Radula marginata

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Radula marginata
Scientific classification
R. marginata
Binomial name
Radula marginata

Radula marginata (Wairuakohu) is a species of plant in genus Radula[1], a genus of liverworts. It is endemic to New Zealand.[2][3] It has been found to contain cannabinoids.[4] [5]


Users smoking the plant have experienced different effects.[6][citation needed] The cannabinoid is not THC, the main psychoactive chemical in cannabis, but it is of similar molecular structure.[4] The liverwort contains perrottetinene and perrottetinenic acid.[4] The quantity of cannabinoid present is much less than in cannabis. Perrottetinene has been shown to be a moderately potent CB1 agonist leading to mild psychoactive effects in mice.[7]

Legal status[edit]

The liverwort grows as a common weed.[citation needed] Owning, growing and distributing the liverwort is legal.

Radula marginata has a long history of traditional use as a rongoā (Māori herbal medicine),[8] and is a taonga of the Māori people of New Zealand, so any attempt to prohibit its use would be a breach of the Treaty of Waitangi .[citation needed]


  1. ^ https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11101-019-09638-8
  2. ^ http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=GBIF2550163
  3. ^ http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=GBIF2550057
  4. ^ a b c Toyota, M., et al. (2002). New bibenzyl cannabinoid from the New Zealand liverwort Radula marginata. Chem Pharm Bull. 50(10) 1390.
  5. ^ Hussain, Tajammul; Plunkett, Blue; Ejaz, Mahwish; Espley, Richard V.; Kayser, Oliver (2018). "Identification of Putative Precursor Genes for the Biosynthesis of Cannabinoid-Like Compound in Radula marginata". Frontiers in Plant Science. 9: 537. doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.00537. PMC 5954354. PMID 29868043.
  6. ^ http://www.tripme.co.nz/forums/showthread.php?t=1943
  7. ^ Chicca, A.; Schafroth, M. A.; Reynoso-Moreno, I.; Erni, R.; Petrucci, V.; Carreira, E. M.; Gertsch, J. (2018-10-01). "Uncovering the psychoactivity of a cannabinoid from liverworts associated with a legal high". Science Advances. 4 (10): eaat2166. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aat2166. ISSN 2375-2548.
  8. ^ NZ's Drug History...From Zero. Stuff.co.nz, republished from Radio New Zealand, 7 November 2016