Raggedy Ann

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Raggedy Ann
Raggedy Ann & Andy - Project Gutenberg eText 17371.jpg
Raggedy Ann meets Raggedy Andy for the first time; illustrated by Johnny Gruelle
First appearanceRaggedy Ann Stories
Created byJohnny Gruelle
Information
GenderFemale
NationalityAmerican

Raggedy Ann is a character created by American writer Johnny Gruelle (1880–1938) that appeared in a series of books he wrote and illustrated for young children. Raggedy Ann is a rag doll with red yarn for hair and a triangle nose. Johnny Gruelle received US Patent D47789 for his Raggedy Ann doll on September 7, 1915. The character was created in 1915 as a doll, and was introduced to the public in the 1918 book Raggedy Ann Stories. When a doll was marketed with the book, the concept had great success. A sequel, Raggedy Andy Stories (1920), introduced the character of her brother, Raggedy Andy. Further characters such as Beloved Belindy a black doll, were featured as dolls and characters in books.

Origins[edit]

The exact details of the origins of the Raggedy Ann doll and related stories, which were created by Johnny Gruelle, are not specifically known, although numerous myths and legends about the doll's origins have been widely repeated.[1] Gruelle biographer and Raggedy Ann historian Patricia Hall notes that the dolls have "found themselves at the center of several legend cycles—groups of stories that, while containing kernels of truth, are more myth than they are history. What makes this even more intriguing is that fact that Johnny Gruelle, either unwittingly or with the great sense of humor he was known for, initiated many of these legends, a number of which are continuously repeated as the factual history of Raggedy Ann and Andy."[2]

Hall further explains that according to an oft-repeated myth, Gruelle's daughter, Marcella, brought from her grandmother's attic a faceless cloth doll on which the artist drew a face, and that Gruelle suggested that Marcella's grandmother sew a shoe button for a missing eye. Hall says the date of this supposed occurrence is given as early as 1900 and as late as 1914, with the locale variously given as suburban Indianapolis, Indiana, downtown Cleveland, Ohio, or rural Connecticut.[3] More likely, as Gruelle's wife, Myrtle, reported, it her husband who retrieved a long-forgotten, homemade rag doll from the attic of his parents' Indianapolis home sometime around the turn of the twentieth century before the couple's daughter was born. Although the incident is unconfirmed, Myrtle Gruelle recalled, "There was something he wanted from the attic. While he was rummaging around for it, he found an old rag doll his mother had made for his sister. He said then that the doll would make a good story."[2] Myrtle Gruelle also incicated that her husband "kept [the doll] in his mind until we had Marcella. He remembered it when he saw her play [with] dolls.... He wrote the stories around some of the things she did. He used to get ideas from watching her."[2]

Another version of the doll's mythical origins suggests that Gruelle created Raggedy Ann as a tribute to his daughter's memory following her death at age thirteen from an infected vaccination. Gruelle's May 28, 1915, U.S. Patent D47,789 application for the design of the prototype that became the Raggedy Ann doll was already in progress around the time that Marcella fell ill, but his exact motives for creating the doll remain uncertain.[4] The U.S. Patent office gave its final approval to the artist's patent application on September 7, 1915, the same month as Marcella's death.[2] Although Marcella died from an infected vaccination, not from the side effects of the vaccination itself,[2] her early death and the subsequent publication of the Raggedy Ann and related dolls perpetuated this myth of the doll's origins and led the anti-vaccination movement to adopt Raggedy Ann as a symbol for the movement.[5]

Naming Raggedy Ann[edit]

On June 17, 1915, shortly after submitting his patent application for the doll's design, Johnny Gruelle applied for a register trademark for the Raggedy Ann name, which he created by combining words from two of James Whitcomb Riley poems, "The Raggedy Man" and "Little Orphant Annie." (Riley was a well-known Hoosier poet and a Gruelle family friend and neighbor from the years when they resided in Indianapolis.[3][6]) The U.S. Patent Office registered Gruelle's trademark application (107328) for the Raggedy Ann name on November 23, 1915.[7]

Early books and doll design[edit]

Raggedy Ann Stories (1918), written and illustrated by Johnny Gruelle and published by the P. F. Volland Company, was the first in a series of books about his cloth doll character and her friends.[4][8] The book's first edition also included Gruelle's own version of the doll's origins and the related stories.[1] Two years after the publication of the first Raggedy Ann book, Gruelle introduced Raggedy Ann's brother, Raggedy Andy, in Raggedy Andy Stories (1920).[9]

Gruelle's U.S. Patent design for what became known as the Raggedy Ann doll

Although the female members of Gruelle's family may have made a small number of initial versions of the Raggedy Ann doll in Norwalk, Connecticut, to help market the related books, Gruelle soon established a merchandising agreement with P. F. Volland Company, his primary publisher, to began commercially manufacturing, selling, and promoting a mass-produced version of the doll.[1][10]

In addition to his patent application U.S. Patent D47,789 in 1915 for the design of what became the Raggedy Ann doll, Gruelle also patented his design U.S. Patent D56,149 for a generic male doll in 1920. A short time after its literary debut in 1920, Raggedy Andy appeared as a commercially-made doll, marketed by Volland.[11][12]

Following the success of the first Raggedy Ann book,[13] Gruelle continued to author and illustrate at least one Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy story each year until his death in 1938.[11] In addition to books Gruelle also wrote lyrics for musical compositions that were published as sheet music and songbooks for children. These works included "Raggedy Ann's Sunny Songs" (1930) which was set to music by former U. S. Treasury Secretary William H. Woodin.[14]

In his later years Gruelle collaborated with his son, Worth, on illustrations for some of his later books such as Raggedy Ann and the Golden Meadow (1935) and on a series of illustrated Raggedy Ann proverbs that were syndicated in newspapers.[15][16] By 1938, the year that Johnny Gruelle died, his first Raggedy Ann book had sold more than 3 million copies.[17]

Raggedy Ann doll sales were also growing. The P. F. Volland Company's initial order of 24 dozen dolls from the Non-Breakable Toy Company, the doll's early manufacturer, increased to about 3,200 dolls within the first eight months of production. With its growing popularity, Gruelle gave Volland the exclusive rights to manufacture and sell the dolls as long as it remained the exclusive publisher of his books.[18]

Legal challenges[edit]

In 1935 Gruelle brought suit against Mollye Goldman (Gruelle vs Goldman) after her company, Molly-'Es Doll Outfitters, continued to manufacture unauthorized version of the Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls. Goldman's attorney argued that Gruelle's design patent for Raggedy Ann had expired in 1929, and Gruelle did not apply for a design patent or a trademark for a doll specifically named Raggedy Andy. The U.S. Patent office registered Goldman's application for a trademark for her Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy dolls in 1935. Her patent application U.S. Patent D96,382 for her Raggedy Andy design was granted on May 7, 1935. Goldman's versions of Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy closely resembled the Gruelle-designed rag dolls, which he had authorized the Exposition Doll and Toy Manufacturing Company to manufacture. Gruelle brought suit against Goldman for trademark infringement in October 1936, but the case was dismissed. He won the lawsuit on appeal in 1937. In the appellate court's option handed down on December 23, 1937, Goldman's company, Molly-'Es Doll Outfitters, could not legally manufacture dolls named Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy. Goldman was ordered to provide restitution to Gruelle.[19]

Following Gruelle's death in 1938, Myrtle (Swann) Gruelle, his widow, took further legal action to secure the rights to his works, trademarks, and patents, including those relating to Raggedy Ann and Andy. She also continued to promote Raggedy Ann and Andy, among Gruelle's other literary characters, through the Johnny Gruelle Company, which also published the author's books for several years. (P. F. Volland, his primary publisher, discontinued its book publishing business during the Great Depression.)[20]

Legacy[edit]

By the end of the 1940s, sales of Raggedy Ann-related books exceeded 7 million copies.[20] The Indianapolis-based Bobbs-Merrill Company became the authorized publisher and licensor for Raggedy Ann-related literary works in 1962, and the Knickerbocker Toy Company began manufacturing the Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls in the early 1960s.[21] Simon & Schuster and Hasbro claim ownership of the trademarks to the Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Ann and Andy names.[citation needed] The original U.S. Patent D47,789 for the 1915 doll design, as well as the Raggedy Ann Stories (1918) and Raggedy Andy Stories (1920) books, are in the public domain, their copyrights having expired.[citation needed]

The Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy dolls and their related memorabilia have become sought-after collectors' items.[22] In addition to the dolls and books, other related items continue to be produced including adaptations of the stories into comic books, audio recordings, animated films, and television and theatrical productions.[23]

Honors and tributes[edit]

The Raggedy Ann doll was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame in Rochester, New York, on March 27, 2002; Raggedy Andy was inducted in 2007.[22][24]

Related books[edit]

Johnny Gruelle, Raggedy Ann's creator, authored and/or illustrated dozens of related works. Many other books were released and in some cases credited to Gruelle after his death in 1938. In addition, numerous works have been written and/or illustrated by others such as Ethel Hays, who illustrated most of the Saalfield Publishing Company's Raggedy Ann-related stories published from 1944.[25]

Written and illustrated by Johnny Gruelle[edit]

  • Raggedy Ann Stories (1918)[26]
  • Raggedy Andy Stories (1920)[26]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy and the Camel with the Wrinkled Knees (1924)[27]
  • Raggedy Andy's Number Book (1924)[28]
  • Raggedy Ann's Wishing Pebble (1925)[28]
  • Raggedy Ann's Alphabet Book (1925)[28]
  • Beloved Belindy (1926)[26]
  • The Paper Dragon: A Raggedy Ann Adventure (1926)[29]
  • Raggedy Ann's Fairy Stories (1928)[30]
  • Raggedy Ann's Magical Wishes (1928)[26]
  • Marcella: A Raggedy Ann Story (1929)[31]
  • Raggedy Ann in the Deep Deep Woods (1930)[28]
  • Raggedy Ann's Sunny Songs (1930)[32]
  • Raggedy Ann in Cookie Land (1931)[26]
  • Raggedy Ann's Lucky Pennies (1932)[33]
  • Raggedy Ann Cut-Out Paper Doll (1935)[33]
  • Raggedy Ann's Little Brother Andy Cut-Out Paper Doll (1935)[34]
  • Raggedy Ann in the Golden Meadow (1935)[35]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Left-Handed Safety Pin (1935)[26]
  • Raggedy Ann's Joyful Songs (1937)[36]
  • Raggedy Ann and Maizie Moocow (1937)[33]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy's Very Own Fairy Stories (1970)[30]

Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by others[edit]

  • Raggedy Ann in the Magic Book (1939)[37]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Laughing Brook (1940)[38]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Golden Butterfly (1940)[39]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Hoppy Toad (1940)[38]
  • Raggedy Ann Helps Grandpa Hoppergrass (1940)[38]
  • Raggedy Ann in the Garden (1940)[38]
  • Raggedy Ann Goes Sailing (1941)[38]
  • The Camel with the Wrinkled Knees (1941)[38]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy and the Nice Fat Policeman (1942)[40]
  • Raggedy Ann and Betsy Bonnet String (1943)[41]
  • Raggedy Ann in the Snow White Castle (1946)[42]
  • Raggedy Ann's Adventures (1947)[43]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Slippery Slide (1947)[43]
  • Raggedy Ann's Mystery (1947)[43]
  • Raggedy Ann at the End of the Rainbow (1947)[43]
  • Raggedy Ann and Marcella's First Day At School (1952)[44]
  • Raggedy Ann's Merriest Christmas (1952)[44]
  • Raggedy Andy's Surprise (1953)[44]
  • Raggedy Ann's Tea Party (1954)[45]
  • A Puzzle for Raggedy Ann and Andy (1957)[46]
  • Raggedy Ann's Secret (1959)[47]
  • Raggedy Ann's Christmas Surprise (ca. 1960)[48]
  • Raggedy Ann's Stories to Read Aloud (1960)[46]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Golden Ring (1961)[49]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Hobby Horse (1961)[49]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Happy Meadow (1961)[49]
  • Raggedy Ann and the Wonderful Witch (1961)[49]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy and the Kindly Ragman (1975)[50]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy and the Witchie Kissabye (1975)[50]

Adaptations attributed to Gruelle, or based on his works[edit]

  • Raggedy Ann and Andy—with Animated Illustrations (1944)[51]

Written by others; illustrated by Gruelle and/or others[edit]

  • The Bam Bam Clock, by J. P. McEvoy, Illustrated by Johnny Gruelle, P. F. Volland Co., 1920 (Later issued by Algonquin Publishing, circa 1936) This children's fairy story contains a few mentions of Raggedy Ann in the text, and five color depictions of Raggedy Ann. These are very early depictions of Raggedy Ann outside of the Raggedy Ann series. As far as the text goes, Raggedy Ann plays no active part in the story, other than that she is mentioned as being there, almost like part of the landscape. In the pictures she is shown in a more "active" role.
  • Raggedy Ann and the Tagalong Present (1971)[52]
  • Raggedy Andy's Treasure Hunt (1973)[52]
  • Raggedy Ann's Cooking School (1974)[53]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy's Cookbook (1975)[54]
  • Raggedy Granny Stories (1977)[55]
  • Raggedy Ann and Andy's Sewing Book (1977)[56]

Raggedy Ann and Andy's Grow and Learn Library[edit]

A collection of twenty books published by Lynx, with each story containing a lesson, such as maintaining friendship when someone moves away or why parents must go to work. Raggedy Ann and Andy live in Marcella's playroom with many other toys such as Babette the French doll, Raggedy dog, The Camel with the Wrinkled Knees, Sunny Bunny, Bubbles the Clown, Tim the Toy Soldier and more.[citation needed]

  • Sunny Bunny Comes Home
  • Little Bear's Problem
  • Sam Lamb Moves Away
  • Raggedy Dog to the Rescue
  • What Can a Camel Do?
  • Babette's Scary Night
  • A Very Close Call
  • Grouchy Bear's Parade
  • The Box of Tricks
  • Raggedy Dog's Bone
  • The Jack-In-The-Box
  • Play Ball
  • The Play in the Attic
  • Raggedy Dog Learns to Share
  • Raggedy Andy's Perfect Party
  • The Sleepover
  • The Birthday Surprise
  • Bubbles Goes to the Fair
  • Tim's Big Adventure
  • A Parent's Guide to Raggedy Ann and Andy's Grow and Learn Library

Other adaptations[edit]

Many subsequent adaptations of the Raggedy Ann and Andy books have been published, in addition to the characters appearing in other media formats.

Animated feature films and shorts[edit]

Theatre/Stage[edit]

  • Raggedy Ann and Andy (1981)[60]
  • Raggedy Ann: The Musical Adventure (1986)[61]

Television[edit]

Audio recordings[edit]

  • Raggedy Ann's Sunny Songs (1931 and 1946)[66]
  • Raggedy Ann's Songs of Happiness (1934)[66]
  • Songs of Raggedy Ann and Andy (1948)[66]
  • Johnny Gruelle's Raggedy Ann Songs and Stories (ca. 1960s)[66]
  • Hallmark "Read-Along Story Records" (1974)[66]
  • Raggedy Ann & Andy: A Musical Adventure (1977)[66]
  • A Raggedy Ann Songbook (1996)[67]

Comic books[edit]

  • Dell Publishing featured Raggedy Ann-related stories in a series of comic books.[68]
    • New Funnies (volume 1)
    • Animal Comics
    • Four Color Comics
    • Raggedy Ann + Raggedy Andy (1946–1949)
    • Raggedy Ann + Andy (1948)
    • Raggedy Ann and Andy (1955)
    • Raggedy Ann and Andy (1964–1966)

Doll manufacturers[edit]

A Raggedy Ann 100-year edition doll

Doll production[edit]

Although the female members of Gruelle's family may have originally handmade a few of the versions of the Raggedy Ann doll in Norwalk, Connecticut, to help market the related books, Gruelle soon established a merchandising agreement with P. F. Volland Company, the primary publisher of his books, to manufacture, sell, and promote a mass-produced, commercial version of the Raggedy Ann doll.[1] Early Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls were manufactured by different companies and not produced as matched sets.[70]

Between 1918 and 1926, the Non-Breakable Toy Company of Muskegon, Michigan, made more than 75,000 dolls were made for Volland.[citation needed] By the late 1920s Volland's orders for Raggedy Ann dolls from its manufacturer had reached 4,000 per month.[70] When Volland ceased operations during the Great Depression it had already sold more than 150,000 dolls and nearly 2 million Raggedy Ann books.[73] .

In 1935 Gruelle granted permission to the Exposition Doll and Toy Manufacturing Company Company to manufacture and sell authorized versions of the Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls.[citation needed] From 1935 until 1937 Molly-'Es Doll Outfitters manufactured and sold unauthorized versions of the Raggedy Ann and Andy dolls until a legal decision handed down in Gruelle v (Mollye) Goldman[74] prohibited Molly-'Es Dolls from further manufacturing and sales of the dolls.[19]

Sewing patterns for homemade dolls[edit]

  • McCall's pattern
    • 1940 McCall's pattern #820, first appeared for a 19-in. dolls, Raggedy Ann doll comes with cape pattern
    • ca. 1945 McCall's pattern #914, Raggedy Ann Awake/Asleep dolls plus camel with the wrinkled knees
    • 1958 McCall's pattern #820, appeared with a slightly modified pattern for both dolls
    • 1963 McCall's pattern #6941, Raggedy Ann pattern has lost her cape, dolls now come in three sizes
    • 1970 McCall's pattern #2531, dolls come in three sizes, with a simplified pattern and different hair and face embroidery pattern, loss of button eyes[75]
    • 1977 McCall's pattern #5713, identical to previous #2531 pattern, different cover
    • ca. 1980 new McCall's pattern # 7131, 36-in. dolls plus apron a child can wear
    • 1982 McCall's pattern #8077, a re-issue of previous patterns, new cover, dolls with different hair color
  • Late 1990s, Simplicity Patterns released a licensed doll pattern for a different design doll in four sizes.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

Public collections[edit]

Gruelle's hometown of Arcola, Illinois, is the former home of the annual Raggedy Ann and Andy Festival and the Raggedy Ann and Andy Museum. The museum was closed and the festival discontinued in 2009. Some of the museum's contents were donated to Strong National Museum of Play.[77] Other aspects of the collection were moved to the Rockome Gardens theme park in Arcola.[78]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Patricia Hall (Fall 1990). "A Child At Heart: The Fanciful World of Johnny Gruelle". Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society. 2 (4): 10. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e Patricia Hall (1999). "Raggedy Ann and Andy: History and Legend". Raggedy-Ann.com. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved November 23, 2015.
  3. ^ a b Patricia Hall (1993). Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy. Pelican Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 978-0882899084.
  4. ^ a b Patricia Hall (1999). "Johnny Gruelle Inspired Illustrator". Raggedy-Ann.com. Archived from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  5. ^ Oshinsky, David (February 20, 2015). "The Return of the Vaccine Wars". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 15, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2015. Indeed, [the anti-vaccination movement's] most visible symbol was the smiling but entirely limp Raggedy Ann doll created by a popular cartoonist for his daughter, who had fallen ill and would later die, he believed, from a smallpox shot she received without his permission.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. ^ Yaël Ksander (April 11, 2011). "Raggedy Ann's Hoosier Pedigree". Indiana Public Media/Indiana University. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  7. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 105.
  8. ^ Mary Q. Burnet (1921). Art and Artists of Indiana. New York: The Century Company. p. 195. Reprint edition, Evansville, Indiana: Whipporwill Publications, 1985.
  9. ^ "Raggedy History". Simon & Schuster. Archived from the original on August 17, 2004.
  10. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 108.
  11. ^ a b Hall, "A Child At Heart," pp. 10–11.
  12. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 118.
  13. ^ "New Raggedy Ann Causing a Stir : It's an Open-and-Shut Case for the Creators' Family". Los Angeles Times. November 16, 1987. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  14. ^ Wayne Homren (December 16, 2007). "William H. Woodin's Political Journey and Musical Talent". Coinbooks.org. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
  15. ^ Hall, "A Child At Heart," pp. 11–12.
  16. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 170.
  17. ^ R. E. Banta (1949). Indiana Authors and Their Books, 1816–1916: Biographical sketches of authors who published during the first century of Indiana statehood, with lists of their books. Crawfordsville, Indiana: Wabash College. p. 125. OCLC 1044959.
  18. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 170.
  19. ^ a b Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 169–70, 172–74.
  20. ^ a b Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 184–85. See also: Hall, "A Child At Heart," pp. 10–11.
  21. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 187–88.
  22. ^ a b Linda C. Gugin and James E. St. Clair, eds. (2015). Indiana's 200: The People Who Shaped the Hoosier State. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society Press. pp. 142–44. ISBN 978-0-87195-387-2.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  23. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 190–91. See also: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, pp. 158–80.
  24. ^ "Raggedy Ann Fans Worldwide Rejoice About Raggedy Ann's Induction Into National Toy Hall of Fame!" (Press release). United Media. March 27, 2002. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016. See also: "Inducted Toys: by Year Inducted List". The Strong National Museum of Play, National Toy Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on April 1, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
  25. ^ Patricia Hall (2000). Raggedy Ann and More: Johnny Gruelle's Dolls and Merchandise. Pelican Publishing Company. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-56554-102-3.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Banta, p. 126.
  27. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 145.
  28. ^ a b c d Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 200.
  29. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 148, 156, 200.
  30. ^ a b A reprint of Gruelle's early work, My Very Own Fairy Stories (1917). See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 88.
  31. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 153, 200.
  32. ^ Lyrics and illustrations by Johnny Gruelle, music by Will Woodin. See Banta, p. 126.
  33. ^ a b c Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 201.
  34. ^ Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 131.
  35. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 165.
  36. ^ Lyrics and illustrations by Johnny Gruelle, music by Charles Miller. See Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 201.
  37. ^ Written by Johnny Gruelle, illustrated by Justine Gruelle and/or Worth Gruelle. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 136. Also: Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 201.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Justin C. Gruelle. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 37.
  39. ^ Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Justin Gruelle. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 139.
  40. ^ Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Worth Gruelle. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 142.
  41. ^ Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Justin Gruelle. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 143.
  42. ^ Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Justin Gruelle. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 147.
  43. ^ a b c d ”Saalfield Treasure Book” series, Saalfield Publishing Company; written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Ethel Hays. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 149.
  44. ^ a b c “The Wonder Books” series, published by Grosset and Dunlap; written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Tom Sinnickson. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 150.
  45. ^ "The Wonder Books" series, published by Grosset and Dunlap; written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by George and Irma Wilde. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 150.
  46. ^ a b “The Wonder Books” series, published by Grosset and Dunlap; written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Rachael Taft Dixon. See Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 151.
  47. ^ "The Wonder Books" series, published by Grosset and Dunlap; written by Johnny Gruelle. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 150.
  48. ^ “The Wonder Books” series, published by Grosset and Dunlap; written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Tom Sinnickson. See Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 151.
  49. ^ a b c d Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by Worth Gruelle with the assistance of Joni Gruelle (Worth Gruelle’s daughter) See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 136.
  50. ^ a b Written by Johnny Gruelle; illustrated by John E. Hopper. See Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 201–02.
  51. ^ Unattributed text; based on Gruelle’s book, The Paper Dragon; animations by Julian Wehr. See: Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 146.
  52. ^ a b Written by Marjory Schwalje; illustrated by Becky Krehbile. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 172.
  53. ^ Written by Marjory Schwalje; illustrated by June Goldsborough. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 172.
  54. ^ Written by Nika Hazelton; illustrated by Johnny Gruelle, Worth Gruelle, and Justin Gruelle. See Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 154.
  55. ^ Written by Doris Thorner Salzberg; illustrated by Johnny Gruelle, Worth Gruelle, Justin Gruelle, and others. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 155.
  56. ^ Written by Lydia Encinas; illustrated by Johnny Gruelle, Worth Gruelle, John Hopper, and others. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 155.
  57. ^ a b c Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 179.
  58. ^ An animated feature film directed by Richard Williams. Raggedy Ann was voiced by Didi Conn, and drawn by Tissa David, who became one of the first women to animate a leading character in an animated feature film. See: John Cannemaker (August 27, 2012). "Thérèse "Tissa" David (1921–2012): Her Animating Spirit". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
  59. ^ "Master animator Tissa David dies at 91, She was one of first women in male-dominated field". Variety. August 27, 2012. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  60. ^ A stage play adapted from screenwriter Patricia Thackray's 1977 film. See: "Dramatic Publishing Raggedy Ann & Andy". June 19, 2013. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012.
  61. ^ A Broadway musical by songwriter Joe Raposo and playwright William Gibson. See: "Raggedy Ann: The Musical Adventure". Internet Broadway Database (The Broadway League. June 19, 2013. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016.
  62. ^ A Christmas television special directed by Chuck Jones. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 179.
  63. ^ A Halloween television special, also directed by Chuck Jones. See Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 179.
  64. ^ An animated television series[citation needed]
  65. ^ An episode of the animated anthology series CBS Storybreak[citation needed]
  66. ^ a b c d e f Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, pp. 177–78.
  67. ^ Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 179.
  68. ^ Hall, Raggedy Ann and Johnny Gruelle, p. 176.
  69. ^ The Non-Breakable Toy Company was an early manufacturer of the dolls for Volland.
  70. ^ a b c Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, p. 121.
  71. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 172–74.
  72. ^ In 2012 Hasbro signed Aurora World for a new line of Raggedy Ann and Raggedy Andy plush dolls. See: "Hasbro Signs Raggedy Ann Partner". License! Global. Advanstar Communications. February 9, 2012.
  73. ^ Hall, Johnny Gruelle, Creator of Raggedy Ann and Andy, pp. 164–65.
  74. ^ "Gruelle v. Molly-'Es Doll Outfitters, 94 F.2d 172 (3d Cir. 1937)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  75. ^ McCall's has continued to produce identical #2531 patterns with only a change in cover design.
  76. ^ https://www.gettyimages.ca/detail/news-photo/childrens-book-character-and-doll-raggedy-ann-is-depicted-news-photo/544380464
  77. ^ Steve Schmadeke (May 26, 2009). "Raggedy Ann & Andy Museum's closing a sign of times". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved June 30, 2016. See also: Chris Bensch (August 31, 2009). "Raggedy Ann Makes Her Move". Play Stuff Blog. The Strong National Museum of Play.
  78. ^ Tom C. Doran (September 2, 2014). "Early agriculture displayed among unique rock gardens". LaSalle, Illinois: AgriNews. Archived from the original on October 14, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.. Additional archive, October 14, 2016.

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