|This article relies largely or entirely upon a single source. (February 2011)|
|First air date||March 23, 2002|
|Language(s)||Newscasts and informational content in Literary Arabic with a small content in spoken dialects. Songs are in spoken dialects, English and less likely Spanish.|
|Owner||Middle East Broadcasting Networks, Inc.|
Radio Sawa (Arabic: راديو سوا) is a 24-hour 7-day-a-week Arabic language radio station broadcasting in the Arab world. The station is a service of the Middle East Broadcasting Networks, Inc. and is publicly funded by the Broadcasting Board of Governors and the U.S. Congress. The word "sawa" (سوا, IPA: [ˈsæwæ, ˈsawa]) means "together" in many spoken Arabic dialects.
Preexisting attitudes and concurrent reality of opinions towards the United States led to the creation of Radio Sawa. It seeks to effectively communicate with the youthful population of Arabic-speakers in the Middle East. The station's goal is to promote pro-American attitudes to youth in the Arab world. Radio Sawa's first broadcast was on March 23, 2002. Its newscasts are broadcast live on air from its studios in Washington, DC and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Radio Sawa also has news bureaus and reporters throughout the Middle East.
Radio Sawa and its sister-network, Al Hurra TV, are part of a larger U.S. Public Diplomacy effort in the Middle East. Their stated mission is to "improve America's image in the Middle East and win the hearts and minds of the Arab people."
Radio Sawa replaced Voice of America's Arabic service, which had not been successful in attracting large audiences. The initiator of radio Sawa is American media mogul Norman Pattiz. He found that more than 60% of the Arab population was under the age of 30, which is why he decided to develop programming that would target the younger generation. Pattiz believed that the best way to reach the young people was with music. This is why the majority of the radio's programming consists of American and Arab pop music.
Radio Sawa is controlled by the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG), the Federal agency responsible for all U.S. international civilian broadcasting. The BBG founded the Middle East Broadcasting Networks (MBN), a non-profit news and information organization, to run Radio Sawa and Al Hurra TV.
Radio Sawa is a United States Congress-funded public relations endeavor that has enjoyed significant recent popularity in the Middle East.
In contrast to the Voice of America radio broadcasts in the region which it replaced, Radio Sawa blends news with contemporary music, arts and lifestyle and other light programming. Radio Sawa's programming consists of roughly 20-25% news and 75-80% pop songs.
Apart from songs, most other content is presented in the rubric "The World Now," which includes news, interviews, sports, etc.
There are also occasional specials.
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (July 2011)|
Radio Sawa has been subject to criticism from various observers, who question its effectiveness in conveying America's message to the Arab world. Radio Sawa is commonly seen as terms of a solution to public relations crisis during the time of its launch as a form of public diplomacy, 'suggesting by implication that American media efforts do have the power to transform opinion if only implemented in a different form'.
A study published in 2006, which surveyed college students at universities in five Arab countries, found that the students' attitudes towards U.S. foreign policy had actually worsened since they started listening to Radio Sawa and watching Al Hurra TV
Radio Sawa has also been criticized for its poor quality control and for its resistance to any outside review of its programming.
A 2004 draft report prepared by the State Department's inspector general was severely critical of the station. Experts cited in the report concluded that "Radio Sawa failed to present America to its audience."
The station's emphasis on popular music has led critics to question if music alone is enough to convey America's message. Some critics point out that what matters is "not just how many people are tuning in, but how many people are affected by a broadcast's content."
Radio Sawa is broadcast free across the region, using a combination of:
- Medium wave (AM) transmitters
- FM transmitters
- Digital audio satellite broadcasting (Eutelsat, Nilesat, Arabsat)
- Online internet streaming
Alongside the mainstream Radio Sawa broadcasts, there are various regional streams targeted to specific regions/countries which are also available online:
- Radio Sawa Egypt
- Radio Sawa Gulf
- Radio Sawa Iraq
- Radio Sawa Jordan
- Radio Sawa Lebanon
- Radio Sawa Libya
- Radio Sawa Morocco
- Radio Sawa Sudan
Names of the cities next to them the broadcast frequency of FM in MHz.
- Abu Dhabi – 98.7
- Agadir – 101.0
- Akkar, North Lebanon – 98.7
- Amman/West Bank – 98.1
- Amara – 91.6
- Baghdad – 100.5
- Basra – 107.0
- Beirut – 87.7
- Bekaa Valley/Western – 98.7
- Bethlehem/Ramallah – 94.2
- Casablanca – 101.5
- Djibouti – 100.8
- Doha – 92.6
- Dubai – 90.5
- Erbil – 106.6
- Fes – 97.9
- Hilla – 90.4
- Jenin – 93.5
- Khartoum – 97.5 FM
- Kirkuk – 98.8
- Kuwait – 95.7
- Manama – 89.2
- Marrakech – 101.7
- Meknes – 91.9
- Mosul – 106.6
- Najaf – 105.8
- Nasiriya – 103.6
- Northern Jordan – 107.4
- Rabat – 101.0
- Ramadi 97.6
- Samawa – 95.6
- Sidon – 87.7
- Sulimaniyah – 88.0
- Tangier – 101.8
- Tikrit – 97.1
- Tripoli, Lebanon – 87.7
- Zahle – 87.7
- Radio Sawa on Medium Wave Egypt-Levant – 990 kHz
- Iraq and The Gulf – 1548 kHz
- Sudan & Yemen – 1431 kHz
- Radio Farda, targeting Iran
- Press TV
- IRIB World Service
- Al Jazeera
- CCTV International Arabic
- Rusiya Al-Yaum (روسيا اليوم)
- Al Mayadeen (الميادين)
- France 24 (Monte Carlo Doualiya)
- "Radio Sawa". About Us. Radio Sawa. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- el Nawawy, Mohammed (2006). "US public diplomacy in the Arab world: The news credibility of Radio Sawa and Television Alhurra in five countries". Global Media and Communication 2 (2): 184.
- "Filtering the propaganda". Al-Ahram weekly. 16–22 May 2002.
- Hilmy, Sam (2007). "Radio Sawa: America's new adventure in radio broadcasting" (PDF). Arab Media and Society: 2.
- Gedda, George (2002). "Radio Sawa: Music as a tool" (PDF). Foreign Service Journal.
- Hilmy, Sam (2007). "Radio Sawa: America's new adventure in radio broadcasting" (PDF). Arab Media and Society: 1–2.
- Anthony York (April 21, 2003). "Propaganda or journalism?". salon.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007.
- Hilmy, Sam (2007). "Radio Sawa: America's new adventure in radio broadcasting" (PDF). Arab Media and Society: 3.
- Turner, Michael. "Radio Sawa in Jordan: Different Perceptions, Together?". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- el-Nawawy, Mohammed (2006). "US public diplomacy in the Arab world : the news credibility of Radio Sawa and Television Alhurra in five countries". Global Media and Communication 2 (2).
- Hilmy, Sam (2007). "Radio Sawa: America's new adventure in radio broadcasting" (PDF). Arab Media and Society: 13.
- Kessler, Glenn (2004-10-13). "The Role of Radio Sawa In Mideast Questioned". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- Hunt, Kasie (2005-07-16). "ARE U.S. ARABIC PROGRAMS BEING HEARD?". National Journal: 2300.
- "Frequencies of Broadcasting". Radio Sawa. Retrieved 2014-01-28. (Arabic)
- Radio Sawa description in English
- Broadcasting Board of Governors' Radio Sawa page at the Wayback Machine (archived May 6, 2009)