Radio Research Project
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In 1937, the Rockefeller Foundation started funding research to find the effects of new forms of mass media on society, especially radio. Several universities joined up and a headquarters was formed at the School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. The following people were involved:
- Paul Lazarsfeld – Director of the Radio Project
- Theodor Adorno – Chief of the Music Division
- Hadley Cantril – A psychologist at Princeton University's Department of Psychology
- Gordon Allport – Another of Lazarsfeld's assistants, went on to be the Tavistock Institute's leading representative in the United States.
- Frank Stanton –A researcher from CBS sent to help the project. He went on to become president of CBS.
The Radio Project also conducted research on the infamous Halloween broadcast of The War of the Worlds in 1938. Of the estimated 6 million people who heard this broadcast, they found that 25% accepted the program's reports of mass destruction. The majority of these did not think they were hearing a literal invasion from Mars, but rather an attack by Germany. The researchers determined that radio broadcasts from the Munich Crisis may have lent credence to this supposition.
A third research project was that of listening habits. Because of this, a new method was developed to survey an audience – this was dubbed the Little Annie Project. The official name was the Stanton-Lazarsfeld Program Analyzer. This allowed one not only to find out if a listener liked the performance, but how they felt at any individual moment, through a dial which they would turn to express their preference (positive or negative). This has since become an essential tool in focus group research.
Theodor Adorno produced numerous reports on the effects of "atomized listening" which radio supported and of which he was highly critical. However, because of profound methodological disagreements with Lazarsfeld over the use of techniques such as listener surveys and "Little Annie" (Adorno thought both grossly simplified and ignored the degree to which expressed tastes were the result of commercial marketing), Adorno left the project in 1941.