Radial neuropathy

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Radial neuropathy
Gray818.png
Classification and external resources
Specialty neurology
ICD-10 G56.3
ICD-9-CM 354.3
eMedicine neuro/587
MeSH D020425

Radial neuropathy (or radial mononeuropathy) is a type of mononeuropathy which results from acute trauma to the radial nerve that extends the length of the arm.[1] It is known as transient paresthesia when sensation is temporarily abnormal.[2]

Signs/symptoms[edit]

Symptoms (and signs) of radial neuropathy vary depending on the severity of the trauma; however, common symptoms may include wrist drop, numbness (back of the hand and wrist), and inability to voluntarily straighten the fingers. Loss of wrist extension is due to loss of the ability to move of the posterior compartment of forearm muscles.[1][3]

In the event of lacerations to the wrist area the symptom would therefore be sensory. Additionally, depending on the type of trauma other nerves may be affected such as the median nerve and axillary nerves[4]

Causes[edit]

Radial Nerve - Anatomy, Innervation
Humerus - anterior view

There are many ways to acquire radial nerve neuropathy such as:[5]

  • Upper arm- causes could be a fracture of the bone which is usually the reason.
  • Elbow -causes could be that the nerve could have been entrapped.
  • Wrist -causes could be due to elbow deformity and soft-tissue masses
  • Axilla- here the most common cause is compression.However a dislocation of the head of the bone (humerus) is a possible factor as well.Additionally it could also be due to brachial plexus compression.

Mechanism[edit]

The mechanism of radial neuropathy is such that it can cause focal demyelination and axonal problems/degeneration (which is nerve fiber reaction to insult, and therefore axon death occurs).[6] These would be caused via laceration or compression of the nerve in question.[7]

Diagnosis[edit]

In terms of the diagnosis of radial neuropathy the following tests/exams can be done to ascertain the condition:[1]

Treatment[edit]

Hand tendons

The treatment and management of radial neuropathy can be achieved via the following methods:[1]

  • Tendon transfer (the origin remains the same however insertion is moved)[8][9]

Prognosis[edit]

In terms of prognosis radial neuropathy is not necessarily permanent, though sometimes there could be partial loss of movement/sensation.Complications may be possible deformity of the hand in some individuals.[10]

If the injury is axonal (the underlying nerve fiber itself is damaged) then full recovery may take months or years ( or could be permanent). EMG and nerve conduction studies are typically performed to diagnose the extent and distribution of the damage, and to help with prognosis for recovery.[medical citation needed]

Culture and society[edit]

There are a number of terms used to describe radial nerve injuries, which are dependent on the causation factor such as:

  • Saturday night palsy from falling asleep with one's arm hanging over the arm rest of a chair, compressing the radial nerve.[11]
  • Honeymoon palsy from another individual sleeping on and compressing one's arm overnight.[12]
  • Squash palsy, from traction forces associated with the sport squash,happens to squash players during periods between matches.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Radial Mononeuropathy: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". Mdscape. eMedicine. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  2. ^ "Paresthesia Information Page: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)". www.ninds.nih.gov. Retrieved 18 August 2016. 
  3. ^ Han, Bo Ram; Cho, Yong Jun; Yang, Jin Seo; Kang, Suk Hyung; Choi, Hyuk Jai (1 March 2014). "Clinical Features of Wrist Drop Caused by Compressive Radial Neuropathy and Its Anatomical Considerations". Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. 55 (3): 148–151. doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.55.3.148. ISSN 2005-3711. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  4. ^ Frontera, Walter R.; Silver, Julie K.; Jr, Thomas D. Rizzo. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 129. ISBN 9780323222723. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  5. ^ "Radial Nerve Lesion (C5-C8) Professional Reference | Patient". Patient. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  6. ^ Wang, Jack T.; Medress, Zachary A.; Barres, Ben A. (9 January 2012). "Axon degeneration: Molecular mechanisms of a self-destruction pathway". The Journal of Cell Biology. 196 (1): 7–18. doi:10.1083/jcb.201108111. ISSN 0021-9525. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  7. ^ Micheo, [edited by] William (2010). Musculoskeletal, Sports and Occupational Medicine. New York: Demos Medical Pub., LLC. p. 192. ISBN 9781617050077. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  8. ^ "Tendon Transfers: History, Concepts, Timing of Tendon Transfer". 
  9. ^ Wolfe, Scott W.; Pederson, William C.; Hotchkiss, Robert N.; Kozin, Scott H.; Cohen, Mark S. Green's Operative Hand Surgery: Expert Consult: Online and Print. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1078. ISBN 1455737410. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  10. ^ "Radial nerve dysfunction: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. NIH. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  11. ^ Goodman, Catherine C.; Fuller, Kenda S. Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 890. ISBN 1437708935. 
  12. ^ Ebnezar, John (2010). Textbook of Orthopedics. JP Medical Ltd. p. 342. ISBN 978-81-8448-744-2. 
  13. ^ "Medscape /Axillary Nerve Injury Associated With Sports". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 

Further reading[edit]