Radeon HD 7000 Series

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AMD Radeon HD 7000 Series
AMD Radeon graphics logo
Release date January 9, 2012
Codename Southern Islands
London
Trinity
Sea Islands
Architecture TeraScale 2
TeraScale 3
GCN 1st gen
GCN 2nd gen
Transistors and fabrication process
  • 292M 40 nm (Cedar)
  • 370M 40 nm (Caicos)
  • 716M 40 nm (Turks)
  • 1.500M 28 nm (Cape Verde)
  • 2.080M 28 nm (Bonaire)
  • 2.800M 28 nm (Pitcairn)
  • 4.313M 28 nm (Tahiti)
Cards
Entry-level 73xx - 76xx
Mid-range 7750
7770
7790
High-end 7850
7870
7950
7970
Enthusiast 7990
API support
Direct3D
OpenCL OpenCL 1.2
OpenGL OpenGL 4.5[1]
Vulkan Vulkan 1.0
SPIR-V
History
Predecessor Radeon HD 6000 Series
Variant Radeon HD 8000 series
Successor Radeon R5/R7/R9 200 series

The Radeon HD 7000 Series, based on "Southern Islands", is further products series in the family of Radeon GPUs developed by AMD.[2] AMD builds Southern Islands series graphics chips based on the 28 nm manufacturing process at TSMC.[3] The primary competitor of Southern Islands, Nvidia's GeForce 600 Series (also manufactured at TSMC), also shipped during Q1 2012, largely due to the immaturity of the 28 nm process.[4]

Architecture[edit]

This article is about all products under the Radeon HD 7000 Series brand. Graphics Core Next was introduced with the Radeon HD 7000 Series.

Multi-monitor support[edit]

The AMD Eyefinity-branded on-die display controllers were introduced in September 2009 in the Radeon HD 5000 Series and have been present in all products since.[5]

Video acceleration[edit]

Both Unified Video Decoder (UVD) and Video Coding Engine (VCE) are present on the dies of all products and supported by AMD Catalyst and by the free and open-source graphics device driver#ATI/AMD.

Desktop products[edit]

The die and package of a Radeon HD 7870 graphics card.

The 28 nm product line is divided in three dies (Tahiti, Pitcairn, and Cape Verde), each one roughly double in shader units compared to its small brethren (32, 20, and respectively 10 GCN compute units). While this gives roughly a doubling of single-precision floating point, there is however a significant departure in double-precision compute power. Tahiti has a maximum ¼ double precision throughput relative to its single precision throughput, while the other two smaller consumer dies can only achieve a 1/16 ratio.[6] While each bigger die has two additional memory controllers widening its bus by 128 bits, Pitcairn however has the same front-end dual tesselator units as Tahiti giving it similar performance to its larger brethren in DX11 tessellation benchmarks.[6]

Radeon HD 7900[edit]

Codenamed Tahiti, the Radeon HD 7900 series was announced on December 22, 2011. Products include the Radeon 7970 GHz Edition, Radeon HD 7970 and Radeon HD 7950.[7] The Radeon HD 7970 features 2048 usable stream cores,[A] whereas the Radeon HD 7950 has 1792 usable stream cores, as 256 out of the 2048 cores are disabled during product binning which detects defective areas of a chip. The cards are the first products to take advantage of AMD's new "Graphics Core Next" compute architecture. Both cards are equipped with 3 GB GDDR5 memory and manufactured on TSMC's 28 nm process. The Tahiti GPU is also used in the Radeon HD 7870 XT, released November 19, 2012. In this case one quarter of the stream processors are disabled, giving 1536 usable cores. Additionally, the memory interface is downgraded from 384-bit to 256-bit, along with a memory size reduction from 3 GB to 2 GB.

Radeon HD 7800[edit]

Codenamed Pitcairn, the Radeon HD 7800 series was formally unveiled on March 5, 2012, with retail availability from March 19, 2012. Products include the Radeon HD 7870 and Radeon HD 7850. The Radeon HD 7870 features 1280 usable stream cores, whereas the Radeon HD 7850 has 1024 usable stream cores. Both cards are equipped with 2GB GDDR5 memory (some 7850s offer 1GB) and manufactured on TSMC's 28 nm process.[9]

Radeon HD 7700[edit]

Codenamed Cape Verde, the Radeon HD 7700 series was released on February 15, 2012. Products include the Radeon HD 7770 GHz Edition and Radeon HD 7750. The Radeon HD 7770 GHz Edition features 640 stream cores based on the GCN architecture, whereas the Radeon HD 7750 has only 512 usable stream cores. Both cards are equipped with 1 GB GDDR5 memory and manufactured in 28 nm. On March 22, 2013 another card, Radeon HD 7790, was introduced in this series. This card is based on the Bonaire architecture, which features 896 stream cores using GCN 1.1 technology, an incremental update. On May 2013, AMD launched the Radeon HD 7730, based on the Cape Verde LE graphics processor. It features a 128-bit memory bus, 384 stream cores, 8 ROPs, and a core clock speed of up to 800 MHz. The HD 7730 came with GDDR5 and DDR3 variants, running on memory clock speeds of 1125 MHz and 900 MHz, respectively. Load power usage was lowered by 14.5% (47W) compared to the Radeon HD 7750 (55W).[10][11]

Chipset table[edit]

A Radeon HD 7750 card, using a fanless design.

Desktop products[edit]

  • HD 7790 model is designed more like the 7800/7900 models rather than the 7700 featuring 2x primitive rate instead of 1x which is found in the other 7700 cards.[12]
  • Bonaire XT is the only card in the 7000 series to support True Audio.


Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
Fab
Transistors
Die Size
Core Fillrate[a][b][c] Processing power[a][d]
(GFLOPS)
Memory[e] TDP (Watts) Bus interface Release Price (USD)
Config[f] Clock[a] (MHz) Texture (GT/s) Pixel (GP/s) Single Double Size (MB) Clock (MHz) Bus type
& width
Bandwidth (GB/s) Idle Max.
Radeon HD 7350
(Cedar)
January 2012 TeraScale 2
40 nm
292×106
59 mm2
80:8:4 400
650
3.2
5.2
1.6
2.6
104 N/A 256
512
400
800
900
DDR2
DDR3

64-bit

6.4
12.8
6.4 19.1 PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon HD 7450
(Caicos)
January 2012 370×106
67 mm2
160:8:4 625
750
5.0
6.0
2.5
3.0
200
240
N/A 512
1024
533
800
GDDR3
64-bit
8.5
12.8
9 18 PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon HD 7470
(Caicos)
January 2012 160:8:4 625
775
5.0
6.2
2.5
3.1
200
248
N/A 512
1024
800
900
GDDR3
GDDR5
64-bit
12.8
14.4
9 27 PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon HD 7510
(Turks LE)
February 2013 716×106
118 mm2
320:16:4 650 10.4 2.6 416 N/A 1024 667 GDDR3
128-bit
21.3 Unknown Unknown PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon HD 7570
(Turks Pro-L)
January 2012 480:24:8 650 15.6 5.2 624 N/A 512
1024
900
1000
GDDR3
GDDR5
128-bit
28.8
64
10
11
44
60
PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon HD 7670
(Turks XT)
January 2012 480:24:8 800 19.2 6.4 768 N/A 512
1024
1000 GDDR5
128-bit
64 12 66 PCIe 2.1 ×16 OEM
Radeon HD 7730
(Cape Verde LE)
April 2013 GCN 1st gen
28 nm
1500×106
123 mm2
384:24:8 800 19.2 6.4 614.4 38.4 1024 1125 DDR3
GDDR5
128-bit
25.6
72
10 47 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $60
Radeon HD 7750
(Cape Verde Pro)
February 2012 512:32:16 800
900
25.6
28.8
12.8
14.4
819.2
921.6
51.2
57.6
1024
2048
4096
800
1125
DDR3
GDDR5
128-bit
25.6
72
10 55 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $110
Radeon HD 7770
GHz Edition
(Cape Verde XT)
February 2012 640:40:16 1000 40 16 1280 80 1024
2048
1125 GDDR5
128-bit
72 10 80 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $160
Radeon HD 7790
(Bonaire XT)
March 2013 GCN 2nd gen
28 nm
2080×106
1602
896:56:16 1000 56.0 16.0 1792 128 1024
2048
1500 GDDR5
128-bit
96 10 85 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $150
Radeon HD 7850
(Pitcairn Pro)
March 2012 GCN 1st gen
28 nm
2800×106
212mm2
1024:64:32 860 55.04 27.52 1761.28 110.08 1024
2048
1200 GDDR5
256-bit
153.6 10 130 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $250
Radeon HD 7870
GHz Edition
(Pitcairn XT)
March 2012 1280:80:32 1000 80 32 2560 160 2048 1200 153.6 10 175 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $350
Radeon HD 7870 XT
(Tahiti LE)
November 2012 4313×106
352mm2
1536:96:32 925
975
88.8 29.6 2841.6
2995.2
710.4
748.8
2048 1500 GDDR5
256-bit
192.0 15 185 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $270
Radeon HD 7950
(Tahiti Pro)
January 2012 1792:112:32 800 89.6 25.6 2867.2 717 3072 1250 GDDR5
384-bit
240 15 200 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $450
Radeon HD 7950 Boost
(Tahiti Pro2)
August 2012 1792:112:32 850
925
103.6 29.6 3046.4
3315.2
761.6
828.8
3072 1250 GDDR5
384-bit
240 15 225 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $330
Radeon HD 7970
(Tahiti XT)
January 2012 2048:128:32 925 118.4 29.6 3788.8 947.2 3072
6144
1375 GDDR5
384-bit
264 15 250 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $550
Radeon HD 7970
GHz Edition
(Tahiti XT2)
June 2012 2048:128:32 1000
1050
128.0 32 4096
4300
1024
1075
3072
6144
1500 GDDR5
384-bit
288 15 250 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $500
Radeon HD 7990
(New Zealand)
April 2013 4313×106
352 mm2
2× 2048:128:32 950
1000
2× 128 2× 32 8200 1894 2× 3072 1500 GDDR5
384-bit
2× 288 15 375 PCIe 3.0 ×16 $1000
Model
(Codename)
Launch Architecture
Fab
Transistors
Die Size
Config[f] Clock[a] (MHz) Texture (GT/s) Pixel (GP/s) Single Double Size (MiB) Clock
(MHz)
Bus type
& width
Bandwidth (GB/s) Idle Max. Bus interface Release Price (USD)
Core Fillrate[a][b][c] Processing power[a][d]
(GFLOPS)
Memory[e] TDP (Watts)
  1. ^ a b c d e f Boost values (if available) are stated below the base value in italic.
  2. ^ a b Texture fillrate is calculated as the number of Texture Mapping Units multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  3. ^ a b Pixel fillrate is calculated as the number of Render Output Units multiplied by the base (or boost) core clock speed.
  4. ^ a b Precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  5. ^ a b The effective data transfer rate of GDDR5 is quadruple its nominal clock, instead of double as it is with DDR memory.
  6. ^ a b Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units


IGP (HD 7xxx)[edit]

  • All models feature the UNB/MC Bus interface
  • All models do not feature double-precision FP
  • All models feature angle independent anisotropic filtering, UVD3.2, and Eyefinity capabilities, with up to four outputs.
  • All models are based on the TeraScale 3 (VLIW4) used in the Radeon HD 69xx Series (Cayman) GPUs.
Model Released Codename Architecture Fab (nm) Core Clock rate (MHz) Config core[a] Fillrate Shared Memory Processing power
(GFLOPS)
API compliance (version) Combined TDP[b] APU
Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Bus width (bit) Bus type Bandwidth (GB/s) Direct3D OpenGL OpenCL Idle (W) Max. (W)
Radeon HD 7480D June 1, 2012 Scrapper TeraScale 3 32 723 128:8:4 2.9 11.6 128 DDR3-1600 25.6 185 11.0 4.4 1.2 Unknown 65 A4-4000, A4-5300
Radeon HD 7540D June 1, 2012 Scrapper TeraScale 3 32 760 192:12:4 Unknown Unknown 128 DDR3-1866 29.9 292 11.0 4.4 1.2 Unknown 65 A6-5400K
Radeon HD 7560D June 1, 2012 Devastator TeraScale 3 32 760 256:16:4 Unknown Unknown 128 DDR3-1866 29.9 389 11.0 4.4 1.2 Unknown 65–100 A8-5500, A8-5600K
Radeon HD 7660D June 1, 2012 Devastator TeraScale 3 32 760–800 384:24:8 2.7 16.2 128 DDR3-1866 29.9 584–614 11.0 4.4 1.2 Unknown 65–100 A10-5700 (760 MHz), A10-5800K (800 MHz)
  1. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  2. ^ TDP specified for AMD reference designs, includes CPU power consumption. Actual TDP of retail products may vary.

Mobile products[edit]

Model Launch Model Number Codename Architecture Fab (nm) Bus interface Clock rate Core config[a] Fillrate Memory Processing power
(GFLOPS)
TDP (Watts)
(GPU only)
API compliance (version)
Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (GiB) Bus width (bit) Bus type[b] Bandwidth (GB/s) Direct3D OpenGL[c] OpenCL
Radeon HD 7430M January 7, 2012 Seymour Pro Caicos
(RV910)
TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 600 900 160:8:4:2 2.4 4.8 1 64 DDR3 14.4 192 7 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7450M January 7, 2012 Seymour Pro Caicos
(RV910)
TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 700
700
900
800
160:8:4:2 2.8 5.6 1 64 DDR3
GDDR5
14.4
25.6
224 7 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7470M January 7, 2012 Seymour XT Caicos
(RV910)
TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 750
800
900
800
160:8:4:2 3.0
3.2
6
6.4
1 64 DDR3
GDDR5
14.4
25.6
240
256
7~9 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7490M January 7, 2012 Seymour XTX Caicos
(RV910)
TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 800 950 160:8:4:2 3.2 6.4 1 64 GDDR5 30.4 256 9 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7510M January 7, 2012 Thames LE Turks
(RV930)
TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450 800 400:20:8:5 3.6 9.0 1 64 DDR3 12.8 360 11 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7530M January 7, 2012 Thames LP Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450 900 400:24:8:5 3.6 9.0 1 64 DDR3 14.4 360 11 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7550M January 7, 2012 Thames Pro Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450
550
900
800
400:20:8:5 3.6
4.4
9.0
11.0
1 64 DDR3
GDDR5
14.4
25.6
360
440
13 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7570M January 7, 2012 Thames Pro Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450
650
900
800
400:20:8:5 3.6
5.2
9.0
13.0
1 64 DDR3
GDDR5
14.4
25.6
360
520
13~15 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7590M January 7, 2012 Thames XT Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 600 800 480:24:8:6 4.8 14.4 1 64 GDDR5 25.6 576 18 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7610M January 7, 2012 Thames LE Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450 800 400:20:8:5 3.6 9.0 1 128 DDR3 25.6 360 20 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7630M January 7, 2012 Thames LP Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450 800 480:24:8:6 3.6 10.8 1 128 DDR3 25.6 432 20~25 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7650M January 7, 2012 Thames Pro Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 450
550
800
800
480:24:8:6 3.6
4.4
10.8
13.2
1 128 DDR3 25.6 432
528
20~25 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7670M January 7, 2012 Thames Pro Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 600 900 480:24:8:6 4.8 14.4 1 128 DDR3
GDDR5
28.8
57.6
576 20~25 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7690M January 7, 2012 Thames XT Turks TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 725
600
900
900
480:24:8:6 5.8
4.8
17.4
14.4
1
2
128 DDR3
GDDR5
28.8
57.6
696
576
20~25 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7690M XT January 7, 2012 Thames XTX Turks
(RV930)
TeraScale 2 40 PCIe 2.1 ×16 725 900 480:24:8:6 5.8 17.4 1
2
128 GDDR5 57.6 696 25 11.0 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7730M April 24, 2012 Chelsea LP Cape Verde GCN 1st gen 28 PCIe 2.1 ×16 575
675
900
900
512:32:16:8 9.2
10.8
18.4
21.6
2 128 GDDR3 28.8 588.8
691.2
25~28 11.1 4.5 1.2
Radeon HD 7750M April 24, 2012 Chelsea Pro Cape Verde GCN 1st gen 28 PCIe 2.1 ×16 575 1000 512:32:16:8 9.2 18.4 1
2
128 GDDR5 64 588.8 28 11.1 4.5 1.2
Radeon HD 7770M April 24, 2012 Chelsea XT Cape Verde GCN 1st gen 28 PCIe 2.1 ×16 675 1000 512:32:16:8 10.8 21.6 1
2
128 GDDR5 64 691.2 32 11.1 4.5 1.2
Radeon HD 7850M April 24, 2012 Heathrow Pro Cape Verde GCN 1st gen 28 PCIe 3.0 ×16 675 1000 640:40:16:10 10.8 27 2 128 GDDR5 64 864 40 11.1 4.5 1.2
Radeon HD 7870M April 24, 2012 Heathrow XT Cape Verde GCN 1st gen 28 PCIe 3.0 ×16 800 1000 640:40:16:10 12.8 32 2 128 GDDR5 64 1024 40–45 11.1 4.5 1.2
Radeon HD 7970M April 24, 2012 Wimbledon XT Pitcairn GCN 1st gen 28 PCIe 3.0 ×16 850 1200 1280:80:32:20 27.2 68 2
4
256 GDDR5 153.6 2176 75 11.1 4.5 1.2
  1. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units
  2. ^ The effective data transfer rate of GDDR5 is quadruple its nominal clock, instead of double as it is with other DDR memory.
  3. ^ Vulkan 1.0 and OpenGL 4.5 possible with Driver Update Crimson 16.3 or higher.[13]

Integrated (IGP) products[edit]

Model Launch Codename Architecture Fab (nm) Clock rate (MHz) Core config[a] Fillrate Shared memory Processing power
(GFLOPS)
API compliance (version)
Core (MHz) Boost (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Bus width (bit) Bus type Bandwidth (GB/s) Direct3D OpenGL OpenCL
Radeon HD 7400G September 1, 2012 Scrapper TeraScale 3 32 327 424 192:12:4 1.31 3.92 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 125.57 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7420G June 1, 2012 Scrapper TeraScale 3 32 480 655 128:8:4 1.92 3.84 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 122.88 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7500G May 15, 2012 Scrapper TeraScale 3 32 327 424 256:16:8 2.62 5.23 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 167.42 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7520G June 1, 2012 Scrapper TeraScale 3 32 496 685 192:12:4 1.98 5.95 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 190.46 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7600G September 1, 2012 Devastator TeraScale 3 32 320 424 384:24:8 2.56 7.68 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 245.76 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7620G May 15, 2012 Devastator TeraScale 3 32 360 497 384:24:8 2.88 8.64 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 276.48 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7640G May 15, 2012 Devastator TeraScale 3 32 496 685 256:16:8 3.97 7.94 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 253.95 11 4.4 1.2
Radeon HD 7660G May 15, 2012 Devastator TeraScale 3 32 496 685 384:24:8 3.97 11.9 128 DDR3-1333 to 2133 21.33–34.13 380.93 11 4.4 1.2

Graphics device drivers[edit]

AMD's proprietary graphics device driver "Catalyst"[edit]

AMD Catalyst is being developed for Microsoft Windows and Linux. As of July 2014, other operating systems are not officially supported. This may be different for the AMD FirePro brand, which is based on identical hardware but features OpenGL-certified graphics device drivers.

AMD Catalyst supports all features advertised for the Radeon brand.

Free and open-source graphics device driver "Radeon"[edit]

The free and open-source drivers are primarily developed on Linux and for Linux, but have been ported to other operating systems as well. Each driver is composed out of five parts:

  1. Linux kernel component DRM
  2. Linux kernel component KMS driver: basically the device driver for the display controller
  3. user-space component libDRM
  4. user-space component in Mesa 3D;
  5. a special and distinct 2D graphics device driver for X.Org Server, which if finally about to be replaced by Glamor

The free and open-source "Radeon" graphics driver supports most of the features implemented into the Radeon line of GPUs.[14]

The free and open-source "Radeon" graphics device drivers are not reverse engineered, but based on documentation released by AMD.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Corresponding to 32 cores in "the closest reasonable mapping to the equivalent in a CPU".[8]:60

References[edit]

  1. ^ "AMD Catalyst™ 14.4 Windows® Release Notes". AMD. 2014-04-29. Retrieved 2014-08-11. 
  2. ^ Demerjian, Charlie (April 6, 2011). "AMD will out the 'Southern Islands' GPU architecture early". SemiAccurate. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Report: TSMC wins key 40-, 28-nm deals". EETimes. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-28. 
  4. ^ Charlie Demerjian (July 19, 2011). "Southern Islands, Kepler, and Apple's A6 process puzzle outed". Retrieved December 1, 2013. 
  5. ^ "AMD Eyefinity: FAQ". AMD. 2011-05-17. Retrieved 2014-07-02. 
  6. ^ a b "Review: AMD Radeon HD 7850 & 7870" (in French). BeHardware. March 5, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  7. ^ "AMD Radeon HD 7000 series reviewed". Hardware.Info. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  8. ^ Gaster, Benedict; Howes, Lee; Kaeli, David R.; Mistry, Perhaad; Schaa, Dana (2012). Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL: Revised OpenCL 1.2 Edition. Morgan Kaufmann. 
  9. ^ "AMD Radeon HD 7870 GHz Edition & Radeon HD 7850 Review: Rounding Out Southern Islands". AnandTech. Retrieved August 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/radeon-hd-7730-cape-verde-review,3575.html
  11. ^ https://www.amd.com/en-us/products/graphics/desktop/7000/7700#
  12. ^ "AMD launches Radeon 7790: Meet the Xbox 720's GPU". ExtremeTech. 2013-03-22. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  13. ^ JeGX (10 March 2016). "AMD Crimson 16.3 Graphics Driver Available with Vulkan Support". Geeks3D. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. 
  14. ^ "RadeonFeature". Xorg.freedesktop.org. Retrieved 2014-07-06. 
  15. ^ "AMD Developer Guideds". 

External links[edit]