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The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a dynasty founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku, literally means "bitter cucumber [Citrullus colocynthis - Bot.]". The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). Lord Rama belonged to the Ikshavaku dynasty. See Ramayana . Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty. Rishabha is present in both Hindu as well as Jain mythology. Both refers to the same person. According to the Buddhist texts, Prince Siddhartha belonged to this dynasty.
The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Bharata, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Pasenadi. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty, who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.
In Hinduism, Ikshvaku, is the grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom, today known as Awadh in the state of Uttar Pradesh along the banks of river Sarayu with saketa, Ayodhya today as their capital. Ikshvaku is the first king who executed the Manusmrti or religious rules of Hindu living which were composed by his father Manu. Ikshvaku, ruled as Monarch at the beginning of the Satya Yuga or First yuga, had hundred sons. His estates descended to his eldest son Vikukshi.
Ikshvaku dynasty lineage
The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.
The Suryavanshi Kings
The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists . The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list . In the first list, Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshvaku.
Suryavanshi Kings after Rama
83 Atithi (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Turvasu -2)
84 Nishadha was the founder of Nishada Kingddom.
94 Dala (or Balasthala)
95 Chhal (or Anal)
98 Khagan (or Shankhanaad)
99 Vighruti (or Vyushitashva)
101 Hiranyanabha (He was student of Sage Jaimini, Yagnyavalkya has accepted him as his teacher)
110 Susandhi (or Sugandhi)
111 Amarshana and Sahasvanta, the sons of Susandhi
115 Takshaka116 Brihadbala (at Mahabharata time, Abhimanyu killed Brihadbalam at age 125 years in Mahabharata War).
from Sri Rama to Brihadbalam 36 generation were passed in ikshvakuvansha. Average lifespan of Ikshvakuvanshi Kings in Dwaparayuga was 24,682 years. Maximum Lifespan of human became 200 years in last 400 years of Dwaparayuga.
Suryavanshi Kings after Mahabharatha
The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:
117 Brihatkshaya (or Bruhadrunam)
118 Urukriya (or Gurukshep)
122 Divakara (or Divak)
123 Veer Sahadeva
125 Bhanuratha (or Bhanumaan)
130 Pushkara (or Kinnara)
132 Suvarna (or Sutapaa)
133 Sumitra (or Amitrajit)
134 Bruhadaraaj (Okkaka)
135 Barhi (Okkamukha)
136 Kritanjaya (Sivisamjaya)
137 Ranajjaya (Sihassara)
138 Sanjaya (Mahakoshala or Jayasena)
139 Shakya (Sihahanu)
140 Śuddhodana (ruler of Shakya Republic of Kapilavastu)
141 Siddhartha (or Gautama Buddha) (B.C.E. 1887-B.C.E. 1807)
142 Rāhula, the only son of Gautam Buddha
143 Prasenajit (Born in B.C.E. 1860: when Siddhartha was of age 27 years)
144 Kshudraka (or Kuntala)
145 Ranaka (or Kulaka)
King Sumitra was Last ruler of Ikshvakuvansh/Suryavansha. He was defeated and driven out from Ayodhya.
In Buddhist tradition
The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:
- Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
In Jain tradition
- Rishabhanatha (son of King Nabhi), the founder of Jainism in the present Avasarpani era (descending half time cycle as per Jain cosmology) is said to have founded the Ikshvaku dynasty. The name for the Ikshvaku dynasty comes from the word ikhsu (sugarcane), another name of Rishabhanatha, because he taught people how to extract ikshu-rasa (sugarcane-juice).
- Bharata Chakravarti (first Chakravartin) and Bahubali (first Kamadeva), sons of Rishabha
- Arkakirti and Marichi, son of Bharata
- at the time of Ajitanatha
- Jitashatru (father of Ajitanatha) and his younger brother Sumitra (father of Sagara)
- Ajitanatha (the 2nd Tirthankara) and Sagara (2nd Chakravartin)
- Janhu (eldest son of Sagara), the one who flooded village of Nagas with waters of Ganga leading to turning of sixty thousand sons of Sagara into ashes by Jawalanprabha (emperor of Nagas)
- Bhagiratha (eldest grandson of Sagara)
- at the time of Sambhavanatha
- at the time of Abhinandananatha
- at the time of Sumatinatha
- at the time of Padmaprabha
- at the time of Suparshvanatha
- at the time of Chandraprabha
- at the time of Pushpadanta
- at the time of Shitalanatha
- at the time of Shreyanasanatha
- at the time of Vasupujya
- at the time of Vimalanatha
- at the time of Anantanatha
- at the time of Dharmanatha
- at the time of Shantinatha
- at the time of Kunthunatha
- at the time of Aranatha
- at the time of Mallinatha
- at the time of Munisuvrata (Munisuvrata himself was not from Ikshvaku, but Harivamsa)
- at the time of Naminatha
- at the time of Parshvanatha
- at the time of Mahavira
- Geography of Rigvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
- Glashoff, Klaus. "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.org. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
- Zimmer 1952, p. 218.
- Zimmer 1952, p. 220.
- Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
- Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) . Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.
- Pargiter, F.E. (1972). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass. pp. 90–91.
- Valmiki, Arshia Sattar (1996). The Ramayana. New Delhi: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029866-5.
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- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
- Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
- Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept.,Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 2009-10-26.
- Jain 1991, p. 2.
- Jain 1991, p. 5.
- Shah 2004, p. 15.
- Shah, Chandraprakash, Shri Shantinatha, 16th Tirthankara
- Jain 1991, p. 161.
- Shah, Natubhai (2004), Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2
- Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahavira and his times, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1952), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies Of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6
Kulakara (in Jainism)
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