|Rafetus swinhoei in Hanoi, Vietnam|
Two or three, see text.
- Rafetus euphraticus (Daudin, 1801) – Euphrates softshell turtle
- Rafetus swinhoei (Gray, 1873) – Yangtze giant softshell turtle
A third species, Rafetus leloii Hà, 2000 (synonym R. vietnamensis Le et al., 2010), known commonly as the Hoan Kiem turtle, has been proposed as a species. It is considered a junior synonym of Rafetus swinhoei by most authorities, but some Vietnamese scientists insist the two forms are not identical. The last known individual at Hoan Kiem Lake was found dead on 19 January 2016.
As drawn by Walter G. Joyce, Ariel Revan, Tyler R. Lyson, and Igor G. Danilov (2009)
- Rafetus euphraticus: had been found at Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and Khūzestān Province of Iran. The International Union for Conservation of Nature rates it as Endangered.
- Rafetus swinhoei: Only three known living individuals, two in Chinese Zoos and another in Dong Mo, Vietnam. IUCN rates it as critically endangered. Fourth specimen found in Hoan Kiem Lake may be a distinct species.
- Farkas B, Webb RG (2003). "Rafetus leloii Hà Dinh Dúc, 2000 — an invalid species of softshell turtle from Hoan Kiem Lake, Hanoi, Vietnam (Reptilia, Testudines, Trionychidae)". Zool. Abhandl. (Dresden) 53: 107-112.
- Joyce, Walter G.; Revan, Ariel; Lyson, Tyler R.; Danilov, Igor G. (2009). "Two New Plastomenine Softshell Turtles from the Paleocene of Montana and Wyoming" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 50 (2): 307–325. doi:10.3374/014.050.0202.
- Ghaffari, H.; Taskavak, E.; Turkozan, O.; Mobaraki, A. (2017). "Rafetus euphraticus ". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017.
- Asian Turtle Trade Working Group (2000). "Rafetus swinhoei ". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2000.
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- Gray JE (1864). "Revision of the Species of Trionychidae found in Asia and Africa, with Descriptions of some New Species". Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1864: 76-98. (Rafetus, new genus, p. 81).