Raghuvamsha (Sanskrit: रघुवंश, Raghuvaṃśa) is a Sanskrit mahakavya (epic poem) by the most celebrated Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. Though an exact date of composition is unknown, the poet is presumed to have flourished in the 5th Century CE. It narrates, in 19 sargas (cantos), the stories related to the Raghu dynasty, namely the family of Dilipa and his descendants up to Agnivarna, who include Raghu, Dasharatha and Rama. The earliest surviving commentary written on the work is that of the 10th-century Kashmirian scholar Vallabhadeva. The most popular and widely available commentary, however, is the Sanjivani, written by Mallinatha (ca.1350-1450).
Geographical and historical references
The warrior Raghu leads a military expedition to Transoxiana. He defeats and subjugates local people along the way (presumably on his march through Central Asia) until he reaches the Vankshu, as the ancient Indians called the Oxus River. There, Raghu's army battles the Hepthalites, or White Huns, whom the Indians called Hunas and Mlecchas (barbarians). The Hepthalites are defeated, and the Raghuvamsha boasts of "The exploits of Raghu, whose valor expressed itself amongst the husbands of the Huna women, became manifest in the scarlet color of their cheeks."
After crossing the Oxus, Raghu and his army encountered the Kambojas, an ancient Indo-Scythian people often mentioned in Indian texts. The Kambojas submitted to Raghu and offered him gifts and treasures. Evidently, the Kambojas dwelt in the vicinity of the Pamirs. Kalidasa describes the preponderance of walnut trees in the Oxus country, this particular region is still known for the cultivation of walnuts.
Metres used in the epic
The epic is composed in 21 Sanskrit metres, namely Anuṣṭup, Indravajrā, Upajāti, Upendravajrā, Aupacchandasika, Toṭaka, Drutavilambita, Puṣpitāgrā, Praharṣiṇī, Mañjubhāṣiṇī, Mattamayūra, Mandākrāntā, Mālinī, Rathoddhatā, Vaṃśastha, Vasantatilakā, Vaitālīya, Śārdūlavikrīḍita, Śālinī, Svāgatā, Hariṇī.
- Indian literature
- Sanskrit literature
- Sanskrit drama
- Chandragupta Vikramaditya
- Gupta Empire
- Dominic Goodall and Harunaga Isaacson, The Raghupañcikā of Vallabhadeva, Volume 1, Groningen, Egbert Forsten, 2004.
- Raghuvaṃśa of Kālidāsa - Edited with extracts & Notes etc by Narayan Ram Acharya Kavyatirtha, Chaukhambha Publishers, Varanasi, 2nd ed (2002), Appendix 2
- Basham, A.L. (2000). The Wonder that was India (3rd ed.). London: South Asia Books. ISBN 0-283-99257-3
- Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). The World of the Huns. Berkely: University of California Press.
- Jordanes, Getica.
|Sanskrit Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Transliterated Sanskrit text at GRETIL
- Complete translation and commentary along with word meanings by Desiraju Hanumanta Rao
- English verse translation by P. de Lacy Johnstone at the Internet Archive
- Summary and partial translation by Arthur W. Ryder: 113 verses are translated, the rest are summarised in prose
- Ṣaṅkara Paṇḍuraṅga Paṇḍit (1869), The Raghuvam̃śa of Kâlidâsa: with the commentary of Mallinātha, Government Central Depôt
- Parab (1888) The Raghuvamsha of Kâlidâsa: with the commentary of Mallinatha
- English prose translation (author unknown) in Kalidasa: Works, South Asia Books, 1901
- The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa : with the commentary (the Samjivani) of Mallinatha ; Cantos I-X, ed. M. R. Kale on Internet Archive