Radio New Zealand
|Māori: Te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa|
Radio New Zealand House, Wellington
|Crown Entity overview|
|Headquarters||Radio New Zealand House, Wellington|
|Crown Entity executive|
|Parent department||Ministry for Culture and Heritage|
Radio New Zealand (Māori: Te Reo Irirangi o Aotearoa), commonly known as Radio NZ or simply RNZ, is a New Zealand public-service radio broadcaster and Crown entity that was established under the Radio New Zealand Act 1995. It operates a news and current-affairs network, RNZ National, and a classical-music and jazz network, RNZ Concert, with full government funding from New Zealand on Air. Since 2014, the organisation's focus has been to transform RNZ from a radio broadcaster to a multimedia outlet, increasing its production of digital content in audio, video, and written forms.
The organisation plays a central role in New Zealand public broadcasting. By law, it is responsible for an international service (RNZ Pacific); this is broadcast to the South Pacific in both English and Pacific languages through its Pacific shortwave service. It has a statutory role under the Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002 to act as a "lifeline utility" in emergency situations. The New Zealand Parliament also fully funds its AM network, used in part for the broadcast of Parliamentary proceedings.
- 1 History
- 2 Radio services
- 3 RNZ News
- 4 Websites
- 5 Former commercial stations
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Government-funded public service radio in New Zealand was historically provided by the Radio Broadcasting Company between 1925 and 1931, the New Zealand Broadcasting Board between 1931 and 1936, the National Broadcasting Service between 1936 and 1962, the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation between 1962 and 1975, and the Radio New Zealand state-owned enterprise between 1975 and 1995. The organisation placed a strong emphasis on training its staff in Received Pronunciation, until it began promoting local and indigenous accents in the 1990s.
As part of the process of privatisation carried out by the fourth National government, the government's commercial radio operations were sold to private investors as The Radio Network in 1996 and the government's non-commercial assets (known previously as New Zealand Public Radio) became the current Radio New Zealand Crown entity.
The broadcaster is bound by the Charter and Operating Principles included in the Radio New Zealand Act, which is reviewed by the New Zealand Parliament every five years. The Radio New Zealand Amendment Act received Royal assent on 1 April 2016. There were some amendments to the Radio New Zealand Charter which can be found at rnz.co.nz/about/charter. Purpose:
(1) As an independent public service broadcaster, the public radio company’s purpose is to serve the public interest.
(2) Freedom of thought and expression are foundations of democratic society and the public radio company as a public service broadcaster plays an essential role in exercising these freedoms.
(3) The public radio company fosters a sense of national identity by contributing to tolerance and understanding, reflecting and promoting ethnic, cultural, and artistic diversity and expression.
(4) The public radio company provides reliable, independent, and freely accessible news and information.
RNZ broadcasts over three nationwide networks; RNZ National, RNZ Concert and the AM network which relays Parliamentary proceedings. RNZ Pacific (formerly Radio New Zealand International or RNZI) is our overseas shortwave service, broadcasting to the South Pacific and beyond, while Radio New Zealand News provides comprehensive, up-to-the-minute news and current affairs information. RNZ also allows for the archiving of broadcast material of historical interest.
It must also produce and commission high quality programming based on research of public needs, and balance mass appeal and minority appeal programming. In achieving these objectives, it must be socially and financially responsible.
RNZ National, formerly National Radio, is RNZ's comprehensive, authoritative and independent News and Current Affairs platform and is RNZ's core offering and the primary driver of audiences to RNZ; for both its own on-air and online services and also those from third party services. It includes the flagship news and current affairs programmes Morning Report, Midday Report and Checkpoint as well as having news bulletins every hour. Its news service has specialist correspondents, overseas correspondents, reporters and a network of regional reporters. Magazine programmes include a broad range of contributors, interviews, music pieces and dramas, with reports and regular features in English and Māori. The network provides coverage of science, politics, philosophy, religion, rural affairs, sports and other topics.
RNZ National broadcasts in AM and FM via mono terrestrial transmitters based around New Zealand and the Optus satellite. It is also available on Sky Digital TV channel 421, Freeview satellite channel 50, and RNZ National is available in stereo on the terrestrial Freeview HD service. You can visit RNZ's audience research page for up-to-date research for RNZ audiences.
RNZ Concert is New Zealand’s fine music network. Concert promotes New Zealand music and composition and features live broadcasts of concerts and recitals, as well as international content from other public radio broadcasters, podcasts, and on-demand programmes. RNZ Concert is an FM radio network broadcasting classical and jazz music, as well as world music, specialist programmes and regular news updates. The network was previously known as Concert FM but the name was changed as part of a wider name change within Radio New Zealand to associate Concert FM with the RNZ brand. Some changes were made to RNZ Concert in February 2018 and you can read what's new and the reasons why here.
The station broadcasts in FM stereo via terrestrial transmitters located around New Zealand, as well as from the Optus satellite. It is also available on Sky Digital TV channel 422, and on Freeview's satellite and terrestrial services on channel 51. The playlist is among the most diverse and eclectic of the world's state run classical music networks.
The AM Network is a network of radio transmitters operated by RNZ which broadcast all sittings of the New Zealand Parliament through a contract with the Parliament. Sitting hours are seasonal, and may be extended due to certain circumstances, but are generally 14:00 to 18:00 Tuesday to Thursday and 19:30 to 22:00 Tuesday and Wednesday. AM Network Parliamentary coverage is also streamed online, with podcasts and transcripts available.
The House is broadcast on RNZ on the House sitting days at 6:55pm and 5:40am and Sunday at 7:30am and 10:45pm. It looks at legislation, issues and insights from Parliament.
To help fund the operation of the station, RNZ has leased the remaining hours to Christian broadcaster Rhema Broadcasting Group since 1997, which uses the frequencies to broadcast the low-budget easy listening Southern Star network. The transmitters were previously used by The Concert Programme before it moved to FM broadcasting.
The RNZ Pacific network broadcasts on shortwave and via Digital Radio Mondiale to New Zealand's neighbouring countries in the Pacific from transmitters located at Rangitaiki, near Taupo, in the North Island. There also is a relay via WRN Broadcast and a livestream on the internet. The network was previously known as RNZ International, or RNZI.
RNZ's main news centres are located in Wellington and Auckland, with additional newsrooms in Whangarei, Hamilton, New Plymouth, Napier Hawkes Bay, Nelson, Christchurch, and Dunedin. There is also a Parliamentary Press Gallery office situated in the Beehive in Wellington.
Before 1996, the News service provided news to all commercial stations operated by Radio New Zealand as well as many independently owned stations. New owner The Radio Network launched its own news service.
As well as on the hour news bulletins, the RNZ News service provides vital elements throughout RNZ's 24-hour programming schedule - programmes such as Morning Report with Susie Ferguson and Guyon Espiner, Nine to Noon with Kathryn Ryan, Midday Report, and drive-time current affairs programme Checkpoint With John Campbell - bringing impartial news and information to New Zealanders every day.
- Politics - Jane Patterson/Chris Bramwell/Gia Garrick/Craig McCulloch/Jo Moir
- Business - Gyles Beckford/Nona Pelletier/Maddison Reidy
- Economics - Patrick O'Meara
- Health - Karen Brown
- Education - John Gerritsen
- Te Manu Korihi - John Boynton/Leigh-Marama McLachlan/Shannon Haunui-Thompson
- Regional Reporters:
- Northland - Lois Williams
- Waikato - Andrew McRae
- Hawke's Bay - Anusha Bradley
- Taranaki - Robin Martin
- Nelson - Tracy Neal
- Otago - Timothy Brown and Tess Brunton
The RNZ website, radio.co.nz, was launched in October 2005 and includes news coverage, programme information, online station streaming and podcasting. RNZ National, RNZ Concert, AM Network Parliament coverage, and RNZ International are available as Windows Media Audio streams. Almost all RNZ-produced programmes are available back to January 2008, and have MP3 and Ogg Vorbis and download and podcasts options. Some material is not available due to insufficient copyright clearances. With rebranding, the radionz.co.nz has been abbreviated to rnz.co.nz.
The website was awarded the Qantas Media Award for Best Website Design in 2007, a New Zealand Open Source Award in 2008, and New Zealand Radio Award for Best Radio Website in 2009. The site was re-launched on 26 May 2013 with a new design and a custom CMS built using the open source Ruby On Rails framework. A further redesign of the website along with a site re-launch happened in July 2016. Further design and user experience research and developments continue.
In October 2013, Radio New Zealand launched the youth-focused and non-commercial website 'The Wireless'. The website emerged from the push for a youth radio station as part of Radio New Zealand's offerings. Instead of creating a youth radio station, RNZ decided to create a website or online magazine that focused on 18- to 30-year-olds which would be more relevant to the demographic.
Project manager Marcus Stickley noted that: "RNZ has had the wisdom to recognize that it didn’t necessarily need to be under the RNZ brand. It needed to develop something specifically for that audience, and they’ve given us the freedom to go away and figure out exactly how to do that." The CEO of RNZ commented in April 2014 that The Wireless is “the most exciting innovation from RNZ in recent years.”
Former commercial stations
Prior to 1996 Radio New Zealand operated a large number of commercial stations around New Zealand. These stations were typically local stations with their own local identity with the origin of many stations going back to the 1930s up until more recent stations created in the 1990s. In 1996 the New Zealand Government sold off all of their commercial stations to a syndicate that included United States radio company Clear Channel Communications and publisher Wilson & Horton, in New Zealand the new owner became known as The Radio Network.
Heritage Classic Hits and Newstalk ZB stations
All of the early local radio stations started by Radio New Zealand originally broadcast on an AM frequency. FM broadcasting did not begin in New Zealand until the 1980s. In the 1980s and early 1990s most stations listed below switched to an FM frequency but continued to broadcast on the original AM frequency. Some stations utilised the AM frequency for specialised shows such as local talkback, sports talk and local news shows. In 1993 the majority of these stations were split in two with the AM frequency used to broadcast Auckland based Newstalk ZB which was originally Auckland's 1ZB. The local station on the FM frequency adopted a common format and brand called Classic Hits with all stations retaining local programming under Radio New Zealand's operation.
- Radio Northland Whangarei
- Newstalk 1ZB Auckland (very first Newstalk ZB station, adopted talk format in 1987)
- Classic Hits 97FM Auckland (very first Classic Hits station and originally 1ZM)
- ZHFM Waikato
- 95 BOP FM Tauranga
- Geyserland FM Rotorua
- Bay City Radio Hawkes Bay
- Radio Taranaki Taranaki
- 2ZA Palmerston North
- 2ZB and B90FM Wellington (2ZB became Newstalk ZB, B90FM became Classic Hits B90)
- Radio Nelson Nelson
- 3ZB and B98FM Christchurch (3ZB became Newstalk ZB, B90FM became Classic Hits B98)
- Radio Caroline Timaru
- ZBFM Dunedin
- 4ZA Southland
Radio New Zealand community stations operated in the heartland areas of New Zealand, typically these stations ran limited local programming such as a local breakfast show and at other times relayed a nearby station or relayed National Radio. Following the sale to The Radio Network most of these stations became part of the Community Radio Network with programming outside the breakfast show originating from Taupo. These stations later became part of the Classic Hits network in 2001.
- Radio Forestland Tokoroa
- King Country Radio Taumarunui
- Radio Waitomo Te Kuiti
- Lakeland FM Taupo
- ZGFM Gisborne
- River City FM Wanganui
- Wairarapa FM Wairarapa
- Radio Marlborough Marlborough
- Scenicland FM West Coast
- 3ZE Ashburton
- Radio Waitaki Oamaru
- 4ZG Radio Hokonui Gore (sold in 1994 to independent owner)
Radio New Zealand operated a youth network of stations under the ZM brand with the three original stations being in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. The Auckland station 1ZM changed format in 1987 to Classic Hits leaving just the Wellington and Christchurch stations. Since the sale to The Radio Network ZM has been expanded to a nationwide network based in Auckland.
Sports Roundup was a network which conducted seasonal sports broadcasts in the main centres during the 1980s and 1990s, particularly used to broadcast Cricket matches in New Zealand. Following the sale to The Radio Network, Sports Roundup became known as Radio Sport.
- 89X Auckland (purchased by Radio New Zealand in 1992, closed down 1993)
- Rock 99 Rotorua (closed down 1996)
- Classic Rock 96FM Hawkes Bay (replaced with ZM)
- Classic Rock Q91FM Palmerston North (replaced with ZM)
- Pullar-Strecker, Tom (25 October 2017). "Labour confirms big picture policy on public media". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "Radio New Zealand chief executive appointed". Radio New Zealand. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "About RNZ". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- "Radio New Zealand's Paul Thompson on the decline of radio". StopPress.co.nz. June 2014.
- Mediumwave Broadcasting Proposal PPT and PDF
- Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002 (2002 No 30) Archived 17 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Day, Patrick. Voice and Vision: A History of Broadcasting in New Zealand. Vol. 2. Auckland University Press, 2000.
- Bell, Allan. "This Isn't the BBC: Colonialism in New Zealand English." Applied Linguistics 3.3 (1982): 246-258.
- Bell, Allan, "Leaving Home: De-europeanisation in a post-colonial variety of broadcast news language.", Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe. Oslo, Norway: Novus (2011): 177-198.
- Radio New Zealand Act (No 2) 1995 (1995 No 53)
- "New Zealand Legislation". Legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
- "New Zealand Legislation". Legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
- Radio New Zealand Act 1995 (1995 No 52)
- "New Zealand Parliament House sitting programme". New Zealand Government. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- "About Southern Star". Sstar.co.nz. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
- "AM Network". Radio New Zealand. Retrieved 2009-06-10.
- Hope, Wayne. "New thoughts on the public sphere in Aotearoa New Zealand." Scooped: The politics and power of journalism in Aotearoa New Zealand (2012): 27-47.
- Norris, Paul, and Margie Comrie. "Changes in radio news 1994-2004." The great New Zealand radio experiment (2005): 175-194.
- "Previous Finalists and Winners - 2008 Winners". New Zealand Open Source Awards. New Zealand Open Source Society. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- Manhire, Toby (31 October 2013). "The Wireless: youth site a brave step into the net for Radio NZ". New Zealand Listener. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Switching on The Wireless". The Big Idea. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- Hurley, Emma (13 April 2014). "Broader casting". Salient. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "Home - The Wireless". thewireless.co.nz. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- Showcase of The Wireless on the NZ On Air website
- "About Radio NZ's new "millennial" venture, The Wireless", guest post on Public Address