Rafael of Makuria

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Rafael (Old Nubian: Ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, Raphael; c. 1002) was a ruler of the Nubian kingdom of Makuria. Contemporary writers, such as Abu Salih the Armenian, record that he constructed a palace with several domes built of red brick in the capital city, Old Dongola, around 1002, which excavations have yet to identify.[1]


  1. ^ P.L. Shinnie, Ancient Nubia (London: Kegan Paul, 1996), pp. 129; B.T.A. Evetts (translator), The Churches and Monasteries of Egypt and Some Neighbouring Countries attributed to Abu Salih, the Armenian, with added notes by Alfred J. Butler (Oxford, 1895), p. 265.
Preceded by
King of Makuria Succeeded by
Georgios III