the name given to one specific case of genocide: the attempt by the Nazis and their collaborators to destroy the Jewish people. Other genocides committed by the Nazis during the Second World War were the genocides of Poles and Roma.
- Timothy Snyder. "The fatal fact of the Nazi-Soviet pact". Comment is Free (America).
When the Germans shot tens of thousands of Poles in 1944, with the intention of making sure that Warsaw would never rise again, that was genocide, too. Far less dramatic measures, such as the kidnapping and Germanisation of Polish children, were also, by the legal definition, genocide.
- David Nicholls; Gill Nicholls (2000). Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion. p. 201.
The Generalgouvernement was initially seen by Hitler as a reservation for Poles, but here too Nazi policies of economic exploitation and the eradication of Polish culture foresaw the extermination of the Poles as a nation. Some 2 million men and women were deported to the Reich to work in German agriculture and industry, while the rest suffered starvation (p. 201)
- Phillip T. Rutherford (2007). Prelude to the final solution: the Nazi program for deporting ethnic Poles, 1939-1941. University Press of Kansas.
Nazi Germanization schemes demanded the complete elimination of Poles and Jews from the incorporated eastern territories. (p. 6)
- Raphael Lemkin. Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress. Berghahn Books.
The incorporated areas are subject to an especially severe regime, involving genocide for the Polish population
- Frank Robert Chalk; Kurt Jonassohn; Montreal Institute for Genocide Studies (1990). The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. Yale University Press.
Bauer argues that Lemkin was most likely thinking of what was happening to the Poles when he defined genocide. (p. 20)
- The United Nations War Crimes Commission (1948). Law-Reports of Trials of War Criminals (Volume VII) (PDF). UN War Crimes Commission. pp. 1–26.
- Marcinko Marcin (2014). "The concept of genocide in the trials of Nazi criminals before the Polish Supreme National Tribunal". In Bergsmo Morten; Wui Ling Cheah; Ping Yi (eds.). Historical origins of international criminal law (PDF). FICHL Publication Series; 21. 2. Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher. pp. 639–696. ISBN 978-82-93081-13-5.
- Hannibal Travis (2013). Genocide, Ethnonationalism, and the United Nations. Exploring the Causes of Mass Killing Since 1945. Routledge. pp. 78–80.
- Alexa Stiller (2012). "Semantics of Extermination. The Use of the New Term of Genocide in the Nuremberg Trials and the Genesis of a Master Narrative". In Kim C. Priemel; Alexa Stiller (eds.). Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals Transitional Justice, Trial Narratives, and Historiography. p. 104-133. doi:10.2307/j.ctt9qd0zg.10.
- Berghahn, Volker R. (1999). "Germans and Poles 1871–1945". In Bullivant, K.; Giles, G. J.; Pape, W. (eds.). Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences. Rodopi. p. 32. ISBN 978-9042006881.
- Norman M. Naimark (2017). Genocide: A World History. Oxford University Press. p. 78.
- Robert Gellately (2003). "The Third Reich, the Holocaust, and Visions of Serial Genocide". In Robert Gellately; Ben Kiernan (eds.). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 241–264. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511819674.011.
- "Poland: What went wrong?". ECFR. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- "'Stadiums of Hate': Legitimate and fair". BBC.
- "Poland Bashes Immigrants, but Quietly Takes Christian Ones". New York Times. 26 March 2019.
The far-right Law and Justice party came to power in 2015, at the height of Europe’s migrant crisis, after running a campaign that inspired choruses of “Poland for Poles.”
- "Poland's in crisis again. Here's what you should know about the far right's latest power-grab". Washington Post. 28 November 2017.
Since taking control of both the presidency and the parliament in November 2015, Poland’s far-right Law and Justice (PiS) party has swiftly changed the rules for public media, the secret service, education, and the military.
- "EU's top court shows how to tackle autocrats". Financial Times. 27 June 2019.
Poland’s ultra-conservative Law and Justice (PiS) government followed suit last year.
- "Poland's Government Is Systematically Silencing Opposition Voices". Foreign Policy. 31 May 2019.
Today, it is the main voice holding the ruling far-right Law and Justice (PiS) party accountable, while facing constant attacks from that government.
- "How Poland uses foreign lobbyists to fight PR wars and influence U.S. policy". Center for Responsive Politics. 19 February 2019.
Since the 2015 election of the far-right Law and Justice party in Poland, the country’s history with the Holocaust has become a point of contention with Israel.
- "Zack Blumberg: Europe's far right movements come on strong, but what next?". The Michigan Daily. 11 April 2019.
In the 2015 Polish parliamentary election, the far-right Law and Justice Party, or PiS, won with an outright majority (meaning they did not need to form a coalition to govern), something that had not been done in Poland since the fall of communism in 1989.
- "Revealed: dozens of European politicians linked to US 'incubator for extremism'". Open Democracy. 27 March 2019.
He had then recently left the far right Law and Justice (PiS) party over its failure to push through a constitutional amendment that would have banned abortion in all cases.
- "What to Make of the European Elections". The Atlantic. 30 May 2019.
In Poland, the far-right Law and Justice bested a broad alliance of moderate politicians.
- "Poland Bashes Immigrants, but Quietly Takes Christian Ones". New York Times. 26 March 2019.
- Ojewska, Natalia (3 Dec 2015). "A 'witch-hunt' for Poland's barely visible refugees". Al Jazeera.
- http://www.helcom.cz/cs/english-poland-racism-in-poland/. Missing or empty
- "Poland tops list of countries where Indian students were attacked in 2017". Hindustan Times.
- "Poland – Virtual Jewish History Tour" at Jewish Virtual Library via Internet Archive.
- "Polish Jews History", at PolishJews.org via Internet Archive.
- The Torah Ark in Renaissance Poland: A Jewish Revival of Classical Antiquity, Ilia M. Rodov, Brill, pages 2-6
- Marcin Wodziński. "Silesia". YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern European.
- Paul Zawadski (2011). "Les Juifs en Pologne: des partages de la Pologne jusqu'à 1939". In Germa, Antoine; Lellouch, Benjamin; Patlagean, Evelyne (eds.). Les Juifs dans l'histoire: de la naissance du judaïsme au monde contemporain (in French). Ed. Champ Vallon. pp. 475–502.
- Hagen, William W. (1996). "Before the 'final solution': Toward a comparative analysis of political anti-Semitism in interwar Germany and Poland". The Journal of Modern History. 68 (2): 351-381.
- Piotr Wróbel (2006). Polish-Jewish Relations. Dagmar Herzog: Lessons and Legacies: The Holocaust in international perspective. Northwestern University Press. pp. 391–396. ISBN 0-8101-2370-3.
- August Grabski. "Book review of Stefan Grajek: Po wojnie i co dalej? Żydzi w Polsce, w latach 1945−1949 translated from Hebrew by Aleksander Klugman, 2003" (PDF). Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL) (in Polish). Kwartalnik Historii Żydów (Jewish History Quarterly). p. 240 – via direct download, 1.03 MB.
- Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, After the Holocaust Polish-Jewish Conflict in the Wake of World War II, Columbia University Press, New York 2003, ISBN 0-88033-511-4.
- Lukas, Richard, PhD. (1989). Out of the Inferno: Poles Remember the Holocaust. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 5, 13, 111, 201. ISBN 0813116929.; also in Lukas (2012) . The Forgotten Holocaust: Poles Under Nazi Occupation 1939-1944. New York: University of Kentucky Press/Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-0901-6.
- AFP; AP; Gambrell, Jon; AFP; RANDOLPH, Eric; Noorani, Ali; Gross, Judah Ari (January 25, 2017). "Anti-Semitism seen on the rise in Poland". The Times of Israel. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- France-Presse, Agence (August 31, 2017). "Anti-Semitism being 'normalised' in Poland, Jewish Congress warns". The Telegraph. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
- Bilewicz, Michał, Mikołaj Winiewski, and Zuzanna Radzik. "Antisemitism in Poland: Psychological, Religious, and Historical Aspects." Journal for the Study of Antisemitism 4 (2016): 423-440., quote: Overall, the case of Poland is an example of the endurance of antisemitism without Jews—or at least with a scant Jewish population (Lendvai, 1971). This leads to an interesting question about the psychological reasons of such long-enduring prejudice without an object. Based on the research and observation of political and social life in Poland, one could say that antisemitism plays several important functions in contemporary Polish society: it is one of the informal tenets of religiosity in current Poland; it defines a scapegoat for the problems and troubles of the post-transition period; it allows the denial of responsibility for historical crimes toward Jews; and it supports perceiving the ingroup as the main victim of the Nazi occupation. These functions clearly allow antisemitism to exist—even without any significant Jewish presence in the country. At the same time, however, there is no link between such antisemitism and attitudes toward contemporary Israel. In this case, Polish society is far less anti-Jewish than many other European societies; in addition, the political representation of antisemitic prejudice is very limited—most politicians who were actively using antisemitic rhetoric are currently out of political life or at the margins of mainstream political debate
- Rebecca Jean Emigh; Iván Szelényi (2001). Poverty, Ethnicity, and Gender in Eastern Europe During the Market Transition. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-275-96881-6. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- "Poles Vent Their Economic Rage on Gypsies". The New York Times. July 25, 1991. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
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