Rage Against the Machine
|Rage Against the Machine|
|Origin||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
Rage Against the Machine is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California. Formed in 1991, the group consists of vocalist Zack de la Rocha, bassist and backing vocalist Tim Commerford, guitarist Tom Morello, and drummer Brad Wilk. Rage Against the Machine is well known for the members' revolutionary political views, which are expressed in many of the band's songs. As of 2010, they had sold over 16 million records worldwide.
In 1992, the band released its self-titled debut album, which became a commercial and critical success, leading to a slot in the 1993 Lollapalooza festival. In 2003, the album was ranked number 368 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. A follow-up record was released in 1996, with Evil Empire. The band's third album, The Battle of Los Angeles, followed in 1999, and in 2003, the album was ranked number 426 on the same list. During their initial nine-year run, they became one of the most popular and influential bands in music history, according to music journalist Colin Devenish. They were also ranked No. 33 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. The band had a large influence on the nu metal genre which came to prominence during the second half of the 1990s.
In 2000, the band released the cover album Renegades. The same year, growing tensions over the direction of the band prompted de la Rocha to quit, leading to the band's breakup. De la Rocha started a low-key solo career, while the rest of the band formed the rock supergroup Audioslave with Chris Cornell, the former frontman of Soundgarden; Audioslave recorded three albums before disbanding in 2007. The same year, Rage Against the Machine announced a reunion and performed together for the first time in seven years at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in April 2007. Up until 2011, the band continued to perform at more live venues and festivals around the world. In 2016, Morello, Commerford and Wilk formed a new band, Prophets of Rage, with Chuck D and B-Real. In 2017, they were nominated for induction into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility.
- 1 History
- 2 Musical style and influences
- 3 Political views and activism
- 4 Members
- 5 Awards and nominations
- 6 Discography
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
1991–1992: Early years
In 1991, following the break-up of guitarist Tom Morello's former band Lock Up, former Lock Up drummer Jon Knox encouraged Tim Commerford and Zack de la Rocha to jam with Tom Morello as he was looking to start a new group. Morello soon contacted Brad Wilk, who had unsuccessfully auditioned for Lock Up. This lineup named themselves Rage Against the Machine, after a song de la Rocha had written for his former underground hardcore punk band Inside Out (also to be the title of the unrecorded Inside Out full-length album). Kent McClard, with whom Inside Out were associated, had coined the phrase "rage against the machine" in a 1989 article in his zine No Answers.
Shortly after forming, they gave their first public performance on October 23, 1991, at the Quad of California State University, Northridge. The blueprint for the group's major-label debut album, demo tape Rage Against the Machine, was laid on a twelve-song self-released cassette, the cover image of which featured newspaper clippings of the stockmarket section with a single match taped to the inlay card. Not all 12 songs made it onto the final album—two were eventually included as B-sides, while three others never saw an official release. Several record labels expressed interest, and the band eventually signed with Epic Records. Morello said, "Epic agreed to everything we asked—and they've followed through ... We never saw a[n] [ideological] conflict as long as we maintained creative control."
1992–2000: Mainstream success
Problems playing this file? See media help.
The band's debut album, Rage Against the Machine, reached triple platinum status, driven by heavy radio play of the song "Killing in the Name", a heavy, driving track featuring only eight lines of lyrics. The "Fuck you" version, which contains 17 iterations of the word fuck, was once accidentally played on the BBC Radio 1 Top 40 singles show on February 21, 1993. The album's cover featured Malcolm Browne's Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph of Thích Quảng Đức, a Vietnamese Buddhist monk, burning himself to death in Saigon in 1963 in protest of the murder of Buddhists by the U.S.-backed Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm's regime. The album was produced by Garth Richardson. To promote the album, the band went on tour, playing at Lollapalooza 1993 and as support for Suicidal Tendencies in Europe. In 2003, the album was ranked number 368 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.
After their debut album, the band appeared on the soundtrack for the film Higher Learning with the song "Year of tha Boomerang". An early version of "Tire Me" also appeared in the movie. Subsequently, they re-recorded the song "Darkness" from their original demo for the soundtrack of The Crow, while "No Shelter" appeared on the Godzilla soundtrack.
Despite rumors of a breakup for several years, Rage Against the Machine's second album, Evil Empire, entered Billboard's Top 200 chart at number one in 1996, and subsequently rose to triple platinum status. The song "Bulls on Parade" was performed on Saturday Night Live in April 1996. Their planned two-song performance was cut to one song when the band attempted to hang inverted American flags from their amplifiers ("a sign of distress or great danger"), a protest against having Republican presidential candidate Steve Forbes as guest host on the program that night.
In 1997, the band opened for U2 on their PopMart Tour, for which all of Rage's profits went to support social organizations, including U.N.I.T.E., Women Alive and the Zapatista Front for National Liberation. Rage subsequently began an abortive headlining U.S. tour with special guests Wu-Tang Clan. Police in several jurisdictions unsuccessfully attempted to have the concerts cancelled, citing amongst other reasons, the bands' "violent and anti-law enforcement philosophies". Wu-Tang Clan were eventually removed from the lineup and replaced with The Roots, when Wu-Tang Clan pulled a no show during a concert at Riverport. On the Japan leg of their tour promoting Evil Empire, a compilation album composed of the band's B-side recordings titled Live & Rare was released by Sony Records. A live video, also titled Rage Against the Machine, was released later the same year.
In 1999 Rage Against the Machine played at the infamous Woodstock '99 concert. The following release, The Battle of Los Angeles also debuted at number one in 1999, selling 450,000 copies in the first week and then going double-platinum. That same year the song "Wake Up" was featured on the soundtrack of the film The Matrix. The track "Calm Like a Bomb" was later featured in the film's sequel, 2003's The Matrix Reloaded. In 2000, the band planned to support the Beastie Boys on the "Rhyme and Reason" tour; however, the tour was cancelled when Beastie Boys drummer Mike D suffered a serious injury. In 2003, The Battle of Los Angeles was ranked number 426 on Rolling Stone's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time.
2000–2006: Break-up and subsequent projects
On January 26, 2000, an altercation during filming of the video for "Sleep Now in the Fire", directed by Michael Moore, caused the doors of the New York Stock Exchange to be closed and the band to be escorted from the site by security after band members attempted to gain entry into the exchange. The video shoot had attracted several hundred people, according to a representative for the city's Deputy Commissioner for Public Information. New York City's film office does not allow weekday film shoots on Wall Street. Moore had permission to use the steps of Federal Hall National Memorial but did not have a permit to shoot on the sidewalk or the street, nor did he have a loud-noise permit or the proper parking permits. "Michael basically gave us one directorial instruction, "No matter what happens, don't stop playing", Tom Morello recalls. When the band left the steps, police officers apprehended Moore and led him away. Moore yelled to the band, "Take the New York Stock Exchange!" In an interview with the Socialist Worker, Morello said he and scores of others ran into the Stock Exchange. "About two hundred of us got through the first set of doors, but our charge was stopped when the Stock Exchange's titanium riot doors came crashing down." "For a few minutes, Rage Against the Machine was able to shut down American capitalism", Moore said. "An act that I am sure tens of thousands of downsized citizens would cheer".
On September 7, 2000, the band attended the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards, and performed "Testify". After the Best Rock Video award was given to Limp Bizkit, however, Commerford climbed onto the scaffolding of the set. Commerford and his bodyguard were sentenced to a night in jail and de la Rocha reportedly left the awards after the stunt. Morello recalled that Commerford relayed his plan to the rest of the band before the show, and that both de la Rocha and Morello advised him against it immediately after Bizkit was presented the award.
On October 18, 2000, de la Rocha released a statement announcing his departure from the band. He said, "I feel that it is now necessary to leave Rage because our decision-making process has completely failed. It is no longer meeting the aspirations of all four of us collectively as a band, and from my perspective, has undermined our artistic and political ideal." "There was so much squabbling over everything", explained Morello, "and I mean everything. We would even have fist fights over whether our T-shirts should be mauve or camouflaged! It was ridiculous. We were patently political, internally combustible. It was ugly for a long time".
The band's next album, Renegades, was a collection of covers of artists as diverse as Devo, EPMD, Minor Threat, Cypress Hill, the MC5, Afrika Bambaataa, the Rolling Stones, Eric B. & Rakim, Bruce Springsteen, the Stooges, and Bob Dylan. It achieved platinum status a month later. The following year saw the release of another live video, The Battle of Mexico City, while 2003 brought the live album Live at the Grand Olympic Auditorium, an edited recording of the band's final concerts on September 12 and 13, 2000, at the Grand Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles. It was accompanied by an expanded DVD release of the last show, which included a previously unreleased video for "Bombtrack".
In the wake of the September 11 attacks, the controversial 2001 Clear Channel memorandum contained a long list of what the memo termed "lyrically questionable" songs for the radio, uniquely listing all of Rage Against the Machine's songs.
After the group's breakup, Morello, Wilk, and Commerford decided to stay together and find a new vocalist. "There was talk for a while of us becoming Ozzy Osbourne's backing band, and even Macy Gray's", said Morello. "We informed them that losing our singer was actually a blessing in disguise, and that we had bigger ambitions than being somebody's hired musicians." They eventually teamed up with then-former Soundgarden singer Chris Cornell to form Audioslave. The first Audioslave single, "Cochise", was released in early November 2002, and a self-titled debut album followed to mainly positive reviews. Compared to Rage Against the Machine, most of Audioslave's music was apolitical, although some songs touched on political issues. Their second album Out of Exile debuted at the number one position on the Billboard charts in 2005. Audioslave released its third album Revelations on September 5, 2006, but an accompanying tour did not occur as Cornell and Morello were working on solo albums. After months of inactivity and rumors of a breakup, Audioslave disbanded on February 15, 2007, after Cornell announced he was leaving the band.
Morello began his own solo career in 2003, playing political acoustic folk music at open-mic nights and various clubs under the alias the Nightwatchman, which he formed as an outlet for his political views while playing apolitical music with Audioslave. He first participated in Billy Bragg's Tell Us the Truth tour with no plans to record, but later recorded a song for Songs and Artists that Inspired Fahrenheit 9/11, "No One Left". In February 2007, he announced a solo album, entitled One Man Revolution, which was released in April 2007. Morello followed up his first studio album with The Fabled City which was released on September 30, 2008. During the latter days of his career as the Nightwatchman, Morello joined up with Boots Riley and formed the rap rock group Street Sweeper Social Club, which released its debut self-titled album in June 2009.
Meanwhile, de la Rocha had been working on a solo album collaboration with DJ Shadow, Company Flow, Roni Size and The Roots' Questlove, but dropped the project in favor of working with Nine Inch Nails' Trent Reznor. Recording was completed but the album has not been released. A collaboration between de la Rocha and DJ Shadow, the song "March of Death" was released for free online in 2003 in protest against the imminent invasion of Iraq, and the 2004 soundtrack Songs and Artists that Inspired Fahrenheit 9/11 included one of the collaborations with Reznor, "We Want It All". In late 2005, de la Rocha was seen singing and playing the jarana huasteca with Son Jarocho band Son de Madera on multiple occasions. Rage Against the Machine was ranked 33rd on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock list in 2005.
Members of the band had been offered large sums of money to reunite for concerts and tours, and had turned the offers down. Rumors of tension between de la Rocha and the other former band members subsequently circulated, but Commerford said that he and de la Rocha saw each other often and went surfing together, while Morello said he and de la Rocha communicated by phone, and had met up at a September 15, 2005 protest in support of the South Central Farm.
2007–2008: Reunion and tours
Rumors that Rage Against the Machine could reunite at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival were circulating in mid-January 2007, and were confirmed on January 22. The band was confirmed to be headlining the final day of Coachella 2007. The reunion was described by Morello as primarily being a vehicle to voice the band's opposition to the "right-wing purgatory" the United States has "slid into" under the George W. Bush administration since Rage Against the Machine's dissolution. Though the performance was initially thought to be a one-off, this turned out not to be the case.
On April 14, 2007, Morello and de la Rocha reunited onstage early to perform a brief acoustic set at a Coalition of Immokalee Workers rally in downtown Chicago. Morello described the event as "very exciting for everybody in the room, myself included". This was followed by the scheduled Coachella performance on Sunday, April 29 where the band staged a much anticipated performance in front of an EZLN backdrop to the largest crowds of the festival.
Rage Against the Machine continued to tour in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Japan, and also played a series of shows in Europe in Summer 2008 including Rock am Ring and Rock im Park, Pinkpop Festival, T in the Park in Scotland, the Hultsfred Festival in Sweden, the Reading and Leeds Festivals in England and the Oxegen Festival in Ireland. The band also performed on August 2, 2008, in Chicago as one of the headliners (Radiohead, Kanye West and Nine Inch Nails being the other three) for the 2008 Lollapalooza Music Festival. When asked in May 2007 if the band were planning on writing a new album, Morello replied:
There are no plans to do that... That's a whole other ball of wax right there. Writing and recording albums is a whole different thing than getting back on the bike (laughs), you know, and playing these songs. But I think that the one thing about the Rage catalog is that to me none of it feels dated. You know, it doesn't feel at all like a nostalgia show. It feels like these are songs that were born and bred to be played now.
Morello declined to comment about the possibility of a new album when interviewed by MTV News in April 2008. In July 2008, it was revealed that de la Rocha had begun a new project called One Day as a Lion with drummer Jon Theodore formerly of The Mars Volta, with an eponymous EP released on July 22, 2008.
In August 2008, de la Rocha revealed his take on the possibility of new material:
We're going to keep playing shows – we have a couple of big ones happening in front of both conventions. As far as us recording music in the future, I don't know where we all fit with that. We've all embraced each other's projects and support them, and that's great.
In August 2008, during the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Rage headlined the free Tent State Music Festival to End the War. The band was supported by Flobots, State Radio, Jello Biafra, and Wayne Kramer. Following the concert, the band, following uniformed veterans from Iraq Veterans Against the War, led the 8,000 attendees to the Denver Coliseum on a 6-mile march to Invesco Field, host of the DNC. After a 4-hour stand-off with police, Obama's campaign agreed to meet with members of Iraq Veterans Against the War and hear their demands.
In September 2008, Rage performed at the Target Center in Minneapolis during the Republican National Convention. The previous day, they attempted to play a surprise set at a free anti-RNC concert at the Minnesota Capitol in St. Paul, but were prevented from doing so by the police. Instead, de la Rocha and Morello rapped and sang through a megaphone. Later that evening, Morello and Boots Reilly joined up with Billy Bragg and Jim Walsh for a three-hour jam session at Pepitos Parkway theater in south Minneapolis.
In December 2008, Tom Morello revealed that Rage Against the Machine shows in 2009 were a possibility, although plans for the band to record a new studio album were very unlikely. When asked by Billboard.com whether they planned to head to the studio in 2009, Morello stated: "we've had a wonderful year and a half of playing shows, and I don't see any reason to not play more shows. The thing is there's only so many hours in the musical day, and mine are very occupied right now".
Morello elaborated that the Nightwatchman is now "my principal musical focus, as I see it, for the remainder of my life. From the earliest days of playing open mic nights at coffee houses, it was apparent to me that this music was as important to me as any music I've ever been involved in. It really encapsulates everything I want to do as an artist." He repeated this point in an interview with the Los Angeles Times.
However, After the "Rage Factor" celebratory show in Finsbury Park on June 6, 2010, after the campaign to get "Killing in the Name" to the No. 1 spot on Christmas, Zack de la Rocha stated that it was a "genuine possibility". Stating that they may use the momentum from the campaign to get back into the studio and write a follow-up record to 2000s Renegades after 10 years. When talking to NME, Zack de la Rocha said: "I think it's a genuine possibility, We have to get our heads around what we’re going to do towards the end of the year and finish up on some other projects and we’ll take it from there."
2009–2015: "Killing in the Name" campaign, European tour, and L.A. Rising
In December 2009, a campaign was launched on Facebook by Jon Morter and his wife Tracy, in order to stop, most notably, The X Factor hits from becoming almost automatic Christmas number ones on the UK Singles Chart. It generated nationwide publicity and took the track "Killing in the Name" to the coveted Christmas number one slot in the UK Singles Chart, which had been dominated for four consecutive years from 2005 by winners from the popular TV show The X Factor. Before the chart was announced on December 20, 2009, the Facebook group membership stood at over 950,000, and was acknowledged (and supported) by Tom Morello, Dave Grohl, Paul McCartney, Muse, Fightstar, NME, John Lydon, Bill Bailey, Lenny Henry, BBC Radio 1, Hadouken!, the Prodigy, Stereophonics, BBC Radio 5 Live, and even the 2004 X Factor winner Steve Brookstein, amongst numerous others. On the morning of December 17, Rage Against the Machine played a slightly censored version of "Killing in the Name" live on Radio 5 Live, but four repeats of 'Fuck you I won't do what you tell me' were aired before the song was pulled. During the interview before the song they reiterated their support for the campaign and their intentions to support charity with the proceeds. The campaign was ultimately successful, and "Killing in the Name" became the number-one single in the UK for Christmas 2009. Zack de la Rocha spoke to BBC One upon hearing the news, stating that:
We're very very ecstatic and excited about the song reaching the number one spot. We want to thank everyone that participated in this incredible, organic, grass-roots campaign. It says more about the spontaneous action taken by young people throughout the UK to topple this very sterile pop monopoly. When young people decide to take action they can make what's seemingly impossible, possible.
The band also set a new record, achieving the biggest download sales total in a first week ever in the UK charts. de la Rocha also promised the band would perform a free concert in the UK sometime in 2010 to celebrate the achievement. True to their word, the band announced that they would be performing a free concert at Finsbury Park, London on June 6, 2010. The concert, dubbed "The Rage Factor", gave away all the tickets by free photo registration to prevent touting over the weekend of the February 13–14, followed by an online lottery on February 17. This proved to be popular, with many users facing connection issues. The tickets were all allocated by 13:30 that same day. After allowing ticket holders to vote for who they wanted to be the support acts for "The Rage Factor", it was announced that Gogol Bordello, Gallows and Roots Manuva would support Rage Against the Machine at the concert.
In addition to the free gig at Finsbury Park, the band headlined European festivals in June 2010 including the Download Festival at Donington Park, England, Rock am Ring and Rock im Park in Germany and Rock in Rio Madrid in Spain. They also performed in Ireland on June 8 and the Netherlands on June 9. Zack de la Rocha had stated that it was a definite possibility that the band would record a new album, the first time since 2000's Renegades. Morter confirmed this, stating the discussions he and the band had backstage before the Finsbury Park gig saying the band did write new material, but they had no motivation to release them until now. de la Rocha mentioned the very strong reaction from the Download Festival 2010 audience as an incentive for releasing new material. In addition, the band returned to Los Angeles on July 23, 2010 for their first U.S. show in two years and their first hometown show in 10 years. The concert benefited Arizona organizations that are fighting the SB1070 immigration law. On the night of the show, a spokesperson announced to the crowd that ticket sales—all of which are non-profit to the bands—had raised $300,000. The band has been confirmed to do a short South American tour in October, performing at venues such as the SWU Festival in Brazil, the Maquinaria Festival in Chile, and Pepsi Music Festival in Argentina. It was the first time the band played in those countries.
During an interview with the Chilean newspaper La Tercera in October 2010, de la Rocha allegedly confirmed that a new album was in the works, with a possibility of a 2011 release. De la Rocha is reported as saying, "We are all bigger and more mature and we do not fall into the problems we faced 10 or 15 years ago. This is different and we project a lot: we are working on a new album due out next year, perhaps summer for the northern hemisphere". However, in early May 2011, guitarist Tom Morello said that the band were not working on a new album, but would not rule out the possibility of future studio work. "The band is not writing songs, the band is not in the studio", Morello told The Pulse of Radio. "We get along famously and we all, you know, intend to do more Rage Against the Machine stuff in the future, but beyond sort of working out a concert this year, there's nothing else on the schedule (for 2011)". The band created its own festival, the L.A. Rising. As Morello stated, the only Rage Against the Machine appearance for 2011 was a performance on July 30 at the L.A. Rising festival with El Gran Silencio, Immortal Technique, Lauryn Hill, Rise Against and Muse. As of mid-2012, there are no plans for any more shows. During an interview on July 30, 2011, Commerford seemingly contradicted Morello's comments, stating that new material was being written, and specific plans for the next two years were in place.
In an October 2012 interview with TMZ, bassist Tim Commerford was asked if Rage Against the Machine was working on a new album. He simply responded, "maybe". Asked by TMZ again in November 2012 whether a new album was being worked on, Commerford replied "definitely maybe ... anything's possible". Later that month, however, Morello denied that they were working on new material, and stated that Rage Against the Machine has "no plans beyond" the reissue of their self-titled debut album. Morello said he would be open to recording new Rage Against the Machine material, but added that it was "not on the table right now".
The band announced on October 9 via their Facebook page that they would be releasing a special 20th anniversary box set to commemorate the group's debut album. The full box set contains never-before-released concert material, including the band's 2010 Finsbury Park show and footage from early in their career, as well as a digitally-remastered version of the album, b-sides and the original demo tape (on disc for the first time). The band released 3-disc and single-disc versions. The collection was released on November 27.
On April 30, 2014, drummer Brad Wilk stated that Rage Against the Machine's 2011 performance at L.A. Rising may have been their final show. In February 2015, Tim Commerford precised that uncertainty was typical of the band's functioning, speculating: "It could be tomorrow; it could be 10 years from now".
On October 16, 2015, the 2010 gig in Finsbury Park was released as a DVD and Blu-ray called Live at Finsbury Park.
2016–present: Prophets of Rage
In May 2016, the band launched a countdown website, prophetsofrage.com, with a clock counting down to June 1. Accompanying the clock was an image of a broken slash through a circle with silhouettes of five people all extending their arms and clenched fists with the hashtag "#takethepowerback" underneath the timer. This led to speculation of the return of the band later in the year. However, a source close to Rage Against the Machine told Rolling Stone that the Prophets of Rage website had nothing do with the announcement of a "Rage-specific reunion", but added that "some of the members" of the band have been working on a project that will include live shows.
It was confirmed that Prophets of Rage is a new supergroup formed by Morello, Wilk and Commerford, with Chuck D of Public Enemy and B-Real of Cypress Hill. The band toured through the remainder of 2016 and played the songs of the three bands in which the members of this group participated in before.
Despite Morello, Wilk and Commerford's involvement in Prophets of Rage, Commerford confirmed in an interview with Rolling Stone that Rage Against the Machine has not split up, explaining, "We just do things our own way. Throughout our career, we never did what anyone wanted us to do. We never made the records people wanted us to make. We never played by the rules people wanted us to play by. And here we are, 25 years later, still a band. Clearly that means something. And if we did ever play or make new music or anything, it would be a very big deal. And there's a lot of bands that I've seen come along during that 25-year period that did everything the record companies and the powers-that-be wanted them to do, and they sold millions of records. But where are they now? They're gone." Morello added, "Right now...the cold embers of Rage Against the Machine are now the burning fire of Prophets of Rage. Where Rage Against the Machine lives, is this summer in these songs that we are playing. And we have nothing but the greatest love and honor and respect for Zack de la Rocha, the brilliant lyricist of Rage Against the Machine, who is working on his own music, which I'm sure will be fantastic—he's a great artist in his own right. But where you're going to hear Rage Against the Machine is in Prophets of Rage."
In May 2018, Wilk stated that "nothing would make him happier" if the band were to reunite, but stated "It’s just really a matter of getting us all on the same page". 
Musical style and influences
Inspired from early heavy metal instrumentation, hip hop acts such as Afrika Bambaataa, Public Enemy, and the Beastie Boys, punk rock such as the Sex Pistols and Fugazi, and Dutch crossover band Urban Dance Squad., Rage Against the Machine has been noted for its "fiercely polemical music, which brewed sloganeering leftist rants against corporate America, cultural imperialism, and government oppression into a Molotov cocktail of punk rock, hip-hop, and thrash." Zack de la Rocha's lyrics and choruses are defined by a heavy use of sloganeering and repetition on songs like "Bulls on Parade", "Guerrilla Radio", "Testify", and "Down Rodeo". Guitarist Tom Morello, on the other hand, was considered the guitar player but also the DJ in Rage.
Rage Against the Machine has been described as rap metal, rap rock, funk metal, alternative metal, and nu metal. Although the band has been described as nu metal, Rage Against the Machine is often instead considered a predecessor to nu metal that influenced nu metal.
Political views and activism
The members of Rage Against the Machine are well known for their leftist and revolutionary political views, and almost all of the band's songs focus on these views. Key to the band's identity, Rage Against the Machine has voiced viewpoints highly critical of the domestic and foreign policies of current and previous U.S. governments. Throughout its existence, Rage Against the Machine and its individual members participated in political protests and other activism to advocate these beliefs. The band sees its music as a vehicle for social activism; De la Rocha explained, "I'm interested in spreading those ideas through art, because music has the power to cross borders, to break military sieges and to establish real dialogue." Morello said of wage slavery in America:
America touts itself as the land of the free, but the number one freedom that you and I have is the freedom to enter into a subservient role in the workplace. Once you exercise this freedom you've lost all control over what you do, what is produced, and how it is produced. And in the end, the product doesn't belong to you. The only way you can avoid bosses and jobs is if you don't care about making a living. Which leads to the second freedom: the freedom to starve.
Some critics have accused the group of hypocrisy for voicing commitment to leftist causes while being millionaires signed to Epic Records, a subsidiary of media conglomerate Sony Records. Infectious Grooves released a song called "Do What I Tell Ya!" which mocks lyrics from "Killing in the Name", accusing the band of being hypocrites. In response to such critiques, Morello stated:
When you live in a capitalistic society, the currency of the dissemination of information goes through capitalistic channels. Would Noam Chomsky object to his works being sold at Barnes & Noble? No, because that's where people buy their books. We're not interested in preaching to just the converted. It's great to play abandoned squats run by anarchists, but it's also great to be able to reach people with a revolutionary message, people from Granada Hills to Stuttgart.
De la Rocha stated:
Yeah, to get as many people as possible to join the political debate, to get the dialogue going. I was wondering today, why would anyone climb to the roof of the American Embassy with a banner that says "Free Mumia Abu-Jamal", why do you do that? That's to get the international press' attention. The international network that Sony has available, is to me the perfect tool you know, it can get even more people to join a revolutionary awareness and fight.
- Zack de la Rocha – vocals
- Tom Morello – guitars
- Tim Commerford – bass, backing vocals
- Brad Wilk – drums, percussion
Awards and nominations
Rage Against the Machine has received two Grammy Awards; Best Metal Performance for the song "Tire Me" and Best Hard Rock Performance for "Guerrilla Radio". The band has also received three nominations from the MTV Video Music Awards, but has yet to win an award. In 2008, the band were given a special "Hall of Fame" award from Kerrang!.
- Grammy Awards
|1997||"Tire Me"||Best Metal Performance||Won|
|"Bulls on Parade"||Best Hard Rock Performance||Nominated|
|1998||"People of the Sun"||Nominated|
|1999||"No Shelter"||Best Metal Performance||Nominated|
|2001||"Guerrilla Radio"||Best Hard Rock Performance||Won|
|The Battle of Los Angeles||Best Rock Album||Nominated|
|2002||"Renegades of Funk"||Best Hard Rock Performance||Nominated|
- MTV Video Music Awards
|1996||"Bulls on Parade"||Best Rock Video||Nominated|
|1997||"People of the Sun"||Nominated|
|2000||"Sleep Now in the Fire"||Nominated|
- NME Awards
|2010||Rage Against the Machine||Heroes of the Year||Won|
- Kerrang! Awards
|2008||Rage Against the Machine||Hall of Fame||Won|
- Classic Rock Roll of Honour Awards
|2010||Rage Against the Machine||Band of the Year||Nominated|
|Christmas Number One and Free Concert||Event of the Year||Nominated|
- Rage Against the Machine (1992)
- Evil Empire (1996)
- The Battle of Los Angeles (1999)
- Renegades (2000)
- Berdini, Valerio. "live on 35mm.Berdini,Valerio". Archived from the original on July 18, 2011.
- Devenish, Colin (2001), Rage Against the Machine: St. Martin's Griffin ISBN 0-312-27326-6
- Chris Payne (May 18, 2016). "Rage Against the Machine, Public Enemy & Cypress Hill Members Form Supergroup: Sources". Billboard. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- CNN, Lisa Respers France,. "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame 2018 nominees announced". Archived from the original on October 11, 2017.
- Myers, Ben (October 16, 1999), Hello, Hello... ...It's Good To Be Back Archived July 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Kerrang!. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- McClard, Kent, History Archived February 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. of Ebullition Records. Retrieved February 19, 2007.
- "Rage Against the Machine Concert Setlist at The Quad, Cal State Northridge, Northridge on October 23, 1991". Setlist.fm. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- Woodlief, Mark. "Rage Against the Machine". TrouserPress.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Rage Against the Machine FAQ". Archived from the original on May 26, 2006., Internet Archive cache of FAQ on the official Rage Against the Machine website. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Robinson, John (January 29, 2000). "The Revolution Will Not be Trivialised". NME. UK. Archived from the original on September 15, 2000. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "h2g2 - Rage Against The Machine - the Band - A730883". BBC. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- "h2g2 - Rage Against The Machine - the Band - A730883". BBC. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Gold & Platinum — June 09, 2010". RIAA. Archived from the original on September 2, 2008. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "rage: SNL Incident". Musicfanclubs.org. Archived from the original on September 2, 2012. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "h2g2 - Rage Against The Machine - the Band - Edited Entry". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Rage Against the Machine and U2 Make a Perfect Duo" (newspaper article). The State. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Cooper, Matt (September 11, 1997). "Judge Gives Go-Ahead For Rage Concert Tomorrow At The Gorge" (newspaper article). Seattle Times. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
- Ankeny, Jason (2004). "Rage Against the Machine – Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Really Randoms: Jessica Simpson, Oasis". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original (magazine article) on September 17, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Rage against Wall Street". Green Left Weekly #397. March 15, 2000. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- Basham, David (January 28, 2000). "Rage Against the Machine Shoots New Video With Michael Moore". MTV News. Archived from the original on March 13, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- "Rage Against The Machine Shoots New Video With Michael Moore". MTV News. January 28, 2000. Archived from the original on October 9, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Shone, Mark (May 1, 2000). "Bullsh*t on Parade: Rage Against The Machine and Michael Moore Battle New York Cops". SPIN. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
- Lynskey, Dorian (2011). 33 Revolutions Per Minute. Faber & Faber.
- Devenish, Colin (2001). Rage Against the Machine. Macmillan.
- Mapes, Jillian; Letkemann, Jessica (September 9, 2010). "MTV Loves MTV: A Bad Romance". Billboard.com. Billboard. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
- MTV news (September 3, 2010). "The 2010 VMA Countdown: Rage Against The Machine Bassist Gets A Better Look At The Action". MTV.com. MTV Networks. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010. Retrieved September 20, 2010.
- Armstrong, Mark (October 18, 2000). "Zack de la Rocha Leaves Rage Against the Machine". MTV News. Archived from the original on February 10, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Q, May 2003, p60
- Bush, John (2003). ""Live at the Grand Olympic Auditorium" – Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved March 16, 2008.
- Doyle, Patrick (November 21, 2012). "Rage Against the Machine Blast Through 'Bombtrack' in 1992 - Premiere". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on December 27, 2014. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Bertin, Michael (November 30, 2001). "Imagine: The music business in a post-911 world". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
- Harris, Chris (June 1, 2005). "Audioslave Rage To First Billboard No. 1". MTV News. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2008.
- Harris, Chris (February 15, 2007). "Chris Cornell Talks Audioslave Split, Nixes Rumors Of Soundgarden Reunion". MTV News. Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- Wiederhorn, Jon (October 22, 2003). "Tom Morello Rages Against A New Machine On Solo Acoustic Tour". MTV News. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Moss, Corey (July 29, 2004). "Audioslave's Morello Says New LP Feels Less Like Soundgarden + Rage". MTV News. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Harris, Chris (February 6, 2007). "Nightwatchman, Rage Reunion Have Morello Fired Up For Political Fights". MTV News. Archived from the original on February 19, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
- Moss, Corey (May 10, 2005). "Reznor Says Collabos With de la Rocha, Keenan May Never Surface". MTV News. Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- Gargano, Paul (October 2005). "Nine Inch Nails (interview)". Maximum Ink Music Magazine. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
- "King of Rage Onstage Again" (February 2006), Spin.
- "Chris Cornell Working on Solo Release – But Dismisses Rumors of Audioslave Split". MTV News. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Rockline interviews Audioslave. August 29, 2006.
- Cohen, Jonathan (January 19, 2007). "Morello Goes Solo, Rage To Reunite?". Billboard. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Boucher, Geoff (January 22, 2007). "Rage Against the Machine will reunite for Coachella". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
- Finn, Natalie (January 22, 2007). "Rage On at Coachella". E! News. EOnline.com. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "NME". NME. UK. Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Cohen, Jonathan (January 22, 2007). "Rage, Bjork, Chili Peppers Sign On For Coachella". Billboard. Archived from the original on February 8, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Rage Against the Machine Guitarist Calls Rally Performance 'Very Exciting'". Launch Radio Networks. 93X Rock News. April 20, 2007. Archived from the original on April 21, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Staff Writer (April 30, 2007). "Rage Against the Machine reunite at Coachella". NME. UK. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Sulugiuc, Gelu (April 30, 2007). "Rage Against the Machine reunites". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Archived from the original on May 3, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Moss, Corey (April 30, 2007). "Rage Against the Machine's Ferocious Reunion Caps Coachella's Final Night". MTV News. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Rage Against the Machine tour announced". Fasterlouder.com.au. September 19, 2007. Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- "Tom Morello: 'No Plans' For New Rage Against the Machine Album". Blabbermouth.net. Ultimateguitar.com. May 1, 2007. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
- Harris, Chris (April 7, 2008). "Tom Morello Talks Obama, Not Rage Against the Machine, On Set Of Anti-Flag Video". MTV News. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- Tao, Paul (July 1, 2008). "Anti Records Signs One Day as a Lion". Absolutepunk.net. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2008.
- "Zack de la Rocha talks to Ann Powers". Los Angeles Times. Eddy Hartenstein. August 11, 2008. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011.
- Jefferson, Elana (August 27, 2008). "Review: Rage Against the Machine". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- Riccardi, Nicholas; Correll, DeeDee (August 28, 2008). "Protest led by Iraq war veterans ends in talk with Obama liaison - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011.
- Graff, Gary (December 5, 2008). "Morello: Nightwatchman Takes Priority Over Rage". Billboard. Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
- Martens, Todd (April 1, 2009). "Tom Morello at the Grammy Museum: Political activism, music biz lessons and what about another Rage album?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 20, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- Slater, Luke (June 7, 2010). "New Rage Against The Machine record "a possibility" / Music News // Drowned In Sound". Drownedinsound.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Rage Against the Machine to take on 'The X Factor' for Christmas Number One". New Music Express. December 4, 2009. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.
- "Twitter / Tom Morello: Rage's Killing in the Name". Twitter. December 14, 2009. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Dave Grohl: 'I'm Buying Rage Against the Machine'". Gigwise. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on April 27, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- Daniel Kreps (December 18, 2009). "Paul McCartney Backs Rage Against the Machine in U.K. Battle | Music News". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- "Rage Against the Machine for Christmas no 1! It's already at no 2! Stop X Factor stealing the top spot again! Buy 'killing in the name of'!". Official Fightstar Facebook. December 14, 2009. Archived from the original on September 22, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2009.
- "Broadcast Yourself". YouTube. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- HadoukenUK (December 13, 2009). "Just bought my Rage Against The Machine single". Twitter. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- 12/15/09 5:57pm by Mark Teo (CHARTattack). "Chartattack.com". Chartattack.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "Rage Against 5 Live.wmv". YouTube. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Kerrang! Former X Factor winner backs Rage campaign!". .kerrang.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- 06:00 (December 17, 2009). "BBC Radio 5 live - 5 live Breakfast, 17/12/2009". Bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Singles Top 40 from the Official UK Charts Company". Theofficialcharts.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "– Rage Against the Machine beat X Factor winner in charts". BBC News. December 20, 2009. Archived from the original on December 20, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved 2010-02-12.
- "Rage Against The Machine's free London gig: all tickets allocated | News". NME. UK. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rage Against the Machine Announce 'Rage Factor' Support Acts". Gigwise. Archived from the original on May 12, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Download Festival 2010". Downloadfestival.co.uk. Archived from the original on February 18, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- O'Neal, Sean. "Rage Against the Machine considering recording new album | Music | Newswire". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rock Radio". Downloadfestivalradio.com. June 14, 2010. Archived from the original on June 18, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "PRESS RELEASE: RAGE AGAINST THE MACHINE AND CONOR OBERST TO PLAY CONCERT TO BENEFIT ARIZONA ORGANIZATIONS FIGHTING SB1070". thesoundstrike.net. July 14, 2010. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "Zach de la Rocha: Vamos a Chile para tributar el legado de Bolaño y Víctor Jara" (in Spanish). La Tercera. October 3, 2010. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
- Vadala, Nick (August 2, 2011). "Rage Against The Machine Bassist Tim Commerford Says New Material in the Works, Next Two Years Planned Out | mxdwn.com News". Mxdwn.com. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- TMZ staff (October 4, 2012). "Rage Against The Machine -- NEW ALBUM IN THE WORKS ... Maybe". TMZ. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
- TMZ staff (November 3, 2012). "Rage Against the Machine Bassist -- Paul Ryan's a Dumbass for Liking Our Music". TMZ. Archived from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Graff, Gary (November 15, 2012). "Rage Against the Machine: 'No Plans' to Record New Album". Billboard.com. Archived from the original on April 4, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
- "Tom Morello: Not Everybody In Rage Against the Machine Wants To Make New Album". Blabbermouth.net. November 22, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
- "Rage Against The Machine". Facebook. January 6, 1983. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Rage Against The Machine XX 20th Anniversary | Rage Against The Machine Official Site". Ratm.com. July 9, 2012. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Rage Against The Machine - XX (20th Anniversary Special Edition)(2 CD/ 1 DVD): Music". Amazon.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Rage Against The Machine Drummer Brad Wilk Says Band May Have Already Played Its Last Show". Blabbermouth.net. April 30, 2014. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- "Timmy C. speaks about Rage's future". musicradar.com. February 9, 2015. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Fans Expecting Imminent Rage Against The Machine Reunion Will Be Disappointed". Blabbermouth.net. May 18, 2016. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- Young, Alex (May 18, 2016). "Rage Against the Machine, Public Enemy, and Cypress Hill members form new supergroup". Consequence of Sound. Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Rage Against The Machine, Public Enemy & Cypress Hill Members Unite In Prophets Of Rage | Theprp.com – Metal And Hardcore News Plus Reviews And More". Theprp.com. May 31, 2016. Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Tom Morello: "The Cold Embers Of Rage Against The Machine Are Now The Burning Fire Of Prophets Of Rage" | Theprp.com – Metal And Hardcore News Plus Reviews And More". Theprp.com. May 31, 2016. Archived from the original on August 12, 2016. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "Rage Against The Machine drummer calls for reunion: "Nothing would make me happier" - NME". NME. May 3, 2018. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- "The Roots Of... Rage Against The Machine - NME". July 18, 2013. Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Heller, Jason. "The strange rehabilitation of Rage Against The Machine". Archived from the original on August 13, 2017.
- Ankeny, Jason. "Urban Dance Squad – Biography". Metrolyrics. Archived from the original on November 3, 2009.
- "Guitar World Lesson With Tom Morello (RATM, Audioslave)". Youtube. May 16, 2011. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2013.
- "Rage Against the Machine: Christmas no 1 upset over X Factor 'cost bookies £1m'". Telegraph. December 21, 2009. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- "Chuck Klosterman on Rock: A Collection of Previously Published Essays - Chuck Klosterman - Google Books". Books.google.com. September 14, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- "The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists - Joel McIver - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
- Hughes, Josiah (August 17, 2015). "Rage Against the Machine Ready 'Live at Finsbury Park' DVD". Exclaim!. Archived from the original on November 5, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Jones, Chris. "Rage Against the Machine - Rage Against the Machine Review". BBC. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Michaels, Sean (May 27, 2010). "Rage Against the Machine lead Arizona boycott". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 22, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Heaney, Gregory. "Rage Against the Machine - The Collection". AllMusic. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Powers, Ann (December 31, 2000). "Music; No Last Hurrah Yet for Political Rock". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Catucci, Nick (November 27, 2012). "Rage Against the Machine – XX". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2014.
- "The Battle Of Los Angeles". NME. IPC Media. October 26, 1999. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
another album of ranting, churning, slamming heavy funk-metal thunder like this one.
- Turman, Katherine (June 8, 1992). "Review: 'Liquid Jesus; East of Gideon; Rage Against the Machine'". Variety. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
Group’s approach is an intellectual-urban, multi-ethnic funk-metal hybrid, heavy on the bouncy energy
- Kraus, Brian (August 18, 2012). "Tom Morello chastises Paul Ryan for being a Rage Against The Machine fan". Alternative Press. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
- Grierson, Tim. "Alternative Metal". About.com. Archived from the original on May 28, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
- "Alternative Metal". Allmusic. Archived from the original on December 23, 2015. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Taylor, Jerome (December 20, 2009). "Rage Against the Machine take Christmas No.1 slot – News, Music – The Independent". London: The Independent. Archived from the original on February 22, 2010. Retrieved May 9, 2010.
- McIver, Joel (2001). Slipknot Unmasked. p. 21. ISBN 0-7119-8677-0.
- Witmer, Scott (2010). History of Rock Bands. p. 25. ISBN 1-60453-692-6.
- Taylor, Sam (September 3, 2000). "America's 'nu metal' bands have the world at their feet". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
- Nihill, Bill (October 25, 2013). "The Best Selling Heavy Metal Albums of All Time in the U.S." Metal Descent. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2017.
- Arnopp, Jason (2011). Slipknot: Inside the Sickness, Behind the Masks With an Intro by Ozzy Osbourne and Afterword by Gene Simmons. Random House. ISBN 9781446458341.
If Rage had paved the way for nu-metal, Korn defined it.
- Udo, Tommy (2002). Brave Nu World. Sanctuary Publishing. pp. 15, 42–43, 244. ISBN 1-86074-415-X.
- Wooldridge, Simon (February 2000), "Fight the Power Archived February 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.", Juice Magazine. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
- Young, Charles M. (February 1997), Tom Morello: Artist of the Year interview Archived August 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine., Guitar World. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
- "Rage On: The strange politics of millionaire rock stars". Reason Online. Archived from the original on August 31, 2008. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
- "BLABBERMOUTH.NET - SUICIDAL TENDENCIES Frontman On Rumored Gang Affiliation, Being Only Original Member". Roadrunnerrecords.com. Archived from the original on November 10, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- The Guinness encyclopedia of popular music. 1995. ISBN 9781561591763. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- "the complete RATM site". Musicfanclubs.org. Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- Devenish, Colin (2001). Rage Against the Machine. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0-312-27326-6.
- Stenning, Paul (2008). Rage Against the Machine: Stage Fighters. New York: Independent Music Press. ISBN 1-906191-07-7.
- "Anti-Capitalist Critique and Travelling poetry in the Works of Lorna Dee Cervantes and Rage Against the Machine.", Alexander, Donna Maria